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Full-Text Articles in Education

Including Students With Special Needs In A Mainstream Classroom In Cameroon, Elie Tcheimegni Jan 2018

Including Students With Special Needs In A Mainstream Classroom In Cameroon, Elie Tcheimegni

Master's Theses

This qualitative study used a survey research design to collect perception data from ten general educators from Northern Cameroon to examine the attitudes and instructional efficacy of the regular education teacher towards the inclusion of learning disabled students in the Northern part of Cameroon in grades 9 to 12. The findings of this study indicated that there is a need to train general education teachers for inclusion. Participants believe general education teachers need supports, logistics, professional development and training in inclusion practices. They all mentioned teachers need training, support and resources. Teachers should possess the skills that facilitate all learning ...


Development And Validation Of A Survey Of Knowledge Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Laura Katherine Hansen Dec 2015

Development And Validation Of A Survey Of Knowledge Of Autism Spectrum Disorder, Laura Katherine Hansen

Master's Theses

As autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more commonly diagnosed, having knowledge of the disorder becomes increasingly important for educators, parents, and the general public. Previous research regarding knowledge of ASD, focused mainly on knowledge possessed by those in the educational field, has found that individuals may perceive themselves as possessing average knowledge regarding ASD but have low actual knowledge (as defined by the researchers) regarding specific aspects of the disorder (Williams et al., 2011). Studies support the notion that there is a general lack of knowledge of different aspects of ASD among teachers; however, there has been little research regarding ...


The Status Of, Teacher Attitudes Towards, And The Lmpact Of Music Therapy Lnclusive Music Education In Michigan, Armbruster Dec 2014

The Status Of, Teacher Attitudes Towards, And The Lmpact Of Music Therapy Lnclusive Music Education In Michigan, Armbruster

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine Michigan music teachers' attitudes and perceptions regarding their training for and experience with special learners in their classrooms, and their collaboration and consultation with music therapists. Eighty-six music educators completed a 51 item questionnaire. Results showed that music teachers' attitudes and perceptions are generally positive toward inclusion. Mean scores for attitude and perception were not influenced by whether participants had or had not taken a course in special education as a student, whether they had access to continuing education regarding inclusion through their school district, or participants' predominant teaching area or degree ...


A Suryey Of Music Therapists' Use Of Music To Facilitate Reading Development In Children, Cross Dec 2014

A Suryey Of Music Therapists' Use Of Music To Facilitate Reading Development In Children, Cross

Master's Theses

This study utilized Naturalistic Inquiry methods to investigate how music therapists use music elements to impact reading development in school-aged children. Eleven Board-Certified Music Therapists were interviewed providing information regarding music therapy interventions, reading skills targeted, theoretical influences, and professional influences. Transcripts of interviews were analyzedto determine themes, coÍtmon use of language related to the subject, common perceptions, and techniques and uses for music to impact reading development. In general subjects did not report specifically using music elements to target reading behavior. Rather, most subjects identified reading objectives determined by classroom teachers and developed music interventions to accommodate those objectives ...


Global Influences And Resistance Within: Inclusive Practices And South Africa's Apartheid Government, Jean Marie Fagin Jan 2011

Global Influences And Resistance Within: Inclusive Practices And South Africa's Apartheid Government, Jean Marie Fagin

Master's Theses

South Africa's racially segregating apartheid government officially lasted for over forty years, from 1948 to 1994. Black South Africans were the victims of established oppression resulting in poverty, poor health care, and limited educational opportunities. Black South Africans with disabilities faced even greater exclusion from society due to their physical and cognitive challenges. Education for black students was neither compulsory nor free, and few black students with disabilities received services.

During the apartheid regime (1948-1994), disability issues were being address globally. The United Nations issued declarations, conventions, and a programme of action devoted to people with disabilities. In the ...


Building Citizens Or Building Nations? Alternative Visions For Learning History In Germany And The United States: The Geschichtswettbewerb Des Bundespraesidenten And National History Day, 1974-1984, Crystal Johnson Jan 2010

Building Citizens Or Building Nations? Alternative Visions For Learning History In Germany And The United States: The Geschichtswettbewerb Des Bundespraesidenten And National History Day, 1974-1984, Crystal Johnson

Master's Theses

The German philanthropist Kurt Körber and the American historian David Van Tassel envisioned a future where students engaged in discovering the sources and interpreting the past for themselves rather than reciting facts filtered by a textbook or teacher. Their ideas developed into two strikingly similar programs: the Geschichtswettbewerb des Bundespräsidenten and National History Day. These endeavors became models for similar efforts in many other countries. This comparative history argues that such programs offer provocative insights into the civic nature and purpose of history education. Inquiry learning and enhanced access to sources gave students opportunities to ask their own ...


A Study Of The Effectiveness Of A Commercially Available Feedback Training Program In Increasing The Classroom Attending Skills Of Students With Attention Deficit Disorder, Digiovanni Dec 2001

A Study Of The Effectiveness Of A Commercially Available Feedback Training Program In Increasing The Classroom Attending Skills Of Students With Attention Deficit Disorder, Digiovanni

Master's Theses

The incidence of attention deficit disorder among elementary aged children has increased dramatically along with reliance on psychostimulant medication. Many parents and professionals seek alternative or supplemental treatments. Neurofeedback training is an alternative intervention that has been researched over the past twenty years with many positive results. The advent of commercially available systems makes neurofeedback training a more realistic and cost-effective option. Such systems must be shown to be effective and practical within a school setting.

This multiple baseline single system experimental study of three male subjects with ADD/HD confirmed that the Play Attention feedback training program by Unique ...


School-Based Functional Assessment For Adolescents With Adhd: Procedural Issues In General Education Settings, Radford Jun 1999

School-Based Functional Assessment For Adolescents With Adhd: Procedural Issues In General Education Settings, Radford

Master's Theses

Functional assessment is a structured problem-solving process that has been found to be an effective method for guiding the selection of classroom intervention for students who present a variety of problem behaviors (O'Neill, et al., 1997), including Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). This study evaluated the utility of school-based functional assessments with 2 adolescent boys diagnosed with ADHD in general education settings utilizing resources typically available to school personnel to document information relevant to behavior function. Descriptive information (i.e., interviews, observations, record reviews) led to the development of potential intervention strategies that were implemented ...


Case Study: Effects Of A Systematic Method Of Vocabulary Instruction On A Disabled Learner, Sharon A. Barrett-Bassi Apr 1996

Case Study: Effects Of A Systematic Method Of Vocabulary Instruction On A Disabled Learner, Sharon A. Barrett-Bassi

Master's Theses

This descriptive case study examined the effects of instruction in a

systematic method of vocabulary instruction which included a mnemonic

component on the fifteen-year-old learning disabled female with memory

deficits. The researcher and subject met for nine forty-five minute sessions

over a period of four weeks. At the end of the study, changes in the subject

included increased self confidence about her ability to learn vocabulary

independently. She gained the confidence to volunteer vocabulary related

answers in another class, a behavior which the subject reported was something

she would not have previously done. She was able to write definitions for ...


The Attitudes Of Children With Specialized Language-Learning Needs Toward Process Writing, Mcalister Apr 1995

The Attitudes Of Children With Specialized Language-Learning Needs Toward Process Writing, Mcalister

Master's Theses

Students with specialized language-learning needs, who had participated in a computer-based writing lab at Western Michigan University, were interviewed regarding their knowledge about and attitudes toward a process approach to writing instruction. The students orally answered questions posed by the researcher in individual thirty-minute interviews. A Likert-type scale was used to measure the students' attitude toward process writing along with open-ended questions to investigate the students' knowledge about process writing. Qualitative techniques were used to analyze the data.

Responses to the knowledge questions indicated that the students have a better understanding of the meaning and purpose of author groups than ...


The Effects Of The Skills For School Success Curriculum Upon The Mainstream Academic Performance Of Special Education Students, Fabricant Apr 1994

The Effects Of The Skills For School Success Curriculum Upon The Mainstream Academic Performance Of Special Education Students, Fabricant

Master's Theses

Since the implementation of PL 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, over 4 million students have been identified as exceptional (Higgins, 1976). Of these children, 4.41% are placed in general education classrooms for at least part of their school day. The prior research evaluating the effectiveness of general education classroom placement has centered around instructional techniques. This study examined a different aspect of general education placement: study skills. The present study employed a multiple baseline across subjects experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Skills for School Success" program. The subjects were two students identified by ...


Using American Sign Language With A Direct Instruction Mathematics Program To Affect The Mathematics Achievement Of Deaf Students, Bass Jun 1993

Using American Sign Language With A Direct Instruction Mathematics Program To Affect The Mathematics Achievement Of Deaf Students, Bass

Master's Theses

The effectiveness of supplemental instruction using a scripted direct instruction program, Connecting Math Concepts (Englemann & Carnine, 1992), with four lower elementary deaf students was compared to the effectiveness of supplemental instruction in their traditional math curriculum, Mathematics Today (Abbott, 1985). A two-phase multiple baseline design across students was used. During the first phase, the students' achievement on curricula-based math probes was assessed while using the Mathematics Today as a supplement. During the second phase, the students' achievement was assessed while using Connecting Math Concepts as a supplement. The teacher presentation scripts in this program were translated into American Sign Language. The results were mixed; some students scored higher with instruction in Mathematics Today and others scored higher with instruction in Connecting Math Concepts. The mixed results indicate a need for an in-depth analysis of the Connecting Math Concepts scripts and translation to American Sign Language before they can be optimally effective for deaf students.


Story Writing By Students With Hearing Impairments, Ketchum Apr 1993

Story Writing By Students With Hearing Impairments, Ketchum

Master's Theses

Students with hearing impairments (N = 21) wrote a personal narrative each academic year from 1990 to 1992. These narratives were rated on maturity of the story as a whole and maturity of the language used in the story by senior undergraduate students in the education department at Western Michigan University. The method used for rating was a holistic magnitude estimation technique.

Significant change over time was found for story scores, but not language scores. Grade level was found to have no significant effect on change from first to last ratings for either story scores or language scores. Degree of hearing ...


The Effects Of An Integrated Environment On Specific Target Behaviors In Severely Impaired Young Children, Smith Dec 1992

The Effects Of An Integrated Environment On Specific Target Behaviors In Severely Impaired Young Children, Smith

Master's Theses

Four severely impaired children, ages four to seven, were integrated in a non-handicapped preschool setting during a free play period. A multiple baseline design was used to study the environment's effect on specific target behaviors. No intervention, other than the classroom setting, was implemented to effect levels of these behaviors. The results were mixed with one student showing a marked increased in the desired behavior from.136 occurrences per minute to 1.73 occurrences per minute. However, a second subject's desired behavior decreased from 2.0 occurrences per minute to.194 occurrences per minute. The target behaviors of ...


The Effectiveness Of Special Education Placement And Services: A Descriptive Study, Lewis Aug 1992

The Effectiveness Of Special Education Placement And Services: A Descriptive Study, Lewis

Master's Theses

This descriptive study evaluated the effectiveness of special education placement and services over a three year period o f time. The files of seventeen students were chosen for the study. The study took place in two school districts in Southwestern Michigan.

The findings from this study indicate that: (a) there was an increase in test scores in the area of Performance IQ, and (b) there was a significant decrease in test scores in the area o f Math Calculation. There was a general trend, although not significant, of a decrease in scores in all areas of ability and achievement except ...


Reinforcement Effects On The I.Q. Scores Of Institutionalized Children And Adults With Developmental Disabilities, Lewis Aug 1991

Reinforcement Effects On The I.Q. Scores Of Institutionalized Children And Adults With Developmental Disabilities, Lewis

Master's Theses

Eighteen institutionalized school-age and adult subjects with severe/profound developmental disabilities were evaluated for the effects of self-selected reinforcement for correct responding on their I.Q. scores when tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Terman & Merrill, 1960) or the Leiter International Performance Scale (Arthur, 1952). Subjects were tested under both standard and reinforcement conditions. The results indicated that overall, subjects when tested under reinforcement conditions showed a significant increase in mean I.Q. scores when compared with the same subjects tested one month previously under standard conditions. Several features of the data reveal intriguing results with regard to subjects and ...


Repeated Acquisition With Developmentally Disabled Adults: Some Methodological Improvements, Rueber Aug 1991

Repeated Acquisition With Developmentally Disabled Adults: Some Methodological Improvements, Rueber

Master's Theses

This study obtained repeated-acquisition data from four developmentally disabled adults. The procedure was a refinement of one used earlier by Madsen (1988) and a comparison was made between the two. Verbal praise, edibles, and money were used to reinforce correct responding. In addition, an informal comparison was made between individual repeated-acquisition performance and IQ scores. The refinements of the Madsen procedure included: (1) using a 10-second timeout as the consequence of an error, (2) placing poker chips in die-cut holes, (3) using different colored construction paper backgrounds, (4) limiting each session to one sequence, (5) using percent correct responses as ...


A Comparison Of Functional Equivalence Training And Timeout Procedures In The Reduction Of Disruptive Behavior, Goodman Apr 1991

A Comparison Of Functional Equivalence Training And Timeout Procedures In The Reduction Of Disruptive Behavior, Goodman

Master's Theses

The use of nonaversive or aversive procedures continues to be debated regarding treatment of behavior problems of persons with developmental disabilities. This study compared the efficacy of a punishment and a nonaversive procedure in the reduction of problem behavior. The nonaversive technique involved the teaching of alternative, functionally equivalent, responses. Timeout was employed as the punishment procedure. The functional equivalence training included a functional analysis to identify the motivating conditions for the disruptive behavior of three boys with severe mental retardation. Treatment conditions were evaluated on rate of disruption, effects on learning trials, and time engaged in training. Results indicate ...


A Comparison Of A Topography-Based Language System And A Selection-Based Language System, Sundberg Dec 1990

A Comparison Of A Topography-Based Language System And A Selection-Based Language System, Sundberg

Master's Theses

This study examined whether it was easier for developmentally disabled individuals to acquire a topography-based or a selection-based language system. Four moderately and mildly mentally retarded adults served as subjects. Each of the subjects was taught to tact an object by either pointing to its corresponding symbol (with the selection-based paradigm) or making the corresponding sign (with the topography-based system). They were then taught an intraverbal relation by either selecting the symbol, or making the sign which corresponded to an auditory stimulus. Finally, the subjects were tested for the emergence of stimulus equivalence classes. Each subject was trained and tested ...


Extension Of The Audio-Visual Combination Discrimination Test, Davine Aug 1990

Extension Of The Audio-Visual Combination Discrimination Test, Davine

Master's Theses

The Audio-Visual Combination (AVC) scale (Kerr, Meyerson, & Flora, 1977) was developed to assess basic discrimination skills in the developmentally disabled population. Acquisition of such skills has been demonstrated to follow a progressive pattern. The existing AVC test assesses discrimination skills in the following hierarchy: Imitation, Position, Visual, Match-To-Sample, Auditory, and Auditory- Visual Combination. This investigation attempted to discover transitional skills between the Match-To-Sample and the Auditory levels. Twenty-four developmentally disabled adults were tested using the original AVC tool with the addition of four new discrimination tasks that were added to the existing scale to ascertain a finer gradation of skills ...


A Comparison Of Outcome Reinforcement Contingencies And Process Reinforcement Contingencies Using Concurrent Training With The Severely Mentally Impaired, Lonsberry Jun 1990

A Comparison Of Outcome Reinforcement Contingencies And Process Reinforcement Contingencies Using Concurrent Training With The Severely Mentally Impaired, Lonsberry

Master's Theses

This study compared the effectiveness of Outcome and Process reinforcement contingencies using concurrent training to teach severely mentally impaired students to perform component tasks. Each student was trained to assemble a four-piece apparatus using either the Outcome contingency or the Process contingency. The Outcome method was defined as a contingency where the final outcome of a component task has been achieved and a reinforcer is delivered contingent upon that outcome. The Process method was defined as a contingency where reinforcement occurs after the performance of each step in the sequence and when the final outcome of the task has been ...


The Effects Of Added Purpose On Fine Motor Performance In Learning Disabled Children, Austin Dec 1989

The Effects Of Added Purpose On Fine Motor Performance In Learning Disabled Children, Austin

Master's Theses

The idea that occupations which offer added levels of purpose elicit a high quality of performance is widely accepted within occupational therapy. In this experiment involving fine motor performance, fifty-three learning disabled children were randomly assigned to two groups. It was hypothesized that children cutting out a circle, presented as a wheel which would complete a paper truck, would cut more accurately than those who cut out the same circle without the suggestion of it being used as a wheel. Accuracy was assessed by measuring the area of the children's cutting errors. The experimental design included the use of ...


The Effect Of Study Skills Training On The Academic Performance Of Learning Disabled Students In Mainstream Classes, Allen Jun 1989

The Effect Of Study Skills Training On The Academic Performance Of Learning Disabled Students In Mainstream Classes, Allen

Master's Theses

No abstract provided.


A Review And Evaluation Of Research On Suspension And Expulsion Of Handicapped Students In Public Schools, Young Dec 1988

A Review And Evaluation Of Research On Suspension And Expulsion Of Handicapped Students In Public Schools, Young

Master's Theses

The purpose of this report is to review and synthesize findings of research studies about suspension and expulsion of handicapped students as a disciplinary procedure in public schools.

The first chapter begins with a glossary of frequently used terms and definitions to assist the reader in understanding the terminology used in this paper.

Chapter II reviews literature relevant to suspension and expulsion of handicapped students.

Chapter III cites statutory and mandatory provisions set forth by the .Michigan State Board of Education on suspension and expulsion.

Chapter IV explores the historical content on suspension and expulsion of handicapped students.

Chapter V ...


Utilizing Daily Repertoire Behavior To Facilitate The Acquisition Of Generalized Imitation In Profoundly Mentally Retarded Adults, Kremser Jun 1988

Utilizing Daily Repertoire Behavior To Facilitate The Acquisition Of Generalized Imitation In Profoundly Mentally Retarded Adults, Kremser

Master's Theses

Two procedures were compared in teaching the skill of generalized imitation. One procedure incorporated some of the subject's daily behavior repertoire into the imitation training paradigm. Another similar procedure utilized non-repertoire responses during training. Two male profoundly mentally retarded adults were trained with each procedure. Overall, the acquisition of generalized imitation was facilitated by incorporating daily repertoire behaviors into the imitation training packages. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in levels of generalized imitation as a function of training condition. Results were variable across subjects however, and it is questionable whether the difference is clinically significant. Further and more ...


Training Mildly Retarded Adults To Generate Effective Solutions To Daily Living Problems, Munk Apr 1988

Training Mildly Retarded Adults To Generate Effective Solutions To Daily Living Problems, Munk

Master's Theses

Two mildly mentally retarded adults, living in a semi-independent residential program received training in solving common social problems. The subjects were trained to perform five problem-solving component skills: (1) identifying the problem, (2) defining a goal, (3) evaluating a solution, (4) evaluating alternative solutions, and (5) selecting a best solution. The five component skills were trained in sequence, as a multiple-baseline across skill behaviors design. It was hypothesized that the training program would successfully improve the subjects' ability to perform the component skills when solving trained and unfamiliar problems. The unfamiliar problems were included to test generalization of skill. The ...


Teaching Change Computation To The Developmentally Disabled, Daeschlein Aug 1983

Teaching Change Computation To The Developmentally Disabled, Daeschlein

Master's Theses

This study evaluated a procedure for teaching three developmentally disabled adults to compute monetary change combinations. Also, the procedure assessed generalization to the skills of computing change with bills, verifying the correctness of change received, and computing change with both coins and bills. Subjects were first trained to make change using pennies and then were trained to use each successive denomination in combination with those previously trained. A multipleprobe design was used, including generalization probes of the above-cited skills. Results indicated that each subject acquired the behavior of change computation with coins as a function of the training procedure. Also ...


The Effects Of Parent Monitoring On Homework Completion Of Low Performing Students, Del Carmen Barocio Aug 1983

The Effects Of Parent Monitoring On Homework Completion Of Low Performing Students, Del Carmen Barocio

Master's Theses

Four junior high school boys from a Special Education room participated in this study. The purpose was to increase the amount of homework completion having parents as monitors of their own children and minimal teacher intervention. In Condition I, baseline was taken of the percentage of homework assignments completed. During Condition II, parents received a Homework Checklist from the teacher explaining the assignments for the next day. For Condition III parents were given a handout explaining the use of positive statements and prompts, and a guideline for skillful home study was also included. Parents were asked to send a Report ...


Increasing The Work Rates Of Visually-Impaired, Mentally Retarded Adults Through The Treatment And Prevention Of Overselectivity (Overshadowing) And Masking, Schwade Dec 1982

Increasing The Work Rates Of Visually-Impaired, Mentally Retarded Adults Through The Treatment And Prevention Of Overselectivity (Overshadowing) And Masking, Schwade

Master's Theses

In Experiment 1, three legally-blind, mentally retarded adults were given 10 to 12 applications of discrimination training between pairs of sequential compound stimuli with immediate tactile and delayed (3- 3.5 sec) visual elements. Sorting responses were brought under the control of these stimuli. In 29 of 33 applications, discrimination training resulted in reduced sorting rates concommittant to overselectivity (overshadowing), such that stimulus control was acquired by only delayed visual elements. Single-stimulus discrimination training (SSDT) between the previously-overshadowed immediate tactile elements produced expression of stimulus control by those elements of compound stimuli in 5 of 6 cases. SSDT with novel ...


Schedule Effects And Interim Activities In Two Retarded Subjects, Miltenberger Dec 1981

Schedule Effects And Interim Activities In Two Retarded Subjects, Miltenberger

Master's Theses

Fixed interval (FI), fixed time (FT), and fixed ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement were implemented with two retarded subjects and the effects on operant responding and interim activities were evaluated. One subject responded under FI 1 min, multiple FI 1 min, and multiple FI 1 min extinction schedules. Three interim activities were observed to occur under each schedule. The second subject responded under FI 1 min, FI 3 min, FR 20, FR 25, FR 35, multimple FR 35, FT 1 min, and multiple FR 35 extinction schedules. Two interim activities occured, primarily in the FI and FR schedules. Both subjects ...