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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Effects Of Negative Economic Shocks At Birth On Adolescents’ Cognitive Health And Educational Attainment In Malawi, Fabrice Kämpfen, Fatima Zahra, Hans-Peter Kohler, Rachel Kidman Mar 2021

The Effects Of Negative Economic Shocks At Birth On Adolescents’ Cognitive Health And Educational Attainment In Malawi, Fabrice Kämpfen, Fatima Zahra, Hans-Peter Kohler, Rachel Kidman

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

We provide new evidence of the effects of moderate negative economic shocks in utero or shortly after birth on adolescents’ cognitive outcomes and educational attainment in Malawi. This is the first study in a sub-Saharan African (SSA) low-income country (LIC) to analyze the effect of not one, but multiple moderate negative economic shocks. This focus is important as multiple economic shocks in early life are more representative of the experiences of adolescents in LICs. Combining data on adolescents aged 10-16 from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) project of the Malawi Longitudinal Study on Families and Health (MLSFH) (N = 1, 559 ...


Keeping Girls In Schools To Reduce Child Marriage In Rural Bangladesh—Research Brief And Baseline Highlights, Sigma Ainul, Md. Noorunnabi Talukder, Md. Irfan Hossain, Forhana Rahman Noor, Iqbal Ehsan, Sajeda Amin, Ubaidur Rob Apr 2020

Keeping Girls In Schools To Reduce Child Marriage In Rural Bangladesh—Research Brief And Baseline Highlights, Sigma Ainul, Md. Noorunnabi Talukder, Md. Irfan Hossain, Forhana Rahman Noor, Iqbal Ehsan, Sajeda Amin, Ubaidur Rob

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Bangladesh has made considerable progress in improving access to education at all levels for the last two decades. Despite these impressive gains, Bangladesh continues to face challenges of student dropout at the secondary level. Girls drop out of school earlier than boys because of child marriage. Targeted policies and interventions designed to improve mainstream educational attainment and decrease child marriage may be the effective and sustainable way to address both issues. The Population Council implemented the project “Keeping Girls in Schools to Reduce Child Marriage in Rural Bangladesh.” An intervention research study, the project tests a life-skills and tutoring support ...


Keeping Girls In Schools To Reduce Child Marriage In Rural Bangladesh—Program Brief, Population Council Jan 2020

Keeping Girls In Schools To Reduce Child Marriage In Rural Bangladesh—Program Brief, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

For the last two decades, Bangladesh has made considerable progress in improving access to education at all levels. Despite these gains, the country continues to face challenges from student dropout at the secondary level. Girls drop out of school earlier than boys because of child marriage. Targeted policies and interventions designed to improve educational attainment and decrease child marriage may be an effective and sustainable way to address both issues. The Population Council implemented an intervention research study to test a life-skills and tutoring support model to reduce school dropout among secondary-school girls and enhance livelihood skills for unmarried girls ...


School Related Violence, Sanitation Facilities At School, And Menstrual Hygiene Management: What Is The Evidence For Their Effect On School Attendance And Learning, And How Might Population Scientists Advance This Research Agenda?, Barbara Mensch Jan 2017

School Related Violence, Sanitation Facilities At School, And Menstrual Hygiene Management: What Is The Evidence For Their Effect On School Attendance And Learning, And How Might Population Scientists Advance This Research Agenda?, Barbara Mensch

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

No abstract provided.


Ensuring Adolescents In Bihar Stay—And Learn—In School, Sapna Desai, Neelanjana Pandey, Ashish Kumar Gupta Jan 2017

Ensuring Adolescents In Bihar Stay—And Learn—In School, Sapna Desai, Neelanjana Pandey, Ashish Kumar Gupta

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The Government of India has invested in improving education through two key programs for universal access to, and retention in, secondary education. In Bihar, the Population Council found high levels of enrollment among younger adolescents, with limited gender disparity. Retention beyond elementary school, however, was low, and learning outcomes—literacy and numeracy—were poor. This policy brief focuses on two challenges to preparing Bihar's adolescents for the future: universal enrollment and retention in secondary school. The brief outlines recommendations that the government invest in secondary schooling, improve school facilities, support and evaluate quality teaching inputs and curriculum changes, remove ...


Ensuring Adolescents In Uttar Pradesh Stay—And Learn—In School, Sapna Desai, Neelanjana Pandey Jan 2017

Ensuring Adolescents In Uttar Pradesh Stay—And Learn—In School, Sapna Desai, Neelanjana Pandey

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The Government of India has invested in improving education through two key programs for universal access to, and retention in, secondary education. In Uttar Pradesh, the Population Council found high levels of enrollment among younger adolescents, with limited gender disparity. Retention beyond elementary school, however, was low, and learning outcomes—literacy and numeracy—were poor. This policy brief focuses on two challenges to preparing Uttar Pradesh’s adolescents for the future: universal enrollment and retention in secondary school. The brief outlines recommendations that the government invest in secondary schooling, improve school facilities, support and evaluate quality teaching inputs and curriculum ...


Ensuring Adolescents In Uttar Pradesh Stay—And Learn—In School [Hindi], Sapna Desai, Neelanjana Pandey Jan 2017

Ensuring Adolescents In Uttar Pradesh Stay—And Learn—In School [Hindi], Sapna Desai, Neelanjana Pandey

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The Government of India has invested in improving education through two key programs for universal access to, and retention in, secondary education. In Uttar Pradesh, the Population Council found high levels of enrollment among younger adolescents, with limited gender disparity. Retention beyond elementary school, however, was low, and learning outcomes—literacy and numeracy—were poor. This policy brief focuses on two challenges to preparing Uttar Pradesh’s adolescents for the future: universal enrollment and retention in secondary school. The brief outlines recommendations that the government invest in secondary schooling, improve school facilities, support and evaluate quality teaching inputs and curriculum ...


Measuring Gender Equality In Education: Lessons From 43 Countries, Stephanie Psaki, Katharine Mccarthy, Barbara Mensch Jan 2017

Measuring Gender Equality In Education: Lessons From 43 Countries, Stephanie Psaki, Katharine Mccarthy, Barbara Mensch

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Through the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), governments committed to achieving universal secondary school completion, including eliminating gender disparities, by 2030. The period from 1997 to 2014 saw considerable progress in closing gender gaps in school enrollment and attainment in many, but not all, low- and middle-income countries. However, as this research brief explains, claims that gender parity in primary education now exists are premature, especially in the poorest countries and new gender gaps, or gender-related challenges, may emerge as attainment increases. Moreover, the extremely low levels of secondary school enrollment—and even moreso completion—demonstrate that the SDG target ...


Engaging Parents To Promote Girls' Transition To Secondary Education: Evidence From A Cluster Randomised Trial In Rural Gujarat, India, K.G. Santhya, A.J. Francis Zavier, Pallavi Patel, Neeta Shah Jan 2016

Engaging Parents To Promote Girls' Transition To Secondary Education: Evidence From A Cluster Randomised Trial In Rural Gujarat, India, K.G. Santhya, A.J. Francis Zavier, Pallavi Patel, Neeta Shah

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The Population Council and partners, with the support of the Human Dignity Foundation and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, implemented a pilot intervention in India─Project Sankalp─to assess the acceptability and feasibility of engaging parents and communities to promote girls’ secondary education. The project's aim was to measure its effectiveness in improving adolescent girls’ transition to secondary education, their attendance at school, and learning outcomes. Findings show that the effect of Project Sankalp on creating an enabling environment for girls to pursue secondary education was mixed. On the positive side, the project showed success in ...


Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (Agep): Program Overview, Population Council Jan 2015

Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (Agep): Program Overview, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

For Zambian girls, social isolation, economic vulnerability, and lack of appropriate health information and services are critical problems that prevent a healthy transition from girlhood to womanhood. The challenges that girls are confronted with—high rates of gender-based violence, unsafe sex that puts girls at risk for unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection, school dropout, lack of economic resources and income-generating options, lack of agency and participation—are linked together through their root causes. Therefore, the solutions must be interconnected as well. Through the Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program (AGEP), the Population Council and partners are implementing a social, health, and economic ...


Balika Fact Sheet: Highlight On Schooling, Population Council Jan 2014

Balika Fact Sheet: Highlight On Schooling, Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

School attendance is universal in the Bangladeshi Association for Life Skills, Income, and Knowledge for Adolescents (BALIKA) study area, but the persistence of early and child marriage leads to high dropout rates among girls. Compulsory primary education is free in Bangladesh, and policies to improve access to schooling are generally credited with universal schooling at young ages. Only 1 percent of 12–15-year-olds have never attended school compared to 9 percent among 15–18-year-olds in the study area. The recent expansion of educational opportunity presents new challenges. Bangladesh is unusual by global comparison in the high proportion of girls who ...


Priorités Pour L'Éducation Des Adolescentes, Cynthia B. Lloyd Jan 2012

Priorités Pour L'Éducation Des Adolescentes, Cynthia B. Lloyd

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

L’adolescence marque une période de croissance et de développement rapides sur le plan physique, affectif, et cognitif. Côté féminin, il s’agit d’une étape de la vie durant laquelle l’éducation, si elle est efficace, peut être transformatrice. Un problème majeur, dans la plupart des pays en développement, est que les systèmes d’éducation en place ne cernent et ne réalisent pas leur potentiel d’autonomisation des adolescentes en les dotant de compétences économiquement productives. L’éducation des filles durant l’adolescence peut les tenir à l’abri des risques d’une initiation sexuelle précoce, différer le mariage ...


Increasing Opportunities To Delay Marriage And Promote Schooling: Results From A Baseline Survey In Rural Tanzania, Eunice N. Muthengi, Annabel Erulkar Jan 2012

Increasing Opportunities To Delay Marriage And Promote Schooling: Results From A Baseline Survey In Rural Tanzania, Eunice N. Muthengi, Annabel Erulkar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This research brief describes girls' experience of early marriage, education, and sexual behavior in the Tabora region of Tanzania. Research shows that a considerable proportion of girls married early, have only limited discussions on health issues with their spouses, experience intimate partner violence, and have high unmet need for family planning. Tabora Development Foundation Trust, in partnership with the Population Council, is implementing strategies—including community awareness, support to get girls back into school and keep them there, and conditional transfers—to increase marriage age in the rural Tabora region. The goal is to identify effective, sustainable, and cost-effective approaches ...


Priorities For Adolescent Girls' Education, Cynthia B. Lloyd Jan 2012

Priorities For Adolescent Girls' Education, Cynthia B. Lloyd

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and development physically, emotionally, and cognitively. For girls it is a stage of life during which education, when effectively provided, can be transformative. One of the most significant problems in most developing countries is the failure of education systems to realize their potential for empowering adolescent girls by providing economically productive skills. Education during adolescence can protect girls from the risks of premature sexual initiation and allow them to postpone marriage and childbearing and experience a childhood without the burden of excessive domestic work. Schools have the potential to fully empower girls to ...


Berhane Hewan ('Light For Eve'): Increasing Opportunities To Delay Marriage And Promote Schooling, Annabel Erulkar, Eunice N. Muthengi Jan 2012

Berhane Hewan ('Light For Eve'): Increasing Opportunities To Delay Marriage And Promote Schooling, Annabel Erulkar, Eunice N. Muthengi

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This policy brief describes the findings of a pilot study on girls’ experience of early marriage, education, and sexual behavior in rural Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The brief also discusses efforts in the region to delay marriage and promote girls’ schooling. The Amhara Bureau of Women, Children and Youth Affairs and the Population Council pilot-tested a program to delay marriage and support schooling in rural Amhara Region. The program, entitled Berhane Hewan (Amharic for “Light for Eve”), included community conversations, support for remaining in school, and conditional cash transfers if girls remained unmarried and in school for the duration of the ...


Girls' Schooling In Developing Countries: Highlights From Population Council Research, Cynthia B. Lloyd Jan 2011

Girls' Schooling In Developing Countries: Highlights From Population Council Research, Cynthia B. Lloyd

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

As more girls from developing countries attend school into their teens, the importance of schooling experiences and school quality for adolescent sexual and reproductive health, as well as for girls’ successful transitions to adult roles, is clear. The Population Council’s research on schooling seeks to foster a deeper understanding of the patterns and trends in schooling for girls and more particularly the relationship between experiences in school, school quality, and various adolescent outcomes. Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief No. 24 summarizes highlights from this research program under five subtopics: the demography of schooling; school attendance ...


Summary Of New Lessons: The Power Of Educating Adolescent Girls, Cynthia B. Lloyd Jan 2011

Summary Of New Lessons: The Power Of Educating Adolescent Girls, Cynthia B. Lloyd

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Over the past 15 years, girls’ education in the developing world has been a story of progress, as noted in Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief No. 33. Interest from the development community has grown steadily in response to evidence documenting the benefits of girls’ schooling, and female education is now a major part of global development commitments. Education helps adolescent girls avoid long working hours and early pregnancies, and lowers risk of HIV/AIDS, and secondary education offers greater prospects of remunerative employment. But according to a 2008 United Nations report, 113 countries failed to reach ...


La Educación De Las Niñas En Países En Desarrollo: Aspectos Destacados De La Investigación Del Population Council, Cynthia B. Lloyd Jan 2011

La Educación De Las Niñas En Países En Desarrollo: Aspectos Destacados De La Investigación Del Population Council, Cynthia B. Lloyd

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

A medida que más niñas asisten a la escuela en la adolescencia, la importancia de las experiencias escolares y la calidad de las escuelas para la salud reproductiva y sexual de las adolescentes, así como para una exitosa transición a la edad adulta, es clara. La investigación del Population Council sobre educación busca comprender mejor los patrones y las tendencias en la educación para niñas y más particularmente la relación entre las experiencias escolares, la calidad de las escuelas, y las diversas consecuencias para los adolescentes. Promoción de transiciones a la vida adulta: Sanas, seguras y productivas N° 24 resume ...


Investigating School Quality And Learning Outcomes Among Adolescents In Malawi, Christine A. Kelly Jan 2011

Investigating School Quality And Learning Outcomes Among Adolescents In Malawi, Christine A. Kelly

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Education, particularly at the primary level, has long been regarded as an essential input of social and economic development. In addition to its role in increasing the cognitive abilities of students, schooling is recognized as a facilitator of labor force participation, female empowerment, improved health outcomes, and greater civic engagement. As one of the early pioneers in sub-Saharan Africa of free primary education, Malawi’s enrollment figures compare favorably with those of its neighbors in southern Africa. However, as noted in Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood Brief No. 34, primary school completion rates stand at just 35 ...


New Lessons: The Power Of Educating Adolescent Girls—A Girls Count Report On Adolescent Girls, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Juliet Young Jan 2009

New Lessons: The Power Of Educating Adolescent Girls—A Girls Count Report On Adolescent Girls, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Juliet Young

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The authors of this book demonstrate that education for girls during adolescence can be transformative, and they identify a broad array of promising educational approaches which should be evaluated for their impact. New Lessons provides data and analysis from research on more than 300 programs and projects for adolescent girls. It offers evidence on how proven practices, including scholarships for girls and the recruitment and training of female teachers, can increase the number of adolescent girls attending school and highlights the pedagogical approaches that enhance learning and employment.


Marriage Considerations In Sending Girls To School In Bangladesh: Some Qualitative Evidence, Sajeda Amin, Lopita Huq Jan 2008

Marriage Considerations In Sending Girls To School In Bangladesh: Some Qualitative Evidence, Sajeda Amin, Lopita Huq

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This working paper analyzes parents’ decisions about girls’ schooling in the context of marriage through in-depth exploration of case studies in two rural areas of northern Bangladesh. The villages are sites of a long-term community study from 1991 and 2002, a time when significant changes were underway, partly as a result of new school incentive programs introduced in 1994. The data show that the rise of dowry demands, a relatively recent practice that is barely a generation old among Muslims in these areas, asserts an important and independent influence on marriage decisions and indirectly influences decisions about schooling. The influence ...


Teacher Absence As A Factor In Gender Inequalities In Access To Primary Schooling In Rural Pakistan, Sharon Ghuman, Cynthia B. Lloyd Jan 2007

Teacher Absence As A Factor In Gender Inequalities In Access To Primary Schooling In Rural Pakistan, Sharon Ghuman, Cynthia B. Lloyd

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This paper examines the case of Pakistan, where primary school enrollment among girls in rural areas is substantially lower than among children in urban areas and boys in rural areas, owing to lack of access to government girls’ schools. The focus is on teacher absence as a further barrier to schooling for girls. Using data from a panel study of primary schooling in rural Punjab and NWFP in 1997 and 2004, the report examines trends in teacher absence, examine the factors correlated with teacher absence in the government and private sector, and assesses the implications of these absence levels for ...


Premarital Sex And Schooling Transitions In Four Sub-Saharan African Countries, Ann E. Biddlecom, Richard Gregory, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Barbara Mensch Jan 2007

Premarital Sex And Schooling Transitions In Four Sub-Saharan African Countries, Ann E. Biddlecom, Richard Gregory, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Barbara Mensch

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda, this Population Council working paper investigates the timing of two key transitions in adolescence—school exit and premarital sex—among those who remain enrolled in school at the beginning of adolescence (age 12). Girls appear more vulnerable to dropout once they become sexually mature and once they engage in premarital sex. While girls were found to be less likely than boys, at any given age and controlling for other covariates, to have had premarital sex (except in Ghana), school enrollment and the timing ...


Evaluación De Las Múltiples Desventajas De Las Niñas Mayas: Efectos Del Género, El Origen Étnico, La Pobreza Y El Lugar De Residencia Sobre La Educación En Guatemala, Kelly Hallman, Sara Peracca, Jennifer Catino, Marta Julia Ruiz Jan 2007

Evaluación De Las Múltiples Desventajas De Las Niñas Mayas: Efectos Del Género, El Origen Étnico, La Pobreza Y El Lugar De Residencia Sobre La Educación En Guatemala, Kelly Hallman, Sara Peracca, Jennifer Catino, Marta Julia Ruiz

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Aunque el acceso a la educación primaria en Guatemala se incrementó en los últimos años, especialmente en las áreas rurales, los índices de finalización de escuela primaria y de alfabetismo corespondeientes a personas jóvenes continúan estando entre los más bajos de Latinoamérica, y persisten otros problemas como el ingreso tardío, la repetición de cursos y el abandono temprano. Se estima que el índice de alfabetismo entre adultos es del 85 por ciento en Latinoamérica en general, comparado con sólo un 70 por ciento en Guatemala. Aunque los pueblos indígenas en Latinoamérica por lo general tienen menos escolaridad que los no ...


Fewer And Better-Educated Children: Expanded Choices In Schooling And Fertility In Rural Pakistan, Zeba Sathar, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Minhaj Ul Haque, Mumraiz Khan, Monica J. Grant Jan 2006

Fewer And Better-Educated Children: Expanded Choices In Schooling And Fertility In Rural Pakistan, Zeba Sathar, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Minhaj Ul Haque, Mumraiz Khan, Monica J. Grant

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This report presents the results of a longitudinal study of changing educational opportunities in rural Punjab and N.W.F.P. from 1997 to 2004. The purpose of the study was to answer two major research questions: what were the effects of changes in schooling opportunities in the community over the past six years on enrollment and attainment, and what were the effects on family planning and fertility behavior? This study builds on an earlier study undertaken in 1997. As noted in this report, the study is innovative in several ways: (1) it is longitudinal; (2) it combines consideration of ...


The Implications Of Changing Educational And Family Circumstances For Children's Grade Progression In Rural Pakistan: 1997-2004, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Cem Mete, Monica J. Grant Jan 2006

The Implications Of Changing Educational And Family Circumstances For Children's Grade Progression In Rural Pakistan: 1997-2004, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Cem Mete, Monica J. Grant

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This Population Council working paper assesses the effects of primary school characteristics, household characteristics, and recent household economic and demographic shocks on school dropout rates during the first eight grades in rural Punjab and North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. While grade retention has improved over the past six years, dropout rates for girls remain fairly high, particularly at the end of primary school (grade five). The results of this study show clearly the complementary nature of supply and demand factors in determining grade progression in rural Pakistan, particularly for girls. The results suggest that substantial improvement in the schooling environment ...


Multiple Disadvantages Of Mayan Females: The Effects Of Gender, Ethnicity, Poverty, And Residence On Education In Guatemala, Kelly Hallman, Sara Peracca, Jennifer Catino, Marta Julia Ruiz Jan 2006

Multiple Disadvantages Of Mayan Females: The Effects Of Gender, Ethnicity, Poverty, And Residence On Education In Guatemala, Kelly Hallman, Sara Peracca, Jennifer Catino, Marta Julia Ruiz

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Although access to primary education in Guatemala has increased in recent years, particularly in rural areas, levels of educational attainment and literacy remain among the lowest in Latin America. Inequalities in school access and grade attainment linked to ethnicity, gender, poverty, and residence remain. Age trends show that Mayan females are the least likely to ever enroll, and, if they do enroll, start school the latest and drop out earliest. Innovative programs for girls that combine instruction with social interaction in safe local community spaces may increase their educational attainment and their social networks and means of social support. In ...


Poverty And Children's Schooling In Urban And Rural Senegal [Arabic], Mark R. Montgomery, Paul C. Hewett Jan 2005

Poverty And Children's Schooling In Urban And Rural Senegal [Arabic], Mark R. Montgomery, Paul C. Hewett

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This paper presents findings of an investigation into the effects of living standards and relative poverty on children’s schooling in urban and rural areas of Senegal. To measure living standards, we apply a multiple-indicator, multiple-cause (MIMIC) factor-analytic model to a set of proxy variables collected in the 2000 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey and extract an estimate of the relative standard of living for each household. Using this estimate, we find that in Senegal’s urban areas, living standards exert substantial influence on three measures of schooling: Whether a child has ever attended school; whether he or she has completed ...


Gender Differences In Time Use Among Adolescents In Developing Countries: Implications Of Rising School Enrollment Rates, Amanda Ritchie, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Monica J. Grant Jan 2004

Gender Differences In Time Use Among Adolescents In Developing Countries: Implications Of Rising School Enrollment Rates, Amanda Ritchie, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Monica J. Grant

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Researchers at the Population Council have been involved in the collection of data on time use from adolescents in India, Kenya, Pakistan, and South Africa. Three questions are addressed in this working paper: (1) How does time use change during the transition to adulthood? (2) Does gender role differentiation intensify during the transition? (3) Does school attendance attenuate gender differences? The data document differences in time use patterns between students and nonstudents. Although female adolescent students still work longer hours than male adolescent students, the gender division of labor that typically develops during adolescence is greatly attenuated among students when ...


Growing Up In Pakistan: The Separate Experiences Of Males And Females, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Monica J. Grant Jan 2004

Growing Up In Pakistan: The Separate Experiences Of Males And Females, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Monica J. Grant

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This Population Council working paper examines gender differences in transitions to adulthood in Pakistan. The survey covers key aspects of adolescents’ lives, including the timing of several adult transitions and a detailed accounting of time use over the previous 24 hours. The results of the analysis confirm the fundamental importance of schooling to transitions to adulthood. Those without any schooling, which still includes 15 percent of young men and 46 percent of young women, assume the work burdens of adults prematurely and are deprived of the opportunity for learning in an institutional setting outside the family. Those who do attend ...