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2017

Boise State University

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Full-Text Articles in Education

A Mixed Methods Exploratory Study Of Digital Literacies In Higher Education, Susan K. Shannon Dec 2017

A Mixed Methods Exploratory Study Of Digital Literacies In Higher Education, Susan K. Shannon

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

This exploratory study examines the assessment of digital literacy in higher education using Kurtz and Peled’s (2016) digital literacy framework and assessment instrument. As information and communications technologies have grown over the last part of the 20th century and the first part of the 21st century, so has the socio-cultural environment (Kurtz & Peled, 2016; Roxin & Rusitoru, 2016). Literacy has grown from a simple concept involving the ability to read and write to a complex concept that includes many more competencies. A review of the literature shows the emergence of many new literacies (Šorgo, Bartol, Dolničar, & Podgornik, 2016). While much is written about new literacies in general, little is written specifically on the assessment of digital literacy (Ainley, Schulz, & Fraillon, 2016; Literat, 2014; & Mills, 2010). At the same time, institutions of higher education are attempting to align their educational objectives with the ever evolving digital landscape. The two questions driving this research are:

(1) Based on Kurtz and Peled’s (2016) digital learning domains, how digitally literate are Messiah College’s first year undergraduate students? and

(2) How do supporting digital files and text reflections and explanations extend Kurtz and Peled’s (2016) instrument assessing digital literacy?

Using an embedded mixed methods approach, participants of this study are Messiah College’s first year students who completed a survey instrument with quantitative and qualitative data collection components. Analysis included descriptive statistics calculations of the quantitative data, and qualitative content analysis (QCA) of the qualitative data. Results indicated Messiah College’s first year undergraduate students in the 2016-2017 academic year were digitally literate with a majority of students responding positively to six of seven of Kurtz and Peled’s (2016) digital learning domains (DLDs). One of the seven DLDs, information management, received an unacceptable reliability score of α = 0.53. The qualitative data: (a) added a layer of supporting evidence for all but one of the DLDs, information validation; (b) demonstrated digital literacies complexity; and (c) presented an additional relevant category, emotion; extending Kurtz and Peled’s quantitative assessment. A synthesis of the quantitative and qualitative components extended the independent results providing a detailed assessment of first year students’ digital literacy ...


Assessing Teacher Attentiveness To Student Mathematical Thinking, Michele B. Carney, Laurie Cavey, Gwyneth Hughes Dec 2017

Assessing Teacher Attentiveness To Student Mathematical Thinking, Michele B. Carney, Laurie Cavey, Gwyneth Hughes

Curriculum, Instruction, and Foundational Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

This article illustrates an argument-based approach to presenting validity evidence for assessment items intended to measure a complex construct. Our focus is developing a measure of teachers’ ability to analyze and respond to students’ mathematical thinking for the purpose of program evaluation. Our validity argument consists of claims addressing connections between our item-development process and the theoretical model for the construct we are trying to measure: attentiveness. Evidence derived from theoretical arguments in conjunction with our multiphased item-development process is used to support the claims, including psychometric evidence of Rasch model fit and category ordering. Taken collectively, the evidence provides ...


Seeking Mirrors: A Study Of Student Selection And Use Of Culturally Relevant Texts, Suzanne V. Kromer Dec 2017

Seeking Mirrors: A Study Of Student Selection And Use Of Culturally Relevant Texts, Suzanne V. Kromer

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Despite a growing body of work involving culturally relevant pedagogy, methods for selecting culturally relevant literature, or involving students in the selection process, are poorly understood. The objective of this qualitative study of a seventh grade language arts classroom was to explore a process for students to assess and select culturally relevant literature. This study also probed how the implementation of culturally relevant literature impacted achievement, engagement, and interest. The resulting process utilized cultural relevancy rubrics and book previews, which led to a majority of students finding a culturally relevant novel. During the literature unit, student achievement rates were maintained ...


Live Synchronous Web Meetings In Asynchronous Online Courses: Reconceptualizing Virtual Office Hours, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Joanna C. Dunlap, Chareen Snelson Dec 2017

Live Synchronous Web Meetings In Asynchronous Online Courses: Reconceptualizing Virtual Office Hours, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Joanna C. Dunlap, Chareen Snelson

Educational Technology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Most online courses rely solely on asynchronous text-based online communication. This type of communication can foster anytime, anywhere reflection, critical thinking, and deep learning. However, it can also frustrate participants because of the lack of spontaneity and visual cues and the time it takes for conversations to develop and feedback to be shared, as well as the self-directedness and discipline it requires of participants to regularly check in and monitor discussions over time. Synchronous forms of communication can address some of these constraints. However, online educators often avoid using synchronous forms of communication in their courses, because of its own ...


The Design And Implementation Outcome Of An Online Undergraduate Thermodynamics Class, Dazhi Yang, Krishna Pakala Dec 2017

The Design And Implementation Outcome Of An Online Undergraduate Thermodynamics Class, Dazhi Yang, Krishna Pakala

Educational Technology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Online learning is not common for most undergraduate core engineering courses. However, the growing need for online engineering courses necessitates the design and delivery of online courses that can allow for the flexibility and convenience the distance learning experiences can offer. Thermodynamics is among the most difficult engineering subjects to teach, especially online, where instructors are unable to demonstrate the overwhelming number of equations and applications as they would in face-to-face lectures. This paper describes the design and development of an online, undergraduate thermodynamics class. It reports the implementation outcome of student final course grade and the students’ learning experience ...


“All Students Are Brilliant”: A Confession Of Injustice And A Call To Action, Amy D. Robertson, Leslie J. Atkins Elliott Dec 2017

“All Students Are Brilliant”: A Confession Of Injustice And A Call To Action, Amy D. Robertson, Leslie J. Atkins Elliott

Curriculum, Instruction, and Foundational Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

The two of us (AR and LAE), in our teaching, research, and work with teachers, advocate for responsive teaching—an approach that seeks out and builds on the productive “seeds of science” in what our students say and do and assumes that “all students…are brilliant.” This pedagogical approach requires a commitment to listening to and intellectually empathizing with students’ scientific ideas.


The Use Of Visual Arts In World Language Instruction To Increase Student Motivation And Attitude, Marilena Bevilacqua Martello Dec 2017

The Use Of Visual Arts In World Language Instruction To Increase Student Motivation And Attitude, Marilena Bevilacqua Martello

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Because of the complexity and changeability that characterize languages, language learners face a number of various factors in their quest to acquire a new language. Nevertheless, it is the level of motivation and personal attitude toward language learning that will determine their rate of success (Dörnyei & Csizér, 1998). The purpose of this study was to find out (1) whether there was a relationship between the use of visual art in world language instruction and student motivation, and (2) whether student writing skills improved when visual art was used for Content Based Instruction. The study used a mixed method research design ...


The Effects Of Pair-Programming In A High School Introductory Computer Science Class, Ken Manship Dec 2017

The Effects Of Pair-Programming In A High School Introductory Computer Science Class, Ken Manship

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The following describes my research into pair-programming in a high school introductory computer science class. Research exists that shows the benefits of pair-programming in industry and post-secondary education. For example, in industry, well respected programmers often prefer pair-programming to a more individual approach and often produce better solutions. Furthermore, in post-secondary education, students show higher academic achievement and rely less on staff and instructors when paired with another student. There is not much research that investigates pair-programming in high school.

From January 2017 to March 2017 I explored the effect of pair-programming on my Exploring Computer Science class at Ridgevue ...


Effects Of Grouping On 4th Grade Mathematics Achievement, Brian Marinelli Dec 2017

Effects Of Grouping On 4th Grade Mathematics Achievement, Brian Marinelli

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Questions involving the equitable distribution of mathematics instruction have been addressed since at least the early 1990’s. Since this time, little research has been conducted on the antecedents and effects of grouping elementary school students within homogenous mathematics groups. The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare the mathematics achievement of 4th grade elementary school students who were grouped in either homogenous or heterogeneous mathematics classes. A causal-comparative design was utilized in an attempt to find relationships between the independent variables of mathematics grouping level, sex, and ethnicity and the dependent variable of mathematics achievement. Data were ...


Form, Function, And Relevance Of Contemporary Language Resource Centers, Paul L. Sebastian Dec 2017

Form, Function, And Relevance Of Contemporary Language Resource Centers, Paul L. Sebastian

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation was conducted in order to better understand the interplay between form, function, and relevance regarding contemporary language resource centers (LRCs). Five language centers housed by four different institutions of higher education in the western region of the United States were examined. Two representatives from each of the five centers were interviewed either in-person or over the phone (N = 10). Data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews, on-site visits, and research journal entries. The data were analyzed using a flexible combination of multi-level qualitative coding, descriptive statistics, and narrative analysis. This study confirms recent findings that have ...


We Aren't Living Happily Ever After: Embodying Characters In Readers Theater To Promote Comprehension, Cassandra Angley Dec 2017

We Aren't Living Happily Ever After: Embodying Characters In Readers Theater To Promote Comprehension, Cassandra Angley

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Readers Theater is an old genre of Theater integrating oral interpretation and presentational Theater. The high interest of the scripts chosen for a Readers Theater production and the repetition of rehearsing text promotes fluency, expressiveness, and motivation. Readers Theater is one method that may support comprehension by developing students’ understanding of character. Very few Readers Theater studies measure comprehension. I set-up a study where nine fifth and sixth-grade students from a summer literacy program each embodied a character. I wanted to know if Readers Theater could help teach character comprehension. I created a comprehension assessment tool, called a Character Map ...


Research-Based Stem Educator Professional Development Rubrics For The Selection Of High-Quality Professional Development: A Mixed Methods Study Of Teacher Perceptions And Outcomes, Angela Hemingway Dec 2017

Research-Based Stem Educator Professional Development Rubrics For The Selection Of High-Quality Professional Development: A Mixed Methods Study Of Teacher Perceptions And Outcomes, Angela Hemingway

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Idahoans failed to recognize approximately $240M in 2016 when over 3,800 STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) jobs, with a median wage of $30 per hour, went unfilled. This further caused Idaho to lose $14M in state income tax receipts from these unclaimed positions (Idaho Department of Labor, 2016). To mitigate these economic losses, the Idaho STEM Action Center (STEM AC) was created to develop the STEM-skilled workforce that Idaho employers demand. High-quality, STEM-educator professional development (PD) is a critical component in ensuring students are equipped with the skills required to successfully thrive in the workforce and fill industry ...


Faculty Drivers And Barriers: Laying The Groundwork For Undergraduate Stem Education Reform In Academic Departments, Susan E. Shadle, Anthony Marker, Brittnee Earl Dec 2017

Faculty Drivers And Barriers: Laying The Groundwork For Undergraduate Stem Education Reform In Academic Departments, Susan E. Shadle, Anthony Marker, Brittnee Earl

CTL Teaching Gallery

Background: Calls to improve student learning and increase the number of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) college and university graduates assert the need for widespread adoption of evidence-based instructional practices in undergraduate STEM courses. For successful reforms to take hold and endure, it is likely that a significant shift in culture around teaching is needed. This study seeks to describe the initial response of faculty to an effort to shift teaching norms, with a long-term goal of altering the culture around teaching and learning in STEM. While the effort was envisioned and led at the institutional level, dialog about ...


Evidence-Based Survey Design: The Use Of A Midpoint On The Likert Scale, Seung Youn (Yonnie) Chyung, Katherine Roberts, Ieva Swanson, Andrea Hankinson Nov 2017

Evidence-Based Survey Design: The Use Of A Midpoint On The Likert Scale, Seung Youn (Yonnie) Chyung, Katherine Roberts, Ieva Swanson, Andrea Hankinson

Organizational Performance and Workplace Learning Faculty Publications and Presentations

Likert-type scales are often used in survey instruments, and practitioners and researchers need to clearly understand the appropriate use of a midpoint in these scales. The authors of this article explore research studies from various disciplines to indicate that there are circumstances when a midpoint should be included and others where it should not. They provide tables, summarizing the benefits and problems in each case as well as evidence-based strategies to employ.


Learning To Code Music: Development Of A Supplemental Unit For High School Computer Science, Kelsey Wright Nov 2017

Learning To Code Music: Development Of A Supplemental Unit For High School Computer Science, Kelsey Wright

Computer Science Graduate Projects and Theses

Learning to Code Music is a supplemental unit developed for high school computer science. This unit was developed after researching the effects of biases in curriculum, effective teaching, and incorporating the arts into coding. This supplemental unit is intended to be used with one of the Computer Science Principles curriculum approved by the College Board and explained in the literature review. It is my goal to have other teachers and myself to use this supplemental unit in their high school computer science courses. All supplemental unit material can be found at https://sites.google.com/notusschools.org/earsketch-csp/home


A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing The Efficacy Of A Brief Online Alcohol Intervention For High School Seniors, Diana M. Doumas, Susan Esp, Brian Flay, Laura Bond Sep 2017

A Randomized Controlled Trial Testing The Efficacy Of A Brief Online Alcohol Intervention For High School Seniors, Diana M. Doumas, Susan Esp, Brian Flay, Laura Bond

Counselor Education Faculty Publications and Presentations

Objective: The purpose of this randomized controlled study was to examine the efficacy of a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention (the eCHECKUP TO GO) on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences among high school seniors. Method: Participants (N = 221) were high school seniors randomized by class period to either a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention (the eCHECKUP TO GO) or an assessment-only control group. Participants completed online surveys at baseline and at a 6-week follow-up. Results: Students participating in the eCHECKUP TO GO intervention reported a significant reduction in weekly drinking quantity, peak drinking quantity, and frequency of drinking to ...


Following A Ten-Step Procedure To Evaluate The Administrative Services Qualification Card Program, Julie R. Barkin, Seung Youn (Yonnie) Chyung, Megan Lemke Sep 2017

Following A Ten-Step Procedure To Evaluate The Administrative Services Qualification Card Program, Julie R. Barkin, Seung Youn (Yonnie) Chyung, Megan Lemke

Organizational Performance and Workplace Learning Faculty Publications and Presentations

In this article, the authors describe a ten-step procedure for conducting program evaluation in the HPI context, followed by a case study illustrating the procedure taken and outcomes produced. A team of graduate students at Boise State University completed an evaluation study of an Administrative Services Qualification Card program in a not-for-profit organization by following the ten-step evaluation procedure. The end result was a set of evidence-based recommendations focused on improving the quality of the program.


Two Departments, Two Models Of Interdisciplinary Peer Learning, Julianne A. Wenner, Paul J. Simmonds Sep 2017

Two Departments, Two Models Of Interdisciplinary Peer Learning, Julianne A. Wenner, Paul J. Simmonds

Curriculum, Instruction, and Foundational Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

On graduation, teacher candidates (TCs) are typically underprepared to teach science, particularly physical science, whereas physics graduates frequently lack training in teaching or effective communication. In response, we created two models for interdisciplinary peer learning where TCs were paired with either graduate or undergraduate physics students. In both models, physics students teach TCs content knowledge relevant to a given area of either classical or quantum physics, which TCs then use to design and implement a short lesson for K-5 students. Overall, both models were successful, with the two sets of students reporting benefits in each case. Affordances for TCs included ...


Education: Ancient And Modern, Kyle Edward Eidson Aug 2017

Education: Ancient And Modern, Kyle Edward Eidson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

John Dewey’s progressive education differed from the classical model. The entrenchment of Dewey’s progressive education at all levels of education has led to a decline in academic performance. The modern ideas of American education hardly resemble the ones it was founded on. This paper looks at a model of classical education adopted by the American founders—as well as classical education itself—and to Dewey, the preeminent scholar and philosopher of American, progressive education, whose aim was to develop an egalitarian society trained in non-traditional academics. The paper also looks at Dewey’s child-centered model that contributes to ...


Instructional Strategies For High School Ell Refugee Students In Mathematics, Seoyeon Lee Aug 2017

Instructional Strategies For High School Ell Refugee Students In Mathematics, Seoyeon Lee

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

This study investigates instructional strategies used in high school mathematics classrooms to learn the way teachers modify their lessons to teach late-entry ELL students, including refugees with little or no formal education. Two separate ELL classes, two mainstream classes with mixed groups of ELL students and monolinguistic students, and one mainstream class without late-entry ELL students are observed for this study. Both qualitative analysis regarding teaching English language while using mathematics content, specifically vocabulary acquisition, and quantitative analysis as to how teachers spend their instructional time are used to present the findings of this study. The findings provide a forum ...


Social Presence, Identity, And Online Learning Research: Research Development And Needs, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Vanessa P. Dennen Aug 2017

Social Presence, Identity, And Online Learning Research: Research Development And Needs, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Vanessa P. Dennen

Educational Technology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Scholars across many disciplines have grappled with questions of what it means for a person to be and interact online. Who are we when we go online? How do others know we are there and how do they perceive us? Within the context of online learning, scholarly questions tend to reflect more specific concerns focused on how well people can learn in a setting limited to mediated interactions lacking various communication cues. For example, how can a teacher and students come to know each other if they cannot see each other? How can they effectively understand and communicate with each ...


In Search Of A Better Understanding Of Social Presence: An Investigation Into How Researchers Define Social Presence, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Chareen Snelson Aug 2017

In Search Of A Better Understanding Of Social Presence: An Investigation Into How Researchers Define Social Presence, Patrick R. Lowenthal, Chareen Snelson

Educational Technology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Research on social presence and online learning continues to grow. But to date, researchers continue to define and conceptualize social presence very differently. For instance, at a basic level, some conceptualize social presence as one of three presences within a Community of Inquiry, while others do not. Given this problem, we analyzed how researchers in highly cited social presence research defined social presence in an effort to better understand how they are defining social presence and how this might be changing over time. In this article, we report the results of our inquiry and conclude with implications for future research ...


Testing Our Assumptions: The Role Of First Course Grade And Course Level In Mathematics And English, Janet Callahan, Marcia Belcheir Aug 2017

Testing Our Assumptions: The Role Of First Course Grade And Course Level In Mathematics And English, Janet Callahan, Marcia Belcheir

Materials Science and Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Methods that provide an early indicator of factors that affect student persistence are important to colleges and universities. This quantitative research focused on the role of level of entry mathematics and English and also on grades earned in those classes as they relate to persistence after one year. The research showed that by far, the variable most predictive of first-time, full-time students enrolling one year later was earning a grade of “A” in English. Compared to those who did not pass their first English course, students who earned an “A” were three times more likely to persist. The variables which ...


Measuring Rights-Based Perspectives: A Validation Of The Human Rights Lens In Social Work Scale, Jane Mcpherson, Carl F. Siebert, Darcy Clay Siebert Jul 2017

Measuring Rights-Based Perspectives: A Validation Of The Human Rights Lens In Social Work Scale, Jane Mcpherson, Carl F. Siebert, Darcy Clay Siebert

Curriculum, Instruction, and Foundational Studies Faculty Publications and Presentations

Objective: This article reports the initial validation of the Human Rights Lens in Social Work (HRLSW) scale, a tool designed to measure a social worker’s ability to see individual and social problems as resulting from human rights violations. The purpose of the research was to gather evidence regarding the validity of this multidimensional measure of a new construct, i.e., human rights lens. Method: Data from a convenience sample of 1,014 licensed clinical social workers were collected by electronic survey, and the sample was split to conduct discrete exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The exploratory factor analysis was ...


Calculus Reform: Increasing Stem Retention And Post-Requisite Course Success While Closing The Retention Gap For Women And Underrepresented Minority Students, Doug Bullock, Janet Callahan, Jocelyn B.S. Cullers Jun 2017

Calculus Reform: Increasing Stem Retention And Post-Requisite Course Success While Closing The Retention Gap For Women And Underrepresented Minority Students, Doug Bullock, Janet Callahan, Jocelyn B.S. Cullers

Mathematics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Boise State University (BSU) implemented an across-the-board reform of calculus instruction during the 2014 calendar year. The details of the reform, described elsewhere (Bullock, 2015), (Bullock 2016), involve both pedagogical and curricular reform. Gains from the project have included a jump in Calculus I pass rate, greater student engagement, greater instructor satisfaction, a shift toward active learning pedagogies, and the emergence of a strong collaborative teaching community. This paper examines the effects of the reform on student retention. Since the curricular reform involved pruning some content and altering course outcomes, which could conceivably have negative downstream impacts, we report on ...


Building An Effective Online Thermodynamics Course For Undergraduate Engineering Students, Dazhi Yang, Krishna Pakala Jun 2017

Building An Effective Online Thermodynamics Course For Undergraduate Engineering Students, Dazhi Yang, Krishna Pakala

Educational Technology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Online learning does not appear to be the common option when approaching some core engineering courses. However, the growing need for online engineering courses necessitates the development of online courses that can allow for the flexibility and convenience these distance learning experiences can offer, which also can help broaden the participation in engineering education. Thermodynamics is among the most difficult engineering subjects to teach, 1 , 2 especially online, where instructors are unable to demonstrate the overwhelming number of equations and applications as they would in face-to-face lectures. 3 , 4. This paper describes the design and development of an undergraduate online ...


Ten Years Later: Where Are They Now?, Janet Callahan, Donna C. Llewellyn, Vicki Stieha, Ann E. Delaney Jun 2017

Ten Years Later: Where Are They Now?, Janet Callahan, Donna C. Llewellyn, Vicki Stieha, Ann E. Delaney

Materials Science and Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

This paper explores the educational and career trajectories of the alumnae of an outreach activity for girls. The outreach activity was originally developed using an integrated marketing approach to attract girls into engineering programs.1 The program, a two day, overnight experience for rising 9th, 10th and 11th grade girls, focuses on showcasing engineering as an exciting, creative activity, including activities developed from that perspective. Started in 2005 and held annually since then, a total of over 500 girls have participated, with approximately 85% of them coming from Boise State University’s immediate metropolitan area. Facilitated by ...


Confessional Technologies Of The Self: From Seneca To Social Media, Norm Friesen Jun 2017

Confessional Technologies Of The Self: From Seneca To Social Media, Norm Friesen

Educational Technology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Foucault’s general notion of “technologies of the self” provides an invaluable starting point for investigating a range of broadly “confessional” practices and technologies over time — from medieval confession to contemporary forms of networked identity construction. Foucault defines technologies of the self as “reflected and voluntary practices by which men not only fix rules of conduct for themselves but seek to transform themselves, to change themselves in their particular being, and to make their life an oeuvre.” These are practices or techniques, in other words, that are both undertaken by the self and directed toward it. Specifically confessional technologies involve ...


Evaluation Instruments And Good Practices In Online Education, Sally J. Baldwin, Jesús Trespalacios Jun 2017

Evaluation Instruments And Good Practices In Online Education, Sally J. Baldwin, Jesús Trespalacios

Educational Technology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Chickering and Gamson’s (1987) Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education offers extensively researched and validated tenets for best practices in higher education. After a review of the literature, twenty-eight evaluation instruments currently used to design and review online courses in higher education institutions were collected and divided into categories, based on geographical reach and the type of institution for which they were developed. This study investigates how evaluation instruments used in higher education assess the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education, and what other items are addressed in the evaluation of courses. Findings show that ...


Implementation Of An Avid Elementary Program In A Technology-Rich Environment, Molly J. Large May 2017

Implementation Of An Avid Elementary Program In A Technology-Rich Environment, Molly J. Large

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the innovations that occurred as the AVID Elementary program was implemented in a technology-rich school environment and the ways in which those innovations were communicated and adopted across the school. It examined how the AVID Elementary program functioned at the site and how teachers developed technology-enabled alternatives to traditional AVID strategies and materials.

The primary question for this study was “How is AVID Elementary implemented in a technology-rich environment?” A qualitative ethnographic case study methodology was appropriate for this study, and the study was conducted through an ethnographic lens that explored the ...