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Central Washington University

All Master's Theses

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Parents' Grief Literacy: How Loss Is Talked About With Children, Abigail Mccarthy Jan 2023

Parents' Grief Literacy: How Loss Is Talked About With Children, Abigail Mccarthy

All Master's Theses

Grief can encompass many types of loss, such as losing a job, moving to a new state, or changing careers, and it can affect socioemotional, behavioral, and physical aspects of daily living (Brenn et al., 2020; Favazza & Munson, 2010). Previous research has shown that the process of grief is largely misunderstood in the United States, and misconceptions of the grief and loss process can lead to perpetuated incorrect beliefs, maladaptive coping, and incorrect medical treatment (McLean et al., 2022; Sawyer et al., 2021). The term grief literacy encompasses the knowledge and engagement with topics surrounding grief and loss (Breen …


Standards-Based Grading In The Culinary Arts Classroom, Kathryn Bart Jan 2022

Standards-Based Grading In The Culinary Arts Classroom, Kathryn Bart

All Master's Theses

Student and teacher perceptions of both traditional grading and standards-based grading were studied. One class period of 11 students participated in 3 weeks of traditional grading and 3 weeks of standards—based grading. As the teacher, I documented and categorized my observations of student achievement and independence during the labs. Following the final week of standards—based grading, students provided their perceptions through a questionnaire. Results showed support for the use of standards—based grading from both the student and teacher perspectives.


Higher Education And Food Access: A Case Study Of Food Access Initiatives And Their Community Impact, Rebecca Wheaton Jan 2022

Higher Education And Food Access: A Case Study Of Food Access Initiatives And Their Community Impact, Rebecca Wheaton

All Master's Theses

Food security issues are being prioritized across college campuses and among student communities in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. While basic needs services are typically available on campuses, there is still a discrepancy between availability and accessibility. Ellensburg, Washington, has vulnerable food-insecure populations, including Central Washington University (CWU) students, whose access issues involve not only social, cultural, and political dimensions, but also practical considerations like transportation, distance to grocery stores, and affordability of food resources. A central concern of this research is to understand food as constitutive of different forms of symbolic, cultural, and economic capital following Bourdieu’s Theory …


Full Interpretable Machine Learning Method With In-Line Coordinates, Hoang Phan Jan 2021

Full Interpretable Machine Learning Method With In-Line Coordinates, Hoang Phan

All Master's Theses

This thesis explores a new approach for machine learning classification task in 2-dimensional space (2-D ML) with In-line Coordinates. This is a full machine learning approach that does not require to deal with n-dimensional data in n-dimensional space. In-line coordinates method allows discovering n-D patterns in 2-D space without loss of n-D information using graph representation of n-D data in 2-D. Specifically, this thesis shows that it can be done with In-line Based Coordinates in different modifications, which are defined, including static and dynamic ones. Some classification and regression algorithms based on these In-line Coordinates were explored. Two successful cases …


Me, Myself, And I: The Impact Of Metacognitive Strategies On Student Locus Of Control And Critical Thinking Skills, Danielle Kuchler Jan 2020

Me, Myself, And I: The Impact Of Metacognitive Strategies On Student Locus Of Control And Critical Thinking Skills, Danielle Kuchler

All Master's Theses

We live in an era when a college degree is essentially required for entry into good-paying careers, and yet achievement of a college degree is unacceptably low. Only 60% of students who enroll go on to graduate from 4-year colleges and universities in 6 years or fewer (National Center for Higher Education 2018). Why is this happening? What are the long-term intellectual and economic implications of ill-prepared students? We must ask ourselves if students are really prepared with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to be successful in college and whether those attributes are developed while in college. Two of the …


Exploring Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs And Perceptions About The Use Of Technology In The Classroom, Sharron Hallanger Jan 2019

Exploring Early Childhood Teachers' Beliefs And Perceptions About The Use Of Technology In The Classroom, Sharron Hallanger

All Master's Theses

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how the professional beliefs and perceptions of teachers in early childhood education (ECE) influenced their acceptance for the use of interactive technology as a learning tool for children. Eight primary grade teachers at a rural school district in Washington State were interviewed. Of the eight ECE teachers, two had no student technology use in their classrooms. The second group of two teachers had some student technology use on a weekly basis, and the last group of four teachers utilized daily student technology use in their classrooms. The sample subjects were interviewed …


Teacher Acceptability Of Curriculum Based Measurement As A Universal Screener In Reading, Brooke Adams Jan 2019

Teacher Acceptability Of Curriculum Based Measurement As A Universal Screener In Reading, Brooke Adams

All Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to extend the existing literature concerning teacher perception of acceptability of universal screening, specifically examining the use of Curriculum Based Measurements (CBM) as a universal screening tool in reading. Eighty-three first through fifth grade teachers from Washington State participated in an online survey utilizing the Acceptability Rating Profile – Revised (APR-R), a 6-point Likert scale measuring practitioner acceptability for a tool. The APR-R was revised to reflect the use of CBM measuring Oral Reading Fluency as a universal screener with response options ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). In the present …


The Challenges For A Closed-To-The-Public Animal Sanctuary: Prioritizing Animal Welfare While Engaging In Educational Community Outreach, Lisa Tweed Jan 2019

The Challenges For A Closed-To-The-Public Animal Sanctuary: Prioritizing Animal Welfare While Engaging In Educational Community Outreach, Lisa Tweed

All Master's Theses

Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest is a small primate sanctuary in Cle Elum, Washington, and is presently home to seven chimpanzees who were retired from biomedical research. I used this sanctuary as a case study to find out how a closed-to-the-public sanctuary can engage in educational outreach without compromising the welfare of the residents. I employed a combination of semi-structured interviews of sanctuary personnel, ethnographic participant-observation as a volunteer caregiver, and an online survey offered to the local community to help me understand the goals and limitations of sanctuaries. I also designed and conducted two educational programs for local area schools as …


Talking About How: Variation In The Use Of How And Its Definition, Maili Jonas Jan 2018

Talking About How: Variation In The Use Of How And Its Definition, Maili Jonas

All Master's Theses

This study identified the patterns that represent the unconventional ways that students used how in academic essays, determined the frequency of each pattern, and for the sake of comparison, searched for those patterns in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), in both the spoken and academic written registers. The results showed that a sample of first-year students at Central Washington University (CWU) used the complementizer how as that in their essays, a usage more common in spoken registers. However, there was some evidence of how as that in academic COCA searches, showing that the usage may be in the …


Preparing Those With Developmental Disabilities For Adulthood And Work: Parent Perspectives On Support Services Available In Washington State, Amy Mcalindon Jan 2018

Preparing Those With Developmental Disabilities For Adulthood And Work: Parent Perspectives On Support Services Available In Washington State, Amy Mcalindon

All Master's Theses

Services designed to support the transition periods for individuals with special needs from high school to employment vary throughout the state of Washington. There is little information available regarding the opinions of parents and their experiences while navigating supports available in their area, and recommendations for system improvements. This paper derived from an in-depth study regarding these experiences and questions how the Diffusion of Innovation theory could be used to impact public policy, leading to improvements in high school to employment supports for individuals with special needs. This study presents the findings of a survey sent to parents of children …


The Impact Of Mindfulness On Student Success, Casey D. Nightingale Jan 2018

The Impact Of Mindfulness On Student Success, Casey D. Nightingale

All Master's Theses

As schools are adopting the whole child approach, it is important to examine how the approach impacts academic success. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a school-based mindfulness curriculum on student reading scores and classroom engagement. Using a multiple baseline design, this study examined the rate of improvement in reading scores and academic engagement in elementary students receiving a mindfulness curriculum. The curriculum was introduced in addition to the regular curriculum in 15-minute lessons twice a week. Rate of improvement was examined utilizing curriculum-based measures, while student engagement was evaluated through classroom observation methods. This …


Residential Solar In Washington State, Sam Pfeifer Jan 2018

Residential Solar In Washington State, Sam Pfeifer

All Master's Theses

Electricity generated through residential solar provides a low carbon source of electricity. However, diffusion of residential solar remains low across the United States. Growing this diffusion takes an understanding of localized uptake trends, which can focus policy and business efforts to help increase residential solar market penetration. This is the first research to investigate residential solar uptake in Washington State and to examine environmental education as a potential driver of residential solar uptake. Through a snapshot analysis which considers environmental, economic, education, and cultural variables the present research fills this gap. Triangulated results include mapping of variables, ordinary-least squares multiple …


Behavioral Skills Training To Train Teachers To Conduct A Brief Functional Analysis, Rachel O'Connor, Rachel E. O'Connor Jan 2018

Behavioral Skills Training To Train Teachers To Conduct A Brief Functional Analysis, Rachel O'Connor, Rachel E. O'Connor

All Master's Theses

Teachers are required to be a part of behavioral assessments for children in special education classrooms. Most teachers lack the tools needed to specifically address each child’s individual need appropriately. To assist with this, a brief functional analysis was taught to teachers using behavioral skill training. Using written instructions, role-play, modeling and immediate feedback each of the teachers were taught how to conduct a brief functional analysis. While conducting this, the teachers were able to learn how to identify which function of behavior was providing enough reinforcement to maintain the challenging behaviors. Behavioral skills training was conducted with the experimenter …


Do Homework Trackers Affect Students’ Academic Performance?, Luisdaniel Barrera Jan 2017

Do Homework Trackers Affect Students’ Academic Performance?, Luisdaniel Barrera

All Master's Theses

With new state assessment requirements for high school graduation, teachers are focusing on different strategies to assist students to achieve those goals. Many teachers state that students who complete homework perform better academically. The current study analyzed whether homework planners (trackers) had any positive effect on the academic performance of 16 seventh grade students in a very small and rural school district. This was a mixed study (quantitative and qualitative). Students’ grades, district assessments, state assessments, and teacher surveys were analyzed. The results showed that students improved their math and English Language Arts (ELA) district assessment scores when compared from …


Reducing Off-Task Behaviors In First Graders With Disabilities Through An Adaptation Of The Good Behavior Game, Chelsey Martin Jan 2017

Reducing Off-Task Behaviors In First Graders With Disabilities Through An Adaptation Of The Good Behavior Game, Chelsey Martin

All Master's Theses

The purpose of this mixed methods, single subject quasi-experimental study was to measure if an adaptation to a group-based contingency intervention, known as the Good Behavior Game, lead to decreases in off-task behaviors for first-grade students with disabilities during whole group instruction, and if the classroom teacher viewed the intervention positively. Three first grade, male students with disabilities, their first-grade teacher, and the first-grade class were participants in the study. The class was split into two teams and reminded of the expectations for on-task behavior. Positive reinforcement in the form of verbal praise and a team point were rewarded at …


Piano Music As A Behavioral Intervention At The Ellensburg, Wa Developmental Preschool, Christopher Hull Jan 2017

Piano Music As A Behavioral Intervention At The Ellensburg, Wa Developmental Preschool, Christopher Hull

All Master's Theses

Limited empirical support presently exists for the use of music as a behavioral intervention for students with disabilities. The purpose of this research was to study whether the social behaviors of children enrolled in a developmental preschool classroom changed in response to live piano music. The principal investigator hypothesized an increase in dyadic and/or other group-oriented play in the presence of live piano music, compared to when no piano music played. This eight-week study used a single-subject, A-B-A-B-C withdrawal design and a 30-second partial interval sampling procedure to sequentially observe and analyze the frequency of six operationally defined behaviors among …


The Associations Of Farm-To-School Programs On Childhood Obesity In School Breakfast, Hannah Brzozowski Jan 2017

The Associations Of Farm-To-School Programs On Childhood Obesity In School Breakfast, Hannah Brzozowski

All Master's Theses

Farm to School (F2S) programs claim to increase fruit/vegetable consumption and promote healthy, lifelong food/beverage choices. Both of which are identified strategies in the prevention of childhood obesity. Long-term effects of F2S programs are largely unexplored. This cross-sectional study matched ten schools, five with F2S, and five with a traditional National School Breakfast Program (NSBP). Third- and fourth-grade students (n=1031) were recruited for study participation to assess the effects of regular breakfast consumption and participation in F2S programs on body mass index (BMI). Demographic data, anthropometric data, and frequency of breakfast participation were collected. Additionally, BMI and frequency of breakfast …


Just World Beliefs, Identity Development, And Social Justice Advocacy Of Counselor Trainees, Sara Rundlett Jan 2017

Just World Beliefs, Identity Development, And Social Justice Advocacy Of Counselor Trainees, Sara Rundlett

All Master's Theses

This was the first study exploring the relationship between the belief in a just world, identity development, and social justice advocacy (SJA). A mixed methods design was conducted using a nationwide sample of ninety-seven counselor-in-training participants. Hypotheses included positive correlation between identity development and SJA, negative correlation between belief in a just world and SJA, and negative correlation between belief in a just world and identity development. Results were not significant but provided implications for future research and counselor training programs.


Literary Devices: Effects Of Classroom Management On Student Engagement With 1:1 Devices, Elizabeth Parker Jan 2017

Literary Devices: Effects Of Classroom Management On Student Engagement With 1:1 Devices, Elizabeth Parker

All Master's Theses

The study compares two different classroom management strategies in a 5th and 6th grade classroom using an iPad based intervention. The students participated in 10 sessions of a language and grammar intervention on the Moby Max program. During five of the sessions, the teacher actively monitored the classroom, walking around the room, and redirecting students as necessary. For the other five sessions, the teacher used data from the intervention and monitored and redirected students from her computer screen. The data collected included the number of corrections given to each student by the teacher, the number of minutes the program considered …


Development Of An Excel® Rocket Simulator For Application In Middle School, High-School, And University Stem Education, Melvin Lee Hortman Jan 2017

Development Of An Excel® Rocket Simulator For Application In Middle School, High-School, And University Stem Education, Melvin Lee Hortman

All Master's Theses

Water rocket activities are one of the most popular STEM activities used in primary, secondary, and higher education yet are void of engineering, though engineering is heavily implied in the STEM acronym. This study investigated the amount of engineering present in water rocket activities, and options for emphasizing engineering more in water rocket activities using an open-platform flight simulator for use by educators to enable students to predict flight parameters of a water rocket they designed, and test those predictions against experimental data. The simulator was constructed in Excel® with many functions, but the function validated in this study was …


Teacher Perceptions Of School Climate And Pbis, Douglas Periman Jan 2017

Teacher Perceptions Of School Climate And Pbis, Douglas Periman

All Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between perceptions of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS), a behavior change system implemented in schools, length of teaching experience, and teacher perceptions of school climate. The sample for this study was made up of certified teachers in schools that had implemented PBIS, and from schools that had not implemented PBIS, located in Washington State. Data were collected from two surveys, one of which measured teacher perceptions of PBIS and the other measured teacher perceptions of school climate. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was performed to determine if there was …


“No Other Agency”: Public Education (K-12) In Washington State During World War I And The Red Scare, 1917-1920, Jennifer Nicole Arleen Crooks Jan 2017

“No Other Agency”: Public Education (K-12) In Washington State During World War I And The Red Scare, 1917-1920, Jennifer Nicole Arleen Crooks

All Master's Theses

This paper examines the impact of World War I and the Red Scare upon public education in Washington State. Schools, expected to be the instruments of governmental policy, played an important role in the everyday lives of people on the American homefront. Although many helped in the war effort willingly, this wartime drive included both instilling nationalism and loyalty to American political and economic institutions as well as the assimilation of immigrants. While these forces existed well before World War I and the Red Scare, they strengthened and became more publicly acceptable in 1917-1920 as more people grew convinced that …


The Effects Of Nutrition Education On Third And Fifth Grade Students’ Fruit And Vegetable Knowledge, Preference, And Consumption, Alexandra Epstein-Solfield Jan 2017

The Effects Of Nutrition Education On Third And Fifth Grade Students’ Fruit And Vegetable Knowledge, Preference, And Consumption, Alexandra Epstein-Solfield

All Master's Theses

Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables (F/V) may reduce the risk of obesity and obesity-related diseases, yet most American school children fail to meet recommended intakes. One proposed method for reducing childhood obesity is implementing school-based nutrition education programs aimed at increasing F/V intake. This repeated measures study examined the effectiveness of an eight-week F/V-targeted nutrition education intervention on elementary-school students’ nutrition knowledge, F/V preference, and salad bar consumption. A convenience sample of third- and fifth-grade students (n = 149) participated in the study. Surveys were administered pre- and post-intervention to assess F/V knowledge and preference. Pre- and post-plate waste …


Life Adversity, Social Support, Resilience, And College Student Mental Health, Joshua Mello Jan 2016

Life Adversity, Social Support, Resilience, And College Student Mental Health, Joshua Mello

All Master's Theses

This study investigated how adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), current college student hassles, and perceived social support relate to college student resilience. This study also explored how ACEs, current college student hassles, perceived social support, and resilience relate to college student mental health. A sample of 507 students from a public university in Washington State completed an online study which consisted of surveys operationalizing each variable. The results showed that current college student hassles and perceived social support significantly predicted resilience. Current college student hassles, resilience, and perceived social support also significantly predicted mental health. The study revealed that ACEs had …


Website Accessibility Compliance At Research Institutions, Jonathan D. Mcgough Jan 2016

Website Accessibility Compliance At Research Institutions, Jonathan D. Mcgough

All Master's Theses

Three websites from 34 research institutions were evaluated on six measures of website accessibility. All but one institution had at least one website fail the accessibility assessment, and the single institution that performed well had recently been investigated by the Department of Justice regarding the accessibility of its website. This study concludes that while disability service offices do perform better than institutional homepages and admissions websites on measures of accessibility, many websites are plagued by perennial accessibility concerns such as images that lack alternate descriptions and content inaccessible to individuals using keyboard navigation or screen reader software.


Examination Of The Relationship Between Caesarean Section Births And Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Breea M. Rosas Jan 2016

Examination Of The Relationship Between Caesarean Section Births And Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Breea M. Rosas

All Master's Theses

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a neurological disorder characterized by inattentive and hyperactive behaviors, has become increasingly more prevalent (CDC, 2010). Recent research has found associations between this disorder and Caesarean section births (Amiri et al., 2012; Juarez et al., 2008). The current study examined the relationship between C-section birth and self-reported symptoms of ADHD by college students on the Internal Restlessness Scale (Weyandt et al., 2003). Results of the study indicate a significant difference in mean ratings of ADHD symptoms between C-section and vaginally born participants (t = 3.683, p < .000). The current study supports previous findings of a relationship between C-sections and ADHD.


The Impact Of The Arts For Students With Moderate To Severe Disabilities, Rebekah Fuss Jan 2015

The Impact Of The Arts For Students With Moderate To Severe Disabilities, Rebekah Fuss

All Master's Theses

Students with moderate to severe disabilities are often left out of arts programs, especially in rural areas where resources are limited and drama, music and art classes are often not available. This action research study focused on a small group of students in a self-contained classroom in a high school. The classroom teacher worked with a teaching artist to start an art program for students with moderate to severe disabilities. Even though there are limited resources in rural areas, it is still possible to create a quality arts integration program which requires planning and effective collaboration with other teachers and …


Obtaining Cultural Competency Skills: Perceptions From Supervisors In Higher Education, Veronica Gomez Vilchis Jan 2015

Obtaining Cultural Competency Skills: Perceptions From Supervisors In Higher Education, Veronica Gomez Vilchis

All Master's Theses

A program evaluation was done on the supervisor training at Central Washington University to obtain the perceptions of supervisors on cultural competency. Eighteen supervisors were interviewed. The results demonstrated supervisors’ support of incorporating cultural competency as part of their professional development. However, supervisors indicated the current supervisor training does not give them tools to interact effectively with diverse populations. Implications for including cultural competency skills for supervisors in higher education are discussed.


Intentional Recruiting: Using Business Intelligence, Data Mining, And Predictive Analytics To Identify Characteristics Of Those Students Who Enroll, And Graduate; In Support Of University Enrollment Management, Stephanie L. Harris Jan 2015

Intentional Recruiting: Using Business Intelligence, Data Mining, And Predictive Analytics To Identify Characteristics Of Those Students Who Enroll, And Graduate; In Support Of University Enrollment Management, Stephanie L. Harris

All Master's Theses

Using business intelligence (BI) and archival data from a division II, public comprehensive, university in Washington State, the researcher identified specific characteristics of those students who enrolled, persisted and completed to undergraduate degree attainment. These characteristics created an applicant profile to be used in future enrollment management activities for intentional recruiting, while the predictive models for enrollment and completion inform administration to improve tuition revenue planning and budgeting, and to forecast future enrollment yield.


Music And Attention For Children With Developmental Disabilities, Mallory M. Bentley Jan 2015

Music And Attention For Children With Developmental Disabilities, Mallory M. Bentley

All Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of the use of music in the form of a song with instructional lyrics on the attention of children with developmental disabilities. The study took place in a self-contained special education classroom, which served third through fifth grade students. A single-subject with ABA or reversal design (Creswell, 2012) was utilized, including five days of baseline, 15 days of intervention, and five days of reversal data collection. During the intervention phase, the teacher sang a cappella an original song with instructional lyrics that explain the type of attentive behaviors that students …