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Full-Text Articles in Education

Reinstatement Candidate Credentialing Exam Performance: Evaluating The Persistence Of Misinformed Responses On Multiple Choice Items, Ben Babcock, Zachary D. Siegel Apr 2022

Reinstatement Candidate Credentialing Exam Performance: Evaluating The Persistence Of Misinformed Responses On Multiple Choice Items, Ben Babcock, Zachary D. Siegel

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Research about repeated testing has revealed that retaking the same exam form generally does not advantage or disadvantage failing candidates in selected response-style credentialing exams. Feinberg, Raymond, and Haist (2015) found a contributing factor to this phenomenon: people answering items incorrectly on both attempts give the same incorrect response about 2/3 of the time. They concluded that examinees are misinformed, rather than uninformed, about these items. The current research investigated whether reinstatement candidates followed similar patterns. Reinstatement candidates are people that obtain a credential, later discontinue the credential, then retake the exam to regain the credential. Data came from ...


The Program To Reduce Implicit Bias In Carroll Hospital Center Using The Implicit Association Test, Katherine E. Traynor Jan 2022

The Program To Reduce Implicit Bias In Carroll Hospital Center Using The Implicit Association Test, Katherine E. Traynor

Capstone Showcase

Natural brain processes make all individuals susceptible to unconscious bias; however, stressful, fearful, or anger-evoking situations as well as the negative influence of media and social surroundings increase the risk of holding obstructive bias, and there is a greater risk of being negatively impacted by this phenomenon when belonging to a minority population (Rose & Flores, 2020). As a result, high rates of infant mortality (10.2 deaths per 1,000 live births for the Non-Hispanic Black population compared to 4.1 in the White population) and cardiovascular related diseases (190.0 cases per 1,000 in the Non-Hispanic Black population ...


Understanding The Comparative Fit Index: It's All About The Base!, Saskia Van Laar, Johan Braeken Dec 2021

Understanding The Comparative Fit Index: It's All About The Base!, Saskia Van Laar, Johan Braeken

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Despite the sensitivity of fit indices to various model and data characteristics in structural equation modeling, these fit indices are used in a rigid binary fashion as a mere rule of thumb threshold value in a search for model adequacy. Here, we address the behavior and interpretation of the popular Comparative Fit Index (CFI) by stressing that its metric for model assessment is the amount of misspecification in a baseline model and by further decomposition into its fundamental components: sample size, number of variables and the degree of multivariate dependence in the data. Simulation results show how these components influence ...


Embedded Accommodation And Accessibility Support Usage On A Computer-Based Statewide Achievement Test, Dukjae Lee, Heather Buzick, Stephen G. Sireci, Mina Lee, Cara Laitusis Dec 2021

Embedded Accommodation And Accessibility Support Usage On A Computer-Based Statewide Achievement Test, Dukjae Lee, Heather Buzick, Stephen G. Sireci, Mina Lee, Cara Laitusis

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Although there has been substantial research on the effects of test accommodations on students’ performance, there has been far less research on students’ use of embedded accommodations and other accessibility supports at the item and whole test level in operational testing programs. Data on embedded accessibility supports from digital logs generated by computer-based assessment platforms are complex, and so decisions need to be made to make sense of the data with respect to appropriate and effective accommodation use. In this study we explored different ways of defining students’ use of accessibility supports and how to best summarize such use for ...


Student Attitudes Toward Science: Growth Trajectories And Thematic Analysis Of A Project-Based Internship, Robert Donavin Mccreary Dec 2021

Student Attitudes Toward Science: Growth Trajectories And Thematic Analysis Of A Project-Based Internship, Robert Donavin Mccreary

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In order to increase the number of students pursuing science-related careers, science educators and policymakers have advocated for improving student attitudes toward science (SAS) through inquiry-based instruction, such as project-based learning (PBL). While challenges exist in PBL, research suggests cogenerative dialogue (cogen) can ease the transition for students from traditional learning to PBL. In the present study, a secondary analysis was conducted to examine SAS growth trajectories from participants of the Work With A Scientist Program (WWASP) – a student-scientist internship which integrated cogen with PBL. Additionally, a thematic analysis was conducted to explore student attitudes toward cogen. The growth curve ...


Multiracial Individuals And Educational Testing, Karen Alexander Oct 2021

Multiracial Individuals And Educational Testing, Karen Alexander

The Nebraska Educator: A Student-Led Journal

A literature review focused on quantitative measures and methods regarding multiracial individuals and educational testing revealed that multiracial individuals are uniquely different than monoracial individuals in terms of their racial identity and these unique identities interact with test scores. Until recently, this uniqueness has been ignored by institutions and within the field of educational testing. The uniqueness of multiracial identity should be taken into consideration when using test measures to make decisions for selection and when comparing group outcomes. The review provides a brief picture regarding the history of categorization of multiracial individuals and current research which connects the multiracial ...


Investigating The Fit Of The Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (Ggum) When Calibrated To Irt Generated Data From Dominance And Ideal Point Models, Abdulla Alzarouni Jul 2021

Investigating The Fit Of The Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (Ggum) When Calibrated To Irt Generated Data From Dominance And Ideal Point Models, Abdulla Alzarouni

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

The assessment of model fit in latent trait modelling, better known as item response theory (IRT), is an integral part of model testing if one is to make valid inferences about the estimated parameters and their properties based on the selected IRT model. Though important, the assessment of model fit has been less utilized in IRT research than it should. For example, there have been less research investigating fit for polytomous dominance models such the Graded Response Model (GRM), and to a lesser extent ideal point models such as the Generalized Graded Unfolding Models (GGUM), both in its dichotomous and ...


Conditional Standard Error Of Measurement: Classical Test Theory, Generalizability Theory And Many-Facet Rasch Measurement With Applications To Writing Assessment, Alan Huebner, Gustaf B. Skar Jun 2021

Conditional Standard Error Of Measurement: Classical Test Theory, Generalizability Theory And Many-Facet Rasch Measurement With Applications To Writing Assessment, Alan Huebner, Gustaf B. Skar

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

Writing assessments often consist of students responding to multiple prompts, which are judged by more than one rater. To establish the reliability of these assessments, there exist different methods to disentangle variation due to prompts and raters, including classical test theory, Many Facet Rasch Measurement (MFRM), and Generalizability Theory (G-Theory). Each of these methods defines a standard error of measurement (SEM), which is a quantity that summarizes the overall variability of student scores. However, less attention has been given to conditional SEMs (CSEM), which expresses the variability for scores of individual students. This tutorial summarizes how to obtain CSEMs for ...


Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line, Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples May 2021

Rasch Measurement V. Item Response Theory: Knowing When To Cross The Line, Steven E. Stemler, Adam Naples

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation

When students receive the same score on a test, does that mean they know the same amount about the topic? The answer to this question is more complex than it may first appear. This paper compares classical and modern test theories in terms of how they estimate student ability. Crucial distinctions between the aims of Rasch Measurement and IRT are highlighted. By modeling a second parameter (item discrimination) and allowing item characteristic curves to cross, as IRT models do, more information is incorporated into the estimate of person ability, but the measurement scale is no longer guaranteed to have the ...


Getting Caught-Up In The Process: Does It Really Matter?, Nikole Gregg May 2021

Getting Caught-Up In The Process: Does It Really Matter?, Nikole Gregg

Dissertations, 2020-current

Likert items are the most commonly used item-type for measuring attitudes and beliefs. However, responses from Likert items are often plagued with construct-irrelevant variance due to response style behavior. In other words, variability from Likert-item scores can be parsed into: 1) variance pertinent to the construct or trait of interest, and 2) variance irrelevant to the construct or trait of interest. Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) is an increasingly common modeling approach to parse out information regarding the response style traits and the trait of interest. These MIRT approaches are categorized into threshold-based approaches and response process approaches. An increasingly ...


Assessment And Learning In Knowledge Spaces (Aleks) Adaptive System Impact On Students' Perception And Self-Regulated Learning Skills, Honda Harati, Laura Sujo-Montes, Chih-Hsiung Tu, Shadow J.W. Armfield, Cherng-Jyh Yen Jan 2021

Assessment And Learning In Knowledge Spaces (Aleks) Adaptive System Impact On Students' Perception And Self-Regulated Learning Skills, Honda Harati, Laura Sujo-Montes, Chih-Hsiung Tu, Shadow J.W. Armfield, Cherng-Jyh Yen

Educational Foundations & Leadership Faculty Publications

Adaptive learning is an educational method that uses computer algorithms and artificial intelligence (AI) to customize learning materials and activities based on each user's model. Adaptive learning has been used for more than 20 years. However, it is still unique, and no other system could bring more or even similar capabilities than the ones adaptive technology offers, including the application of AI, psychology, psychometrics, machine learning, and providing a personalized learning environment. However, there are not many studies on its practicality, usefulness, improving students' learning skills, students' perception, etc., due to the limited number of institutes investing in this ...


It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham Dec 2020

It’S All The Rage: An Animated Approach To Screening For Postpartum Depression, Amanda Gorham

Doctoral Dissertations

Postpartum depression presents a complication for mothers which can, in some cases, be severe and even life-threatening. Instruments commonly used to screen for this psychological condition have been challenged by an extensive body of literature, with many mothers being unidentified and even untreated for their symptoms. The presented research introduces a newly developed screening instrument for detecting probable postpartum depression using text-free scenario-based animations, based on the lived experience of the condition as qualified by empirical research and the existing body of literature. Developed items were controlled for quality via Think Aloud Protocol and alignment studies with subject matter experts ...


Who Are We Missing? The Impact Of Requiring Parental Or Guardian Consent On Research With Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Two-Spirit, Queer/Questioning Youth., Eli Cwinn, Courtney Cadieux, Claire V Crooks Oct 2020

Who Are We Missing? The Impact Of Requiring Parental Or Guardian Consent On Research With Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Two-Spirit, Queer/Questioning Youth., Eli Cwinn, Courtney Cadieux, Claire V Crooks

Education Publications

PURPOSE: The purpose was to examine whether a requirement for parental or guardian consent systematically limits which lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, two-spirit, queer/questioning (LGBT2Q+) youth participate in research.

METHODS: A total of 60 LGBT2Q+ youth (aged 14-18 years) completed measures assessing gender and sexual minority identity, depression and anxiety, help-seeking intentions, and social support.

RESULTS: A substantial proportion (37.6%) of youth reported that they would not have participated in the research if parental or guardian consent was required. Those who would not have participated had more negative attitudes about their sexual and gender identity, less family support, lower ...


Student Voices In Teacher Evaluation: A Multilevel, Latent Factor Investigation Of Teacher Quality, Kathleen J. Hoff Jan 2020

Student Voices In Teacher Evaluation: A Multilevel, Latent Factor Investigation Of Teacher Quality, Kathleen J. Hoff

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Teacher effectiveness is a key driver of student achievement but persistently difficult to measure. Although precollege student surveys are one cost-effective alternative to traditional observation measures, little empirical research has been conducted on their factor structure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the Tripod Survey, a widely adopted precollege survey, as a measure of teacher effectiveness. The dataset was the Measures of Effective Teaching (Year 1, N = 1,024 Grade 9 classroom sections, 20,500 students; Year 2, N = 488 Grade 9 classroom sections, 8,658 students). The dynamic model of educational effectiveness guided the ...


Heterogenous Trajectories Of Depressive Symptoms From Adolescence To Young Adulthood: Non-Cognitive Risk Factors And Labor Market Outcomes, Jessica Nicole Gladstone Jan 2020

Heterogenous Trajectories Of Depressive Symptoms From Adolescence To Young Adulthood: Non-Cognitive Risk Factors And Labor Market Outcomes, Jessica Nicole Gladstone

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Depression commonly emerges during adolescence and is conservatively estimated to affect up to 12.5% of 12- to 17-year-olds annually (Clayborne, Varin & Colman, 2019). Prior longitudinal analyses have identified significant heterogeneity in the level and growth of depressive symptoms during the transitional period from adolescence to young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to follow one representative cohort during this transition to identify non-cognitive, in-school risk factors for atypical depression trajectories and contextualizing them using impactful labor market outcomes. Latent growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to assess and classify depressive symptom change trajectories using four occasions of measurement ...


Evaluation Of Modern Missing Data Handling Methods For Coefficient Alpha, Katerina Matysova Dec 2019

Evaluation Of Modern Missing Data Handling Methods For Coefficient Alpha, Katerina Matysova

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

When assessing a certain characteristic or trait using a multiple item measure, quality of that measure can be assessed by examining the reliability. To avoid multiple time points, reliability can be represented by internal consistency, which is most commonly calculated using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Almost every time human participants are involved in research, there is missing data involved. Missing data means that even though complete data were expected to be collected, some data are missing. Missing data can follow different patterns as well as be the result of different mechanisms. One traditional way to deal with missing data is ...


Examining The Effects Of Specifying Bayesian Priors On The Wald's Test For Dif, Paulius Satkus, Christine E. Demars Oct 2019

Examining The Effects Of Specifying Bayesian Priors On The Wald's Test For Dif, Paulius Satkus, Christine E. Demars

Department of Graduate Psychology - Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


An Applied Example Of A Two-Tier Multiple-Group Testlet Model, Paulius Satkus, Christine E. Demars Oct 2019

An Applied Example Of A Two-Tier Multiple-Group Testlet Model, Paulius Satkus, Christine E. Demars

Department of Graduate Psychology - Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Examining Relations Between Executive Functions And Decoding: A Meta-Analytic Investigation, Teresa Ober Sep 2019

Examining Relations Between Executive Functions And Decoding: A Meta-Analytic Investigation, Teresa Ober

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Introduction: The Simple View of Reading (SVR) is one of several established models of reading that present decoding and linguistic comprehension as critical skills in the development of reading competencies. Previous research has highlighted the connection between reading comprehension and cognitive skills, including those which fall under the term of executive functions (EF; for a review, see Follmer, 2018). EF may also be critical in the development of decoding. According to the dual route model of word recognition (Coltheart, 2006), decoding involves two separable processes; the phonological route, involving encoding and retrieval of letter-sound associations (also called phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules ...


Context And Regulation Of Homeschooling: Issues, Evidence, And Assessment Practices, Janet F. Carlson Aug 2019

Context And Regulation Of Homeschooling: Issues, Evidence, And Assessment Practices, Janet F. Carlson

Publications of the Buros Center Professional Staff

The article discusses salient factors that influence the current context within which homeschooling occurs. Individual states have applied various approaches to establish regulations that both preserve the rights of homeschooling parents and fulfill the state’s obligation to ensure that its residents receive the education to which they are constitutionally entitled. Case and ethnographic studies or research involving small and selected samples often appear in outlets associated with homeschool advocacy groups or in outlets that are not mainstream. The paucity of empirical evidence derived from methodologically strong research paradigms has led to little certainty about many aspects of homeschooling including ...


An Analytical Study About The Dialectical Use Of Statistical Significance In Psychological And Educational Research, عايش صباح Dr Jul 2019

An Analytical Study About The Dialectical Use Of Statistical Significance In Psychological And Educational Research, عايش صباح Dr

International Journal for Research in Education

The statistical significance has been adopted more than 300 years ago, It has served an important purpose in promoting research in social sciences, however, there has been much controversy over the misuse and interpretation of the statistical significance test.Compelling criticisms of statistical significance testing can be found in virtually all areas of the social and life sciences, economics, sociology, education and psychology. Because it is the overwhelmingly dominant statistical method in these sciences, criticisms need to be taken seriously.

Yet, after half a century of cogent arguments against statistical significance and calls to adopt alternative practices some disciplines, such ...


A Dimensional Risk Approach To Assessing Early Adversity In A National Sample, Sharon Wolf, Noelle Suntheimer May 2019

A Dimensional Risk Approach To Assessing Early Adversity In A National Sample, Sharon Wolf, Noelle Suntheimer

GSE Faculty Research

We examine how incidence and accumulation of two domains of risk factors—deprivation and threat of harm—predict early childhood development, testing a framework put forth by McLaughlin and Sheridan (2016). Using the ECLSK: 11 (N = 18,200, M = 5.6 years; 48.7% female), a nationally representative sample of kindergarteners, we consider behavioral and cognitive indicators that represent different learning processes. We find partial support for the hypothesis that deprivation (but not threat) risks predict higher-order learning outcomes, with both incidence and accumulation of risk negatively predicting reading scores but mixed associations for executive function outcomes. We find support ...


Test Emotions, Value, And Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Model Predicting Examinee Effort And Performance On A Low-Stakes Test, Paulius Satkus May 2019

Test Emotions, Value, And Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Model Predicting Examinee Effort And Performance On A Low-Stakes Test, Paulius Satkus

Masters Theses, 2010-2019

The validity of scores from low-stakes tests may be compromised by examinee motivation. Expectancy-Value theory (EV) has been used to frame the antecedents of examinee motivation in low-stakes testing contexts. According to EV theory, the perceived value of the test and the expectancy to succeed on the test directly affect examinee effort, which then affects test performance. Cross-sectional research studies in low-stakes testing contexts offer some support of EV theory. Control-Value theory (CV) serves as another theory to understand motivation toward a task. CV theory encompasses the constructs of expectancy and value from EV theory, but incorporates test emotions as ...


Stigma, Help-Seeking Behaviors, And Use Of Services Among College Students With Self-Reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Angelina Marie Feagin Jan 2019

Stigma, Help-Seeking Behaviors, And Use Of Services Among College Students With Self-Reported Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Angelina Marie Feagin

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

People experiencing mental health illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who do not receive mental health treatment services (MHTS) are at a higher risk of committing crimes. The research problem of this study was to fill the gap in the literature concerning gender, sex at birth, and gender identity differences as predictors of attitudes toward perceived stigma in help-seeking behavior (HSB) and use of MHTS. The sample size included 5,000 participants in the de-identified secondary data set of students from 26 universities and colleges across the United States. The Healthy Minds Study collected these data in 2016-2017 using ...


A Multilevel Factor Analytic Investigation Of The Learning-To-Learn Scales: A More Child-Centered Look At Dimensionality, Benjamin Pratt Brumley Jan 2019

A Multilevel Factor Analytic Investigation Of The Learning-To-Learn Scales: A More Child-Centered Look At Dimensionality, Benjamin Pratt Brumley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Children from low-income households are at risk for entering school behind their more economically advantaged peers across major domains of school readiness. The Head Start program represents the federal government’s response to these achievement gaps by mandating the use of scientifically based assessments and curricula to provide children with the necessary school readiness skills. Routine teacher-report assessment of children’s school readiness using scientifically validated assessments is key to effectively guide early childhood education. Approaches to Learning is one of the five domains of school readiness targeted by Head Start. The Learning-to-Learn Scales (LTLS) is currently the only multidimensional ...


An Exploration Of Deaf Education Through The Experiences Of Culturally Deaf Adults, Stephanie Beatty Jan 2019

An Exploration Of Deaf Education Through The Experiences Of Culturally Deaf Adults, Stephanie Beatty

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Deaf students have unique linguistic and cultural needs that are cultivated in social settings; however, these needs have received minimal consideration from school administrators and policy makers when designing and implementing educational programs. Inquiry regarding how Deaf people learn in social situations and whether these processes are present in formal educational settings is necessary to understand how to better serve this population in school. Observations were used to provide insight on how deaf people teach and learn from one another in social/informal settings. Individual interviews with 11 Deaf people ages 18 to 40 provided insight regarding personal experiences in ...


Understanding Of Self-Confidence In High School Students, George Ballane Jan 2019

Understanding Of Self-Confidence In High School Students, George Ballane

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Students at a private high school in New Jersey exhibited low academic self-confidence as compared to other indicators on the ACT Engage exam. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to gain an understanding of academic self-confidence, academic performance, and learning within a sample of students. This research explored students' and teachers' perceptions of self-confidence and their impact on academic performance. The research was guided by Weiner's attribution and Bandura's self-efficacy theories. The research questions focused on 3 areas: students' and teachers' perceptions of academic self-confidence as factors impacting students' academic performance; and the perceived relationship between ...


Resiliency Of Students Who Failed The State Of Texas Assessments Of Academic Readiness Exam, Tetaime Sherie Green Jan 2019

Resiliency Of Students Who Failed The State Of Texas Assessments Of Academic Readiness Exam, Tetaime Sherie Green

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The purpose of this study was to investigate former high school students' resilience following the administration of the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) exam based on the comparison of male and female students who passed the STAAR exam the first time and those who failed it at least 2 times. This study fills a gap in the literature by offering additional data and increased knowledge about the relationship of resiliency to school performance. A total of 133 adults aged 18-29 years who had been enrolled in 3 high schools in a large metropolitan area in Texas were ...


The Effects Of Expressive Writing On Emotional Intelligence In College Undergraduates, Elizabeth Harrington Walker Jan 2019

The Effects Of Expressive Writing On Emotional Intelligence In College Undergraduates, Elizabeth Harrington Walker

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Attending college is often so stressful that as many as 40% of students leave without earning a degree. Many students desert during their first and second years of study. Emotional intelligence has been associated with effective coping skills, student achievement, and psychological well-being. The act of expressing emotions through writing has been shown to engage many capabilities associated with emotional intelligence. Few studies have examined the effects of expressive writing on emotional intelligence. The theory of emotion regulation provided theoretical framework. The purpose of this quantitative experimental study was to examine the effects of expressive writing on emotional intelligence and ...


Using Bayesian Multilevel Models To Control For Multiplicity Among Means, Michael J. Zweifel Nov 2018

Using Bayesian Multilevel Models To Control For Multiplicity Among Means, Michael J. Zweifel

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

It is well known that the Type I error rate will exceed α when multiple hypothesis tests are conducted simultaneously. This is known as Type I error inflation. The probability of committing a Type I error grows monotonically as the number as the number of hypothesis being tested increases. A class of methods, known as multiple comparison procedures, has been developed to combat this issue. However, in turn for maintaining the Type I error rate below α, multiple comparison procedures sacrifice power to correctly reject false hypotheses. The loss of power is exacerbated when variance heterogeneity is present.

In the ...