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Psychology

1987

Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Education

The Application Of Program Evaluation Techniques To Improve Services For Emotionally Disturbed Children And Youth In Kentucky: Discussion Of A Statewide Needs Analysis Model And A Framework For Program Development, Vicki Phillips Dec 1987

The Application Of Program Evaluation Techniques To Improve Services For Emotionally Disturbed Children And Youth In Kentucky: Discussion Of A Statewide Needs Analysis Model And A Framework For Program Development, Vicki Phillips

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

No abstract provided.


Category Test And Wais Scores: Sex And Age Inter-Relationships, Julia Ann Shelton Jul 1987

Category Test And Wais Scores: Sex And Age Inter-Relationships, Julia Ann Shelton

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The current study investigated sex and age differences on the WAIS and Category Test in a sample of 218 persons, half male and half female, between the ages of 16 and 39. The sample was composed of well educated diabetics without neurological symptomatology and of above average intelligence.

Three types of statistical analyses were performed. The first of these were factor analyses of structural composition of WAIS and Category tests as influenced by sex. Results suggested that males and females exhibit different patterns of performance. The second analyses were regression analyses to predict Category Test performance from WAIS scores and ...


Provisions Of Public Law 94-142 As Perceived By Selected School Administrators And Parents: An Asset Or A Liability For The Administrator, Carmen Fernando Wilson Smith-Chandler Jun 1987

Provisions Of Public Law 94-142 As Perceived By Selected School Administrators And Parents: An Asset Or A Liability For The Administrator, Carmen Fernando Wilson Smith-Chandler

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

Purpose

A study of the literature revealed that ·one of the challenges of urban education is the nurturing and reeducating of parents and school administrators dealing with handicapped students as was mandated by the legislature, which was passed by the United States Congress and signed into effect by Gerald Ford ·on November 19, 1975. This is called Public Law 94-142, which ensured "free and appropriate" education for. all handicapped students and their: parents in our; educational system, but limits itself to the rights of the administrator. As it stands, parents, guardians, surrogates, parent advocates and school administrators are abreast of ...


Student Failure As Associated With Socio-Economic Status, Racial Ethnicity, And Single Parenting, B. Dan Green Jun 1987

Student Failure As Associated With Socio-Economic Status, Racial Ethnicity, And Single Parenting, B. Dan Green

College of Education

Academic failure is a problem in American schools all over the nation. Many factors play a part in the academic achievement of students. The purpose of this study is to investigate student academic failure among students from lower socio-economic status families as compared with students from families with a higher socio-economic status, with sub-groupings identifying students as to racial and ethnic backgrounds as well as those from single-parent homes. The test group for this survey is a group of four-hundred and forty eighth grade students from Goddard Junior High School in Midland, Texas. All students listed as "failing" failed one ...


Patterns Of Emotion Within Mathematics Problem-Solving, Frances A. Rosamond Jun 1987

Patterns Of Emotion Within Mathematics Problem-Solving, Frances A. Rosamond

Humanistic Mathematics Network Journal

There is often a divide between the experience of positive emotions toward math on the part of mathematical educators and negative emotions toward math on the part of students. This paper utilizes psychologist Richard Lazarus's work on the effects of positive emotions in order to highlight their benefits for mathematical pedagogy, to explain the author's experiment applying Lazarus's theory, and to suggest ways this application might support and foster positive emotions in students.


Preventing The "All But Thesis" Phenomenon, Maria Emma Garcia Jun 1987

Preventing The "All But Thesis" Phenomenon, Maria Emma Garcia

Dissertations

Twenty-three to 54% of the students who enter graduate programs never obtain their degrees. A high percentage of those students drop out after the completion of all the academic requirements except their master's theses or doctoral dissertations. The literature makes reference to the "all but thesis" (ABT) and the "all but dissertation" (ABD) phenomenon.

The present study involved the implementation of a research supervisory system designed to help students complete their theses and dissertations, therefore preventing the ABT and ABD problems. Twenty-nine graduate students in psychology formed the research supervisory group and 53 graduate students from several departments formed ...


Silencing In Public Schools, Michelle Fine Feb 1987

Silencing In Public Schools, Michelle Fine

Publications and Research

Demands for silencing signify a terror of words, a fear of talk. This essay examines these demands as they echoed through a comprehensive public high school in New York City. The silencing resounded in words and in their absence; the demands emanated from the New York City Board of Education, book publishers, corporate sponsors, religious institutions, administrators, teachers, parents, and students. In the odd study of what's not said in public schools, one must be curious about whom silencing protects, but vigilant about how silencing students and their communities undermines fundamentally the vision of education as empowerment (Freire 1985 ...


Commentary: The Role Of Intrapersonal Psychological Variables In Academic School Learning, Gregory J. Boyle Jan 1987

Commentary: The Role Of Intrapersonal Psychological Variables In Academic School Learning, Gregory J. Boyle

Gregory J. Boyle

Intellectual abilities may contribute up to 25% of the variance in measures of academic school learning. However, the role of intrapersonal variables other than cognitive ability (personality traits, motivational dynamic factors, transitory emotional states) has usually been considered as fairly trivial. Past research, to the contrary, suggests that under stressful conditions, the relative contribution of such intrapersonal factors may even become predominant in influencing achievement. When analyses are based on change scores rather than single-occasion measures (which include trait contamination variance), the influence of emotional states on learning is shown to be very significant indeed.


8. New Perspectives In The Analysis Of Abilities, John B. Carroll Jan 1987

8. New Perspectives In The Analysis Of Abilities, John B. Carroll

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

INTRODUCTION

One can understandably be skeptical when a "new perspective" is offered on a topic that has been under scientific examination for a very long time. I am not sure that I have any truly new perspectives , but I entertain the notion that my perspectives have the kind of novelty that will last long enough to permit taking a fresh look at some very old problems and getting new insights into their solution . I'm concerned with several such problems: First, what is an " ability"? How can an ability be defined? This is a problem that I believe has never ...


Author Index- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing Jan 1987

Author Index- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Author Index- 8 pages

A-Z

A

Abrahamsen, A. A., 234, 236, 237, 262, 265
Ackerman, P. L., 29, 37
Agrawal, N., 103, 136
Ahern, S., 121, 136
Ananda, S. M., 135, 136
Anastasi, A., 2, 8, 176, 184
Anderson, J. A., 19,38, 256, 263
Anderson, J. H., 44, 83
Anderson, J. R., 31, 36, 37, 44, 82, 154, 184, 195, 223, 230, 256, 263
Anderson, R., 54, 82
Arabie, P., 230, 231, 232, 241, 242, 245, 246, 247, 251, 253, 263, 264, 266
Arnkoff, D. B., 172, 184
Arnold, J. B., 234, 253, 262, 263
Atkinson, R. c., 135 ...


7. Structure And Process In Cognitive Psychology Using Multidimensional Scaling And Related Techniques, Edward J. Shoben, Brian H. Ross Jan 1987

7. Structure And Process In Cognitive Psychology Using Multidimensional Scaling And Related Techniques, Edward J. Shoben, Brian H. Ross

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

INTRODUCTION

The goal of cognitive psychology is to provide a general understanding of human cognitive processes through the development of general, formal models of cognition. Although it is clearly true that some areas (such as memory) have been more highly developed than others, it is undeniable that cognitive psychology has witnessed a proliferation of models in the past decade. Perhaps researchers are finding it increasingly difficult to discriminate among competing memory models because the constraints are so weak. One possibility that will be explored in this chapter is the prospect of using multidimensional scaling (MDS) and related procedures as a ...


Subject Index- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing Jan 1987

Subject Index- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Subject Index- 10 pages

A-Z

A

Ability, see also specific type classes of, Cattell-Horn model and, 15 definition of, 268- 274 exceptional, acquired skill vs., 216-221 fluid and crystallized, correlation of, 96- 97 measurement of, 87-88, 267- 283 cognitive ability factors and, 280- 282 definition s and, 268-274 person characteristic function and, 275-279 task difficulty and, 279-280
Academic abilities, 145-183 cognitive strategies and, 150-152 control processes and, 149-150 declarative knowledge and, 146- 148 factors in, 146 in mathematics, 175-179 metacognition and, 152- 153 procedural knowledge and, 148-149 in reading, 153-162, see also Reading in science, 179- 182 in writing, 163-175 ...


Complete Work- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, Royce R. Ronning, John A. Glover, Jane C. Conoley, Joseph C. Witt Jan 1987

Complete Work- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, Royce R. Ronning, John A. Glover, Jane C. Conoley, Joseph C. Witt

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Contents

Foreword ........................ix

1. Introduction: The Implications of Cognitive Psychology for Testing...........1

PART I: THE COGNITIVE-PSYCHOMETRIC CONNECTION

2. Science, Technology, and Intelligence...................11

3. Toward a Cognitive Theory for the Measurement of Achievement ...................41

4. The g Beyond Factor Analysis.........................87

PART II: COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO PSYCHOMETRIC ISSUES: APPLICATIONS

5. The Assessment of Cognitive Factors in Academic Abilities...................145

6. Theoretical Implications from Protocol Analysis on Testing and Measurement...191

PART III: METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

7. Structure and Process in Cognitive Psychology Using Multidimensional Scaling and Related Techniques..................229

8. New Perspectives in ...


Title Page And Contents- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, Jane Close Conoley, Royce R. Ronning, John A. Glover, Joseph C. Witt Jan 1987

Title Page And Contents- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, Jane Close Conoley, Royce R. Ronning, John A. Glover, Joseph C. Witt

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Contents

Foreword ix

1. Introduction: The Implications of Cognitive Psychology for Testing...........1

PART I: THE COGNITIVE-PSYCHOMETRIC CONNECTION

2. Science, Technology, and Intelligence...................11

3. Toward a Cognitive Theory for the Measurement of Achievement ...................41

4. The g Beyond Factor Analysis.........................87

PART II: COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO PSYCHOMETRIC ISSUES: APPLICATIONS

5. The Assessment of Cognitive Factors in Academic Abilities...................145

6. Theoretical Implications from Protocol Analysis on Testing and Measurement...191

PART III: METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

7. Structure and Process in Cognitive Psychology Using Multidimensional Scaling and Related Techniques..................229

8. New Perspectives in ...


Foreword- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, James V. Mitchell Jr. Jan 1987

Foreword- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, James V. Mitchell Jr.

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

For over 40 years Oscar K. Buros was Director of the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements and Editor of the Mental Measurements Yearbooks. He was a crusader, and he devoted his entire career to his crusade. He was a crusader for better tests and the more effective selection and use of tests, and he used the Mental Measurements Yearbooks as the principal instrument in this crusade. Buros passed away in 1978, and his widow, Luella Buros, worked tirelessly to find a new home for the Institute. As a result of her efforts the Institute was relocated at the University of ...


1. Introduction: The Implications Of Cognitive Psychology For Testing, Royce R. Ronning, Jane C. Conoley, John G. Glover Jan 1987

1. Introduction: The Implications Of Cognitive Psychology For Testing, Royce R. Ronning, Jane C. Conoley, John G. Glover

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The 1985 Buros-Nebraska Symposium was developed to address the broad issue of the influence of cognitive psychology on testing and measurement. In the planning process, four topics were formulated that we asked contributors to address. The following four issues provided the focus for the Symposium and hence for the present volume. We explore:

1. Cognitive psychology as a basis for questioning some of our assumptions about the nature of mental abilities;
2. The influence of cognitive psychology on test development;
3. Cognitive psychology influences on test validity;
4. Cognitive psychology as a means to provide a linkage between testing and ...


Section I- The Cognitive Psychometric Connection Jan 1987

Section I- The Cognitive Psychometric Connection

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Section I- The Cognitive Psychometric Connection


2. Science, Technology, And Intelligence, Earl Hunt Jan 1987

2. Science, Technology, And Intelligence, Earl Hunt

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The intelligence test has been cited as psychology's most important technological contribution to society. Whether this is good or ill can be debated (Eysenck, 1979; Gould, 1981; Herrnstein, 1971; Kamin, 1974). Certain facts are not really subject to debate . Psychologists can and have developed "standardized interviews" that, on a population basis, provide a cost effective technique for personnel classification in industrial, military, and some government settings. However, the tests are very far from perfect indicators. Validity coefficients between tests and performance ratings typically range in the .3 to .5 range (i.e. , from 10 to 25% of the variance ...


4. The G Beyond Factor Analysis, Arthur R. Jensen Jan 1987

4. The G Beyond Factor Analysis, Arthur R. Jensen

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The problem of g, essentially , concerns two very fundamental questions: (1) Why are scores on various mental ability tests positively correlated? and (2) Why do people differ in performance on such tests?

SOME DEFINITIONS

To insure that we are talking the same language, we must review a few definitions. Clarity, explicitness, and avoidance of excess meaning or connotative overtones are virtues of a definition. Aside from these properties, a definition per se affords nothing to argue about. It has nothing to do with truth or reality; it is a formality needed for communication.

A mental ability test consists of a ...


Section Ii- Cognitive Approaches To Psychometric Issues: Applications Jan 1987

Section Ii- Cognitive Approaches To Psychometric Issues: Applications

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Section II- COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO PSYCHOMETRIC ISSUES: APPLICATIONS


6. Theoretical Implications From Protocol Analysis On Testing And Measurement, K. Anders Ericsson Jan 1987

6. Theoretical Implications From Protocol Analysis On Testing And Measurement, K. Anders Ericsson

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

One of the goals of psychology has always been to describe, understand, and measure individual differences. The diversity of human behavior makes it particularly challenging to seek to identify general and stable underlying elements that correspond to systematic individual differences . A major problem in the efforts to identify such elements is that the elements cannot be observed directly. The primary method has been to use the current psychological theory to develop procedures to measure such hypothetical elements. In this chapter I present a new theoretic framework, based on verbal reports from subjects, for identifying and measuring individual differences. I argue ...


Section Iii- Methodological Issues Jan 1987

Section Iii- Methodological Issues

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Section III- METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES


5. The Assessment Of Cognitive Factors In Academic Abilities, Stephen L. Benton, Kenneth A. Kiewra Jan 1987

5. The Assessment Of Cognitive Factors In Academic Abilities, Stephen L. Benton, Kenneth A. Kiewra

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Nearly 30 years ago, Lee Cronbach (1957) distinguished between the two disciplines of correlational psychology, which investigated naturally occurring individual variance in behavior, and experimental psychology, which examined the effectiveness of certain treatments on behavior. Essentially, correlational psychology examined individual differences using factor analytic techniques; whereas experimental psychology attempted to eliminate individual differences using appropriate interventions. Cronbach believed that these two disciplines should join together to promote aptitude-treatment interaction (A Tl) research that would identify effective treatments for certain types of individuals. With this combined approach, different treatments could be prescribed for skilled and less skilled individuals.

The A Tl ...


3. Toward A Cognitive Theory For The Measu Rement Of Achievement, Robert Glaser, Alan Lesgold, Susanne Lajoie Jan 1987

3. Toward A Cognitive Theory For The Measu Rement Of Achievement, Robert Glaser, Alan Lesgold, Susanne Lajoie

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

INTRODUCTION

Given the demands for higher levels of learning in our schools and the press for education in the skilled trades, the professions, and the sciences, we must develop more powerful and specific methods for assessing achievement. We need forms of assessment that educators can use to improve educational practice and to diagnose individual progress by monitoring the outcomes of learning and training. Compared to the well-developed technology for aptitude measurement and selection testing, however, the measurement of achievement and diagnosis of learning problems is underdeveloped. This is because the correlational models that support prediction are insufficient for the task ...


The Impact Of Social Distance On Community In University Apartments , Donald F. Whalen Jan 1987

The Impact Of Social Distance On Community In University Apartments , Donald F. Whalen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research examined social distance as it applied to students of on-campus apartments at a midwestern university. The research was conducted at the University Student Apartment Community at Iowa State University, a community of over 3800 residents. A stratified random sample of 600 foreign and American students were mailed a survey assessing attitudes regarding the environmental climate, facilities and services, student government and staffing, student patterns, student characteristics, and social distance. The completion rate was 62%. One-way ANOVA comparisons were made of mean ratings of 37 ethnic, racial, religious, and other object groups and five respondent characteristics. The respondent characteristics ...


Effects Of Short And Long Study Times On Learning By Maps Versus Navigation, Thyra Rauch Jan 1987

Effects Of Short And Long Study Times On Learning By Maps Versus Navigation, Thyra Rauch

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Job Satisfaction And Its Relationship To Gender, Career Orientation, And Childcare Needs Among White Collar And Blue Collar Residence Hall Employees , Virginia C. Arthur Jan 1987

Job Satisfaction And Its Relationship To Gender, Career Orientation, And Childcare Needs Among White Collar And Blue Collar Residence Hall Employees , Virginia C. Arthur

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this investigation was threefold: (1) to discover whether or not selected demographic attitudinal and environmental factors, as well as non-work-related characteristics were related to employee job satisfaction; (2) to assess the job satisfaction among various employee groups; and (3) to identify any interaction between job satisfaction factors and employee groups;Subjects for this study were all (358) full-time budgeted blue collar and white collar employees in the Department of Residence at Iowa State University on January 1, 1987. The long form of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) the Employee Satisfaction Survey (ESS), were administered for data gathering ...


Ua35/11 Student Honors Research Bulletin, Wku Honors Program Jan 1987

Ua35/11 Student Honors Research Bulletin, Wku Honors Program

WKU Archives Records

The WKU Student Honors Research Bulletin is dedicated to scholarly involvement and student research. These papers are representative of work done by students from throughout the university.

  • Baum, Carole. A Glance at Phenomenology and Its Approach to Literary Criticism, 1987
  • Coble, Terrell. Personality Determinants: Research Results and Implications for Intervention, 1987
  • Crase, Kim. Recent Developments in Products Liability, 1987
  • Flora, Joan. Simms's Frontier Characters, 1987
  • Ford, Doug, David Gray and Nick Nauman. Right-to-Work Laws, 1987
  • Gray, Michael. Through Pontormo's Eyes, 1987
  • Jackson, Jewel. Is Creativity Teachable? 1987
  • Logsdon, Doug. James I as King Lear, 1987
  • Schneringer, Joseph. Weather ...


Evaluation Issues In A Quasi-Experiment On Teaching Thinking Skills, Irvin Sam Schonfeld Jan 1987

Evaluation Issues In A Quasi-Experiment On Teaching Thinking Skills, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

Comments on the method used by R. J. Herrnstein et al (see record 1987-08654-001) to evaluate an educational intervention that was designed to advance the thinking skills of 7th graders. It would seem preferable to adopt multiple linear regression techniques, rather than the t-test, as the chief analytic tool.