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Value Added By Using Joint Displays In Mixed Methods Research, Elizabeth Svoboda Dec 2023

Value Added By Using Joint Displays In Mixed Methods Research, Elizabeth Svoboda

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Mixed methods research collects, analyzes, and integrates rigorous qualitative and quantitative methods to gain a deeper understanding of a phenomenon than would be gained by using either method alone. Integration is one of the key features of mixed methods research and consists of mixing qualitative and quantitative research in a systematic way to generate new inferences or follow-up studies. However, the process of integration can be challenging to draw on expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods, decide when and how to integrate qualitative and quantitative research, and combine multiple data sources in a coherent way to generate new inferences. …


Practical Recommendations For Mixed Methods Sampling In Psychological Intervention Research: A Mixed Methods Case Study, Analay Perez Aug 2023

Practical Recommendations For Mixed Methods Sampling In Psychological Intervention Research: A Mixed Methods Case Study, Analay Perez

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Sampling is integral to the research process and, if not appropriately addressed, can affect the meta-inferences of the mixed methods study. Sampling is also closely related to recruitment, retention, and additional methodological components. Sampling issues are magnified in social and health sciences intervention research due to the temporal placement of data collection and analysis. Limited research has examined sampling based on researchers’ rationales and decision-making across mixed methods psychological intervention research. This study explored this phenomenon to develop and refine a list of practical recommendations for sampling in mixed methods that were tested using content validity.

Using an exploratory sequential …


Job Stress Moderates The Effects Of A Mindfulness Intervention On Early Childhood Teachers' Emotion Dysregulation, Emily J. Starr Apr 2023

Job Stress Moderates The Effects Of A Mindfulness Intervention On Early Childhood Teachers' Emotion Dysregulation, Emily J. Starr

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Addressing the current crisis of early childhood (EC) teacher turnover is essential for supporting the development of young children. Teacher attrition remains a concern for policymakers globally, and in the United States, early childhood teachers frequently cite job stress and lack of support as reasons for leaving the field. For over 40 years, researchers who study childcare have been concerned about the consequences of work-related stressors. Even if these stressors do not result in turnover, EC teachers’ psychological well-being may be impacted, leading to increased emotion regulation difficulties and more frequent negative teacher-child interactions. Young children’s emotional development is significantly …


A Latent Class Analysis Of Personality Traits With Educational Attainment, Tyler Minter Aug 2022

A Latent Class Analysis Of Personality Traits With Educational Attainment, Tyler Minter

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The five-factor model of personality (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience) is an empirically based personality model that has been utilized in multiple psychological assessments. Recent works have found Block & Block’s (1980) three personality profiles (resilient, overcontrolled, undercontrolled) within the context of the five-factor model. This study performed a latent class analysis using a short FFM assessment from the SAPA project, a free online personality test. The intention of this study was to replicate the three personality profiles within the five-factor model. Four latent classes were included in the final solution. Two of the three personality profiles emerged …


Understanding Unwanted Sexual Experiences Of Transgender And Gender Diverse Individuals: An Interpretative Phenomenological Study, Melissa Larosa Jul 2022

Understanding Unwanted Sexual Experiences Of Transgender And Gender Diverse Individuals: An Interpretative Phenomenological Study, Melissa Larosa

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Transgender and gender diverse (TGD) people represent a small percent of the population and yet, they experience sexual violence at disproportionately high rates compared to their cisgender counterparts (Grant et al, 2011; James et al., 2016). The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study is to gain a more nuanced understanding of the role that unwanted sexual experiences play in the lives of transgender and gender diverse people, particularly in relation to how they conceptualize their gender identity and the construct of posttraumatic growth (PTG). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight TGD participants who met the inclusion criteria. Two superordinate (i.e., …


Correlation Of The Anterior Salience Network With Attention: A Resting-State Fmri Analysis, Matthew Brooks May 2022

Correlation Of The Anterior Salience Network With Attention: A Resting-State Fmri Analysis, Matthew Brooks

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Background: Some studies have broadened our understanding of attention while other studies have used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analyses to identify brain regions that are functionally connected and may be associated with salience processing. This thesis sought to examine the relationship between the anterior salience network and attentional control. The current study hypothesized that resting-state functional connectivity between regions of the anterior salience network would be associated with attentional control ability. Methods: Forty-eight college-aged students completed the affective Stroop task to assess attentional regulation ability. Accuracy on trials of the task was examined in correlation with resting-state functional …


Investigating The Fit Of The Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (Ggum) When Calibrated To Irt Generated Data From Dominance And Ideal Point Models, Abdulla Alzarouni Jul 2021

Investigating The Fit Of The Generalized Graded Unfolding Model (Ggum) When Calibrated To Irt Generated Data From Dominance And Ideal Point Models, Abdulla Alzarouni

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The assessment of model fit in latent trait modelling, better known as item response theory (IRT), is an integral part of model testing if one is to make valid inferences about the estimated parameters and their properties based on the selected IRT model. Though important, the assessment of model fit has been less utilized in IRT research than it should. For example, there have been less research investigating fit for polytomous dominance models such the Graded Response Model (GRM), and to a lesser extent ideal point models such as the Generalized Graded Unfolding Models (GGUM), both in its dichotomous and …


Relationship Of Early Life Maltreatment To Self Regulation During An Affective Stroop Task, Sophie Tonjes May 2021

Relationship Of Early Life Maltreatment To Self Regulation During An Affective Stroop Task, Sophie Tonjes

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Background: Previous research has found that childhood maltreatment is associated with emotional regulation difficulties, as well associations with brain structures, such as the amygdala and hippocampus. However, there are individual differences in the effect of maltreatment on emotional regulation, and this relationship may be dependent upon amygdala or hippocampal volume. The present study hypothesized that amygdala or hippocampal volume would moderate the relationship between maltreatment and emotional regulation. Method: Forty-nine college students were assessed for their history of parenting and participated in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Moreover, to measure emotional regulation skills, participants completed the Affective Stroop task, …


Attachment Injury-Related Responses From The Offending Partner And Forgiveness In Romantic Relationships, Shruti Pillai May 2021

Attachment Injury-Related Responses From The Offending Partner And Forgiveness In Romantic Relationships, Shruti Pillai

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Attachment injuries in romantic relationships carry the potential for several negative outcomes for the injured partner, the offending partner, and the relationship. Forgiveness can serve to repair the damage caused by such an injury. The concept of forgiveness, however, has predominantly only been studied as the responsibility of and of primary interest to the injured partner. There is a growing need for closer examination of what the offending partner can do to promote forgiveness. The Attachment Injury Resolution Model (AIRM) proposes eight distinct steps including actions for each partner that can lead a couple towards recovery. This study examined the …


Exploring Supervisor Experiences Of Hope In Clinical Supervision: A Phenomenological Approach, Robert Byrom Jr. May 2021

Exploring Supervisor Experiences Of Hope In Clinical Supervision: A Phenomenological Approach, Robert Byrom Jr.

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Supervisory experiences have been identified as one of the primary resources for the clinical training of psychotherapists with respect to both the development of necessary skills and the ability to cope with encountered difficulties. This phenomenological study explored the experiences of clinical supervisors in a current supervisory relationship with one or more supervisees. Specifically, this study explored how supervisors experience their supervisory relationships, how supervisors conceptualize hope as it relates to supervision, how supervisors express hope for their supervisees, and how supervisors promote hope within supervision. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with between 3 to 15 individuals recruited from counseling psychology …


Power, Privilege, And Fraternity Men's Perceptions Of Sex And Sexual Violence: A Phenomenological Study, Justine Diener O'Leary May 2021

Power, Privilege, And Fraternity Men's Perceptions Of Sex And Sexual Violence: A Phenomenological Study, Justine Diener O'Leary

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Sexual violence is a prevalent concern on college campuses (see Washington Post & Kaiser Family Foundation, 2015; Cantor et al., 2015). Men are the primary perpetrators of sexual violence (Black et al., 2011), with particular groups, such as fraternity men, particularly prone to perpetrating sexual violence (Foubert et al., 2007). The CDC (2014, 2021) recommends utilizing a social-ecological model of prevention that address risk factors at four levels: individual, relational, community, and societal. The purpose of the present transcendental phenomenological pilot study was to explore fraternity men’s perceptions of systemic influences on sex, consent, and sexual violence. Utilizing a modified …


Examining The Efficacy Of An Intervention Package Delivered Via An Online Learning Tool To Improve Prerequisite Algebra Skill Fluency, Nicole Bricko Apr 2021

Examining The Efficacy Of An Intervention Package Delivered Via An Online Learning Tool To Improve Prerequisite Algebra Skill Fluency, Nicole Bricko

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This dissertation study investigated the efficacy of a multi-component intervention package delivered via an online learning tool on math fluency for prerequisite algebra skills for three 6th-grade students. Students were referred by their math teacher due to concerns with academic performance. Target skills were individualized for each student based on screening assessments and measured continuously during both baseline and intervention. The multiple-probe across skills design demonstrated that students increased their math fluency on prerequisite skills. A staggered pattern of increases across skills for two participants indicated experimental control was achieved and student’s performance improved. The Quizlet® intervention …


The Influence Of Proximal And Distal Familial Factors On Preschool Children's Inhibitory Control And Social Emotional Skills, Amy Encinger Dec 2020

The Influence Of Proximal And Distal Familial Factors On Preschool Children's Inhibitory Control And Social Emotional Skills, Amy Encinger

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Children in the United States experience higher rates of poverty than any other age group, including elderly adults and the poverty rate of young children (0-5 years) is considerably higher than that of older children (Proctor et al., 2016). There is an extensive body of research examining familial socioeconomic status (SES) and the influence on the skills and behaviors of young children; however, common key indicators of family SES may not fully depict the ways in which children living in poverty/low-income homes are influenced by economic disadvantage. The focus of the current study is to explore the ways in which …


The Role Of Faculty In Fostering Psychosocial Wellbeing Among University Students, Kelley Wick Dec 2020

The Role Of Faculty In Fostering Psychosocial Wellbeing Among University Students, Kelley Wick

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The transition to college represents a major life event, and successfully navigating this shift has implications for students’ psychosocial wellbeing. While there is ample support for the idea that social relationships can facilitate student wellbeing during the transition to college, there is limited understanding of the unique role faculty may play in supporting students. The aim of this study was to determine the relation of faculty support to student wellbeing and self-efficacy, independent of peer support and student level of stress. Additionally, the primary questions were to examine whether self-efficacy mediated the relation of faculty support to student wellbeing, and …


Well-Being In Trans And Gender Diverse Individuals: An Investigation Of Chosen Family Support, Kendal Cassidy Jul 2020

Well-Being In Trans And Gender Diverse Individuals: An Investigation Of Chosen Family Support, Kendal Cassidy

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Trans and gender diverse (TGD) individuals experience unique minority stressors that increase their experiences of psychological distress, and prior research has suggested social support may have protective factors for these unique stressors (Başar et al., 2016; Bockting et al., 2013; Clements-Nolle et al., 2006; Hull & Ortyl, 2018; Pflum et al., 2015; Lombardi et al., 2002; Staples et al., 2018; Tebbe & Moradi, 2016); however, little is understood about chosen family for TGD populations, and how chosen family might relate to minority stressors and mental health. It is also understood that mental illness and well-being reside on separate continuum, but …


Training Teachers To Differentiate Instruction To Address Work Completion Problems In Math, Elisabeth Kane May 2020

Training Teachers To Differentiate Instruction To Address Work Completion Problems In Math, Elisabeth Kane

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This dissertation investigated an adaptation of functional analysis methodology, performance deficit analysis (PDA), and its use in training teachers to differentiate instruction for students having difficulty completing independent math seatwork. Participants included three middle school teachers and one of their students who was referred for having difficulty completing his or her work. Behavioral skills training was used to individually train each teacher to interpret her student’s PDA data, determine if the student had a skill or performance deficit, and select appropriate motivational and instructional strategies to increase the student’s performance. To answer the research questions, a multiple-baseline-design across teachers was …


Conjoint Behavioral Consultation With Latinx Families And Children: What Works For Whom?, Samantha Eastberg Jan 2020

Conjoint Behavioral Consultation With Latinx Families And Children: What Works For Whom?, Samantha Eastberg

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Latinx students in the United States are at risk for unmet mental and behavioral health needs (Kataoka, Zhang, & Wells, 2002; Toppelberg, Hollinshead, Collins, & Nieto-Castañon, 2013) and are disproportionately referred for special education and disciplinary consequences (Moreno & Segura-Herrera, 2014). Effective approaches and interventions are needed to address behavioral and socioemotional concerns for Latinx students; Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) is one such approach. CBC is an indirect problem-solving approach designed to build socioemotional skills and decrease maladaptive behaviors in children (Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2008). Preliminary research demonstrates that CBC is effective for Latinx children and families (Clarke et al., …


Evaluation Of Modern Missing Data Handling Methods For Coefficient Alpha, Katerina Matysova Dec 2019

Evaluation Of Modern Missing Data Handling Methods For Coefficient Alpha, Katerina Matysova

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

When assessing a certain characteristic or trait using a multiple item measure, quality of that measure can be assessed by examining the reliability. To avoid multiple time points, reliability can be represented by internal consistency, which is most commonly calculated using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. Almost every time human participants are involved in research, there is missing data involved. Missing data means that even though complete data were expected to be collected, some data are missing. Missing data can follow different patterns as well as be the result of different mechanisms. One traditional way to deal with missing data is listwise …


A Longitudinal Examination Of Bedtime Routines And Sleep In Toddlers, Amanda Prokasky Dec 2019

A Longitudinal Examination Of Bedtime Routines And Sleep In Toddlers, Amanda Prokasky

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Ample research has examined the impacts of sufficient and high-quality sleep on children’s health, development, and well-being (Chen, Beydoun, & Wang, 2008; Gregory & Sadeh, 2012; Touchette et al., 2009), yet less research has focused on the factors that contribute to sufficient and high-quality sleep in early childhood. The bedtime routine is one environmental influence on children’s sleep that has received little attention in the literature base and therefore is the focus of the current study.

In a sample of 399 30-month old toddlers studied over the course of one year, three aims were investigated: the within-age consistency of the …


The Protective Influence Of Self-Compassion Against Internalized Racism Among African Americans, Alexandra Emery Oct 2019

The Protective Influence Of Self-Compassion Against Internalized Racism Among African Americans, Alexandra Emery

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Racist experiences and internalized racism may lead to poorer mental health outcomes for African Americans born and socialized in the United States (Graham, West, Martinez & Roemer, 2016; Mouzon & McLean, 2017). Self-compassion has been shown to protect against poor mental health outcomes, but limited research exists with respect to African Americans specifically (Lockard, Hayes, Neff and Locke, 2014). The present study explored whether self-compassion could serve as a protective factor between the relations of internalized racism and racist experiences, and the negative mental health outcomes of anxiety, depression, and stress among (N = 230) African American adults. To …


Effects Of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation On Student-Teacher Interactions, Sonya A. Bhatia May 2019

Effects Of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation On Student-Teacher Interactions, Sonya A. Bhatia

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Young children with disruptive classroom behaviors are at-risk for negative interactions with their teachers (Nelson & Roberts, 2000), which put children at increased risk for long-term negative social, academic, and behavioral outcomes (Sutherland & Oswald, 2005). Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC) is an evidence-based family-school partnership intervention focused on strengthening relationships and promoting continuity and consistency between children’s key environments (Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2008). The efficacy of CBC on child outcomes and parent-teacher relationships has been demonstrated (Sheridan et al., 2017); however, no research has determined whether CBC improves student-teacher interactions.

This study examined CBC’s effect on student-teacher interactions using a …


Using Self-Regulation To Predict Preschoolers' Symptomology Of Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Andrew White May 2019

Using Self-Regulation To Predict Preschoolers' Symptomology Of Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Andrew White

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The use of brief rating forms completed by caregivers to identify children at-risk for developing behavioral disorders is common (Lane et al., 2009). However, identifying a behavioral measure assessing child-level variables (i.e., temperamental traits) which predict later behavioral concerns has potential to improve universal screening practices in the context of a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) framework. Self-regulation (Rothbart & Bates, 2006) is a trait that is related to externalizing problem behaviors (e.g., Espy et al., 2011), and may be useful as a means to predict young children at risk for developing behavioral disorders. The purpose of this study is …


The Job Interview Self-Presentation Tendencies And Experiences Of Latina Undergraduate Students, Nichole Shada May 2019

The Job Interview Self-Presentation Tendencies And Experiences Of Latina Undergraduate Students, Nichole Shada

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

In the United States, self-promotion during a job interview is not just common, it is expected (Paulhus, Westlake, Calvez, & Harms, 2013). Job applicants are encouraged to inform potential employers about the qualifications, strengths, and professional accomplishments that make them the best fit for the job, which requires applicants to engage in self-promotion during the job interview. Literature has begun to suggest that sociocultural factors such as gender or culture may influence an individual’s propensity to engage in modesty as opposed to self-promotion in career-related contexts like the job interview. However, few studies have explored how these sociocultural factors interact …


Examining The Coping Resources Of Polyvictimized Youth And Young Adults, Zachary Robert Myers May 2019

Examining The Coping Resources Of Polyvictimized Youth And Young Adults, Zachary Robert Myers

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Bullying represents a significant concern for many youth and young adults in the United States and abroad. However, the growth of technology has allowed for new platforms in which perpetrators can engage in bullying behaviors, such as text and video messaging, social media applications, and online gaming. In addition, research has suggested that the majority of cyberbullied individuals experience co-occurring in-person victimization as well. These trends are concerning, given that findings within both the traditional and cyberbullying literatures place victimized youth at-risk for a host of social and emotional concerns. However, research has yet to fully explore the unique experiences …


Alcohol Expectancies Among Students In The City Of Pokhara, Nepal, Niran Tamrakar Dec 2018

Alcohol Expectancies Among Students In The City Of Pokhara, Nepal, Niran Tamrakar

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Alcohol plays a vital role in various aspects of Nepalese society. It also presents public health risks. Though adolescents in Nepal are at high risk for negative consequences from alcohol use, there is limited information available on their alcohol behaviors and beliefs. The present study aims to describe alcohol expectancies among a sample of secondary students in Nepal to identify and understand motivations underlying their alcohol-related behaviors. A self-report survey was administered to 591 students from different Englishmedium schools in the city of Pokhara. This study began with the Chinese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (CAAEQ), then used qualitative methods to …


The Development Of A Situational Judgment Test To Assess Collegiate Judgment: A Pilot Study, Jared Stevens Dec 2018

The Development Of A Situational Judgment Test To Assess Collegiate Judgment: A Pilot Study, Jared Stevens

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Traditionally, colleges and universities have focused primarily on cognitive predictors (e.g., ACT/SAT scores, high school GPA), and have struggled to find an accurate and objective way of measuring non-cognitive skills, often resorting to personality measures or interviews, or deciding not to measure them at all. Recently, there has been a push for alternative forms of student selection that result in less adverse impact and do not ignore important skills and traits that are necessary to be successful in college (Peeters & Lievens, 2005; Atkinson, 2001).

Growing evidence suggests Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) may be one way to achieve this goal. …


Using Bayesian Multilevel Models To Control For Multiplicity Among Means, Michael J. Zweifel Nov 2018

Using Bayesian Multilevel Models To Control For Multiplicity Among Means, Michael J. Zweifel

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

It is well known that the Type I error rate will exceed α when multiple hypothesis tests are conducted simultaneously. This is known as Type I error inflation. The probability of committing a Type I error grows monotonically as the number as the number of hypothesis being tested increases. A class of methods, known as multiple comparison procedures, has been developed to combat this issue. However, in turn for maintaining the Type I error rate below α, multiple comparison procedures sacrifice power to correctly reject false hypotheses. The loss of power is exacerbated when variance heterogeneity is present.

In …


Exploring The Moderating Effects Of Racial/Ethnic Socialization, Academic Motivation And African American Racial Identity On The Relation Between Microaggressions And Mattering Of African American Students At Predominantly White Institutions, Lawrence Chatters Jul 2018

Exploring The Moderating Effects Of Racial/Ethnic Socialization, Academic Motivation And African American Racial Identity On The Relation Between Microaggressions And Mattering Of African American Students At Predominantly White Institutions, Lawrence Chatters

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

African Americans remain underrepresented in higher education (Thompson, Gorin, & Chen, 2006) and experience subtle forms of racism called microaggressions (Sue et. al, 2007). The impact of microaggressions in post-secondary institutions may manifest in the achievement gaps that exist between African American and White people; moreover, they may influence the inequitable treatment of African American students by staff, teaching assistants and faculty (Ancis, Sedlacek, & Mohr, 2000; Becker & Luther, 2002). 108 African American undergraduate students at three Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs) participated. The current study employed an online survey to explore relationships of microaggressions, racial/ethnic socialization, African American racial …


Parents Supporting Their Adolescents’ Independent Remedial Math Practice: The Effects Of A Multi-Component Intervention Package On Math Academic Performance, Mackenzie Sommerhalder May 2018

Parents Supporting Their Adolescents’ Independent Remedial Math Practice: The Effects Of A Multi-Component Intervention Package On Math Academic Performance, Mackenzie Sommerhalder

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This dissertation examined the effects of high school students’ independent, remedial, home-based math practice while receiving parent support on math computation fluency. The multi-component intervention package encompassed both home-based remedial practice and parent support. Teacher interviews, normative assessments, and a performance-deficit analysis were conducted to identify high-school students who displayed math academic skill deficits. Next, identification and analysis of individual skills (e.g., multiplication, division) to be targeted for intervention occurred for each participant included in the study. A multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine teaching high school students to choose effective instructional components for math computation and subsequently …


Parental Involvement Among Low-Income Filipinos: A Phenomenological Inquiry, Aileen S. Garcia May 2018

Parental Involvement Among Low-Income Filipinos: A Phenomenological Inquiry, Aileen S. Garcia

College of Education and Human Sciences: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Parental involvement in children’s education is an integral component of young children’s academic achievement. In the Philippines, a developing country with high rates of poverty and input deficit in basic education, school dropout rates are high especially among the poor. Given that many children from disadvantaged backgrounds do not get enough support (PIDS, 2012) and many parents are not equipped with skills to support their children’s education, it is essential to investigate how Filipino parents can help and contribute to their children’s academic success. In response to the lack of parental involvement literature situated in the Philippine context, the present …