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Full-Text Articles in Education

Winners And Losers After 25 Years Of Transition: Decreasing Wage Inequality In Slovenia, Suzana Laporšek, Peter F. Orazem, Milan Vodopivec, Matija Vodopivec Jun 2021

Winners And Losers After 25 Years Of Transition: Decreasing Wage Inequality In Slovenia, Suzana Laporšek, Peter F. Orazem, Milan Vodopivec, Matija Vodopivec

Economics Publications

Over the past twenty-five years, wage inequality has fallen in Slovenia, even as it has risen in most developed economies. The rates of return to education and work experience rose and remained high on average. However, rapid increases in the number of college graduates have outpaced the rising relative demand for skill among the youngest labor market entrants. As a result, the youngest cohorts of college graduates have experienced declining returns to education and a downward shift in their occupational distribution, which has not been experienced by older college graduates. These changes coincide with the implementation of the Bologna Reform ...


Do Liberal Arts Colleges Maximize Profit?, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf, Peter F. Orazem, Darin R. Wohlgemuth Jan 2021

Do Liberal Arts Colleges Maximize Profit?, Ann M. Gansemer-Topf, Peter F. Orazem, Darin R. Wohlgemuth

Economics Publications

Revenue, cost, tuition, and scholarship data at private liberal arts colleges from 2003–2013 are used to estimate how each college's net revenue per student varies with student enrollment. Our empirical specification assumes that colleges simultaneously pick their optimal net tuition and cost of instruction. The estimates allow us to identify the enrollment level that maximizes the return on the college's provision of educational services. Thirty-seven percent of the colleges have enrollments within one standard deviation of their profit maximizing enrollment. Another 11% are more than one standard deviation above the profit maximizing level; they increase access to ...


Problem On The Plains: College Earnings Premiums In Small Metropolitan Areas, John V. Winters Dec 2020

Problem On The Plains: College Earnings Premiums In Small Metropolitan Areas, John V. Winters

Economics Working Papers

I use the American Community Survey to examine how college earnings premiums differ across small metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in the U.S. I document that the West North Central Division (Plains Region) has especially low average college earnings premiums. Controlling for observable MSA characteristics via regression explains some of the difference between the Plains and other regions, but large and important differences remain. The low return to education for small MSAs in the Plains suggests that they will face special challenges building and retaining human capital in the near future. These areas may especially struggle to attract college-educated in-migrants.


Employment Opportunities And High School Completion During The Covid-19 Recession, Kunwon Ahn, Jun Yeong Lee, John V. Winters Oct 2020

Employment Opportunities And High School Completion During The Covid-19 Recession, Kunwon Ahn, Jun Yeong Lee, John V. Winters

Economics Working Papers

COVID-19 created major disruptions for young people including health concerns, school closures, reduced social opportunities, and a wilting economy. We examine the effect of COVID-19 on high school completion in the United States. We find that high school completion rates increased considerably in 2020 compared to previous years. We investigate various mechanisms and find that worse employment conditions were the driving force. The lower opportunity costs of schooling because of the pandemic recession encouraged more young people to complete high school. The pandemic created extensive problems in education, but fortunately it did not reduce overall high school completion rates.


Life Expectancy At Birth And Lifetime Education And Earnings, Mohammad Mainul Hoque, Elizabeth M. King, Claudio E. Montenegro, Peter F. Orazem Sep 2020

Life Expectancy At Birth And Lifetime Education And Earnings, Mohammad Mainul Hoque, Elizabeth M. King, Claudio E. Montenegro, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Working Papers

Exploiting cross–birth cohort and cross-country variation from a pool of 188 household surveys from 111 countries, this paper measures how life expectancy at birth affects lifetime education and earnings. On average, individuals add one year of schooling for every 8.3 years of increased life expectancy at birth. Lifetime earnings increase by 1.7 percent per year of added life expectancy at birth. The estimates imply that rising life expectancy at birth explains 75 percent of the increase in average years of schooling worldwide for birth cohorts between 1922 and 1987 and 38 percent of the increase in average ...


Extension Demonstration: Grameen Microfinance Methods And Capital Access For Low-Income Female Entrepreneurs, Mark A. Edelman Jul 2020

Extension Demonstration: Grameen Microfinance Methods And Capital Access For Low-Income Female Entrepreneurs, Mark A. Edelman

Economics Working Papers

A nonprofit community development financial institution and Extension collaborated to conduct a demonstration project to evaluate efficacy of Grameen peer-group microfinance methodology in addressing barriers faced by lowincome women entrepreneurs in a small metro area. Program performance metrics achieved by 284 low-income, culturally diverse, primarily women entrepreneurs over five years included: a loan repayment rate of 99+ percent, increased average client income, savings accumulation at a local bank, and increased opportunities to improve average credit scores. Client surveys indicated peer-group methods, program structure, incentives for individual behaviors and group responsibilities provided opportunity to develop confidence, leadership skills, and teamwork.


The Exports Of Higher Education Services From Oecd Countries To Asian Countries. A Gravity Approach, John C. Beghin, Byung Yul Park Nov 2019

The Exports Of Higher Education Services From Oecd Countries To Asian Countries. A Gravity Approach, John C. Beghin, Byung Yul Park

Economics Working Papers

We analyze bilateral exports of higher education services between OECD countries and Asia, using a gravity equation approach, panel data from 1998 to 2016, and PPML regression. The approach treats higher education consumption by Asian countries as a consumable durable good reflecting investment in human capital. Asian Students come to OECD countries to obtain degrees from their universities. Structurally, the flow of students from Asian country j to OECD country i depends on the higher-education capacity of i, the perceived quality of universities in i, expected earnings in i, a series of bilateral transaction costs between i and j, the ...


Are College Tuition Increases Linked To Student Financial Stress?, Sara K. Ray, Rebecca Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Megan Gilligan, Suzanne Bartholomae Jan 2019

Are College Tuition Increases Linked To Student Financial Stress?, Sara K. Ray, Rebecca Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Megan Gilligan, Suzanne Bartholomae

Human Development and Family Studies Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Discussion about the price of attending college occurs within and outside the university setting. Tuition increases are an important topic in political debates and on the floors of state legislatures; however, little is known empirically about the impact of tuition increases on college students’ well-being. This study examines the impact of college tuition increases on enrolled college students’ financial stress.


Bounding Average Returns To Schooling Using Unconditional Moment Restrictions, Desire Kedagni, Lixiong Li, Ismael Mourifie Dec 2018

Bounding Average Returns To Schooling Using Unconditional Moment Restrictions, Desire Kedagni, Lixiong Li, Ismael Mourifie

Economics Working Papers

Abstract. In the last 20 years, the bounding approach for the average treatment effect (ATE) has been developing on the theoretical side, however, empirical work has lagged far behind theory in this area. One main reason is that, in practice, traditional bounding methods fall into two extreme cases: (i) On the one hand, the bounds are too wide to be informative and this happens, in general, when the instrumental variable (IV) has little variation; (ii) while on the other hand, the bounds cross, in which case the researcher learns nothing about the parameter of interest other than that the IV ...


Best Practices For Planning, Developing, And Sustaining Interdisciplinary Language-Based Study Abroad Programs, Chad M. Gasta Jan 2018

Best Practices For Planning, Developing, And Sustaining Interdisciplinary Language-Based Study Abroad Programs, Chad M. Gasta

World Languages and Cultures Publications

In seventeen years of experience as a study abroad program director, I have seen how university students, faculty members, and administrators have come to share a strategic mission for study or work abroad; namely that programs must provide a meaningful international credential that not only yields a more fruitful undergraduate experience but also creates the potential for a better and higher-paying job upon graduation. I have spoken with many job recruiters over the years who tout the importance of developing an international skill set that requires a profound understanding of other cultures and languages. General news outlets and trade magazines ...


Accounting For Institutional Variation In Expected Returns To Higher Education, Shawn F. Dorius, David A. Tandberg, Bridgette Cram Oct 2017

Accounting For Institutional Variation In Expected Returns To Higher Education, Shawn F. Dorius, David A. Tandberg, Bridgette Cram

Sociology Publications

This study leverages human capital theory to identify the correlates of expected returns on investment in higher education at the level of institutions. We leverage estimates of average ROI in post-secondary education among more than 400 baccalaureate degree conferring colleges and universities to understand the correlates of a relatively new metric of institutional ROI. Results indicate that a diverse undergraduate student body, high graduation rate, and public university status are strong, positive, and robustly associated with institutional ROI. The model accounts for more than 70% of inter-university variation in ROI, suggesting that the factors we have identified are among the ...


Food Intakes Of 2,189 Women In Five North Central States, Pearl Swanson, Elisabeth Willis, Emil Jebe, Janice M. Smith, Margaret A. Ohlson, Alice Biester, Lida M. Burrill Jun 2017

Food Intakes Of 2,189 Women In Five North Central States, Pearl Swanson, Elisabeth Willis, Emil Jebe, Janice M. Smith, Margaret A. Ohlson, Alice Biester, Lida M. Burrill

Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station Research Bulletin

Nearly 2,200 women, ranging in age from 30 to more than 90 years, living in five North Central states, provided the 24-hour dietaries from which data summarized in this bulletin were obtained. The women interviewed in Iowa and South Dakota were selected by area-probability sampling methods, so that they represented all women over 29 years of age in each of these two states. Four other samples were drawn from three urban centers: one from Urbana, Illinois; two (one white, one Negro) from Lansing-East Lansing, Michigan; and one from St. Paul, Minnesota.

The mean nutritive values of 24-hour dietaries reported ...


The Intergenerational Welfare State And The Rise And Fall Of Pay‐As‐You‐Go Pensions, Torben M. Andersen, Joydeep Bhattacharya Jun 2017

The Intergenerational Welfare State And The Rise And Fall Of Pay‐As‐You‐Go Pensions, Torben M. Andersen, Joydeep Bhattacharya

Economics Publications

This paper develops a theory of the two-armed intergenerational welfare state, consistent with key features of modern welfare arrangements, and uses it to rationalise the rise and fall in generosity of pay-as-you-go pensions solely on efficiency grounds. By using the education arm, a dynamically-efficient welfare state is shown to improve upon long-run laissez faire even when market failures are absent. To release these downstream welfare gains without hurting any transitional generation, help from the pension arm is needed. In the presence of an intergenerational education externality, pensions initially rise in generosity but can be replaced by fully funded pensions eventually.


Expanding College Access In Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects On Graduate Quality And Income Inequality, Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, Peter F. Orazem Apr 2017

Expanding College Access In Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects On Graduate Quality And Income Inequality, Shao-Hsun Keng, Chun-Hung Lin, Peter F. Orazem

Economics Publications

Between 1990 and 2014, Taiwan increased the college share of its labor force from 7 to 32 percent by converting junior colleges to 4-year colleges. Such a rapid surge in skill supply should suppress college wages and lower wage income inequality. Instead, wage inequality rose 7 percent since 1978. We show that the surge of weaker college graduates made them poor substitutes for better-trained college graduates and led to an increase in wage inequality within skill groups. Rising wage inequality due to increased variation in the quality of young college graduates added another source of inequality to the Taiwan labor ...


College Student Debt And Anticipated Repayment Difficulty, Jonathan J. Fox, Suzanne Bartholomae, Jodi C. Letkiewicz, Catherine P. Montalto Jan 2017

College Student Debt And Anticipated Repayment Difficulty, Jonathan J. Fox, Suzanne Bartholomae, Jodi C. Letkiewicz, Catherine P. Montalto

Human Development and Family Studies Publications

This study analyzes factors associated with anticipated difficulty with repayment of debt accumulated during college using a basic model of credit risk that includes socialization processes influencing college student financial decisions. The empirical analysis uses data from the 2010 Ohio Student Financial Wellness Study. Results provide evidence of male overconfidence in financial decision making, as males are less likely than females to predict repayment difficulties. Socialization process variables, including financial management practices, financial parenting communication, and expected economic returns from education, are strongly associated with anticipated debt repayment difficulty. Inclusion of these process variables in the model results in loss ...


Show Me The Money: Federal R&D Support For Academic Chemistry, 1990–2009, Joshua L. Rosenbloom, Donna K. Ginther Dec 2016

Show Me The Money: Federal R&D Support For Academic Chemistry, 1990–2009, Joshua L. Rosenbloom, Donna K. Ginther

Economics Working Papers

We examine the distribution of Federal support for chemistry Research and Development (R&D) performed at U.S. universities from 1990-2009. Federal R&D funding is an essential source of funds for investigator-driven research at the nation’s universities. Previous studies have documented that aggregated federal R&D funding has become more dispersed over time and attributed this to political pressure to spread resources more evenly. There have, however, been few studies of the allocation of funds within narrowly defined scientific disciplines. By narrowing the focus and exploiting the panel nature of our data we are better able to analyze ...


What Are The Best Universities In The Nation, And Why?, Taylor Finn Dec 2016

What Are The Best Universities In The Nation, And Why?, Taylor Finn

Honors Projects and Posters

This project is an economists approach to ranking universities in the United States. The goal of this research was twofold. First, I aimed to assign a market based quality measure to 950 universities. This was accomplished by using NACE data from 2013 to calculate a weighted average of salaries for each university. This is what graduates should receive on average after graduation. We then used PayScale data from 2013 to find out what graduates from each university actually made. The difference between what they should receive and actually receive equals the quality value. Second, I analyzed how specific university attributes ...


Changing The World One Backpack At A Time: The Story Of Micah's Backpack And Community Engagement, Jennie Hodge, Nancy K. Franz Nov 2016

Changing The World One Backpack At A Time: The Story Of Micah's Backpack And Community Engagement, Jennie Hodge, Nancy K. Franz

Education Books

It started with one backpack, or rather, one backpack program. Micah’s Backpack was an initiative launched in Blacksburg, Virginia. The group, organized by members of St. Michael Lutheran Church, initially started by distributing backpacks full of food to five children from low-resource families. Now, the outreach has grown to feed nearly three hundred children. In addition to Micah’s Backpack, new programs have flourished under the Micah’s Caring Initiative: Micah’s Mobile Backpack, Micah’s Garden, Micah’s Soup for Seniors, and Micah’s Closet. All provide vital services to the community.


The Effect Of Civil War On The Economic Development Of Sierra Leone, Hawa Dindin Conteh Apr 2016

The Effect Of Civil War On The Economic Development Of Sierra Leone, Hawa Dindin Conteh

Iowa State University Anthropology Symposium

Sierra Leone, home to 6.1 million people, has suffered huge consequences in the country’s economic growth due to a civil war that took place from 1991-2002. Therefore, Sierra Leone’s population is made of mostly the young youths and adults due to abandonment of caregivers and deaths. The effect of the violent civil war has caused the country to be ranked as one of the poorest country in the world. There are some efforts being put to stimulate economic growth so the citizens can be able to sustain themselves. The efforts include outside assistance from other countries and ...


Elements Of Dynamic Economic Modeling: Presentation And Analysis, Leigh Tesfatsion Feb 2016

Elements Of Dynamic Economic Modeling: Presentation And Analysis, Leigh Tesfatsion

Economics Working Papers (2002–2016)

The primary goal of these introductory notes is to promote the clear presentation and rigorous analysis of dynamic economic models, whether expressed in equation or agent-based form. A secondary goal is to promote the use of state-space modeling with its respect for historical process, for cause leading to effect without top-down imposition of global constraints. If economic modelers truly wish to respect the rationality of decision-makers, they should have the courage of their convictions; they should not be doing for their modeled decision-makers what in reality these decision-makers must do for themselves.


Measuring Public Agricultural Research And Extension And Estimating Their Impacts On Agricultural Productivity: New Insights From Us Evidence, Yu Jin, Wallace E. Huffman Jan 2016

Measuring Public Agricultural Research And Extension And Estimating Their Impacts On Agricultural Productivity: New Insights From Us Evidence, Yu Jin, Wallace E. Huffman

Agricultural Policy Review

In order to feed the growing population of the world, expected to reach 9.6 billion people—a 29 percent increase over 2013—by 2050 without causing immense environmental damage and hunger, society must increase agricultural productivity. Investing further in public agricultural research and extension will help alleviate this problem. Developed countries, like the United States, have been a leader in this area for most of the twentieth century. For example, US public agricultural research grew rapidly from 1960–1980, but slowed considerably from 1980–1995, showed negative growth from 1995–1998, then flattened by 2010.


Borrowing Among Academically Underprepared Students: Facilitating Success Or Perpetuating Inequity At The Community College?, Lyle Mckinney, Heather Novak, Linda Serra Hagedorn Jan 2016

Borrowing Among Academically Underprepared Students: Facilitating Success Or Perpetuating Inequity At The Community College?, Lyle Mckinney, Heather Novak, Linda Serra Hagedorn

Education Publications

Should students who are academically underprepared for college have immediate, unrestricted access to student loans? Approximately 60% of community college students nationally are placed into developmental coursework and completion rates for these students are highly disappointing: only one in 10 earns a community college credential within three years, while one in three has earned a bachelor’s degree within six years (Complete College America, 2012). Although most developmental education (Dev Ed) students drop out before earning a degree, a recent national study found that in 2011-12, Dev Ed community college students (36%) borrowed at similar rates as their college-ready peers ...


Couples’ Financial Management And Marital Quality: A Phenomenological Inquiry, Emily Sorenson Jan 2016

Couples’ Financial Management And Marital Quality: A Phenomenological Inquiry, Emily Sorenson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the link between couples’ financial management practices and their marital quality through qualitative inquiry. Six couples in their first marriage with at least one child age 18 or younger were interviewed to understand how their financial histories affect their current approach to financial management and how their financial management affects their relationships. Using Couples and Finances Theory as a conceptual framework, this phenomenological study investigates these linkages to offer implications for financial counselors and therapists. There was no one financial management technique that appeared to link consistently to quality of relationships. Rather, it appeared that underlying relationship ...


The Future Of Currency, Jack Carney, Nailah Fitzgerald Jun 2015

The Future Of Currency, Jack Carney, Nailah Fitzgerald

Ethos

Today, we live and die by the almighty dollar. It determines where we work, where we sleep and where we spend our free time. For the past 100 years, the dollar has been the norm here in America, but things are beginning to change.


Crowded Campus: Where Is The Money Going?, Emily Elveru, Mackenzie Ferguson, Kait Mckinney May 2015

Crowded Campus: Where Is The Money Going?, Emily Elveru, Mackenzie Ferguson, Kait Mckinney

Ethos

Fifty long minutes of class have come and gone, students pack up their bags and sling them over their shoulders as they walk out of the classroom and onto the sidewalk. Joining a surplus of other students, they notice campus is more congested this year. Iowa State University’s enrollment of 31,040 students is the highest to date, beating last year’s record by 1,153. “Growth is always positive,” says Warren Madden, Vice President for Business and Finance. “We would much rather deal with the university growing than shrinking.”


Food Defense Best Practices Reported By Public School Food Authorities In Seven Northern U.S. States, Catherine H. Strohbehn, Carol J. Klitzke Apr 2015

Food Defense Best Practices Reported By Public School Food Authorities In Seven Northern U.S. States, Catherine H. Strohbehn, Carol J. Klitzke

Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management Publications

Purpose/Objectives This study reported food defense planning, training and best practices implemented in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Methods An internet-administered survey was sent to 1,501 school food authorities or food service directors (FSDs) in public schools. Survey items included frequency of implementation of 31 food defense best practices adapted from the work of Yoon and Shanklin (2007) and Yoon (2007). Focus was on practices relating to employee management, utility security, facility security, and communication. Additional items requested information about food defense planning, food defense training, operational, and demographic characteristics ...


An Extension Case Study In Institutional Innovation: Microfinance Intermediary Formation, Mark A. Edelman Apr 2015

An Extension Case Study In Institutional Innovation: Microfinance Intermediary Formation, Mark A. Edelman

Economics Publications

An institutional innovation process led by Extension created a statewide microfinance intermediary. The intermediary provides business technical assistance and microloans to entrepreneurs having difficulty securing conventional credit but having workable business plans. The process included (1) gathering indicators of a problem; (2) formation of a steering committee of relevant interests to study the concerns; (3) a search for alternative solutions and assessment of probable consequences; and (4) emergence of an institutional strategy for addressing gaps. A business plan was implemented over 5 years. The collaboration created new opportunities on multiple levels for Extension problem-solving impacts and outcomes.


Forging A University Research Mission, Joshua L. Rosenbloom Jan 2015

Forging A University Research Mission, Joshua L. Rosenbloom

Economics Publications

The university exists to accommodate and implement the whole human learning process, and this must include creative scholarship and research. Thus research is not an optional activity of the university, not merely a legitimate pursuit of those who may be interested and willing to dedicate their spare time, nor an assignment justified to either the university or the professor by the resultant income in dollars and publicity. Rather, research is an inescapable responsibility of the university and an inseparable part of its total educational function. "The Place of Research in the University"


Benchmarking Professional Development Practices Across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications For Extension, Barry A. Garst, Sarah Baughman, Nancy K. Franz Jan 2014

Benchmarking Professional Development Practices Across Youth-Serving Organizations: Implications For Extension, Barry A. Garst, Sarah Baughman, Nancy K. Franz

Extension and Outreach Research and Scholarship

Examining traditional and contemporary professional development practices of youth-serving organizations can inform practices across Extension, particularly in light of the barriers that have been noted for effectively developing the professional competencies of Extension educators. With professional development systems changing quickly, particularly through online education and blended learning opportunities, benchmarks need to guide new research around best practices in professional development. Although many program providers have not established benchmarks for professional development, a few cases exist. This article examines the current state of professional development practices of youth-serving organizations and offers recommendations for improving Extension professional development practices.


Educational Attainment, College Major Choice, The Gender Wage Gap, And Average Starting Salaries Of College Graduates In The United States, 1967-2011, Nicole Stefanie Caviris Jan 2014

Educational Attainment, College Major Choice, The Gender Wage Gap, And Average Starting Salaries Of College Graduates In The United States, 1967-2011, Nicole Stefanie Caviris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wage gaps between men and women have narrowed since 1970. There have been many explanations offered for this decline, but the most common have been the increased likelihood that women complete college, a narrowing of gender differences in occupational choice, and a reduction in wage discrimination. This study estimates the contributions of college entry, choice of major, and wage differentials within occupations on the overall change in gender wage gaps from 1967 to 2011 using a Tornqvist approximation to a shift-share analysis of the factors affecting relative earnings for men and women and changes in relative wages between men and ...