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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Impact Of Texas High School Teachers' Perceptions Of Culture On Their Intent To Stay Or Leave From Their Position, Abigail Crawford, Lesley F. Leach, Ron Rhone, Juanita Reyes Jun 2024

The Impact Of Texas High School Teachers' Perceptions Of Culture On Their Intent To Stay Or Leave From Their Position, Abigail Crawford, Lesley F. Leach, Ron Rhone, Juanita Reyes

School Leadership Review

ABSTRACT

Teacher attrition has been an issue in education for decades, however, post-pandemic, the problem has grown exponentially. Teachers at the high school campus are often particularly difficult to replace because of their specialized areas. Yearly faculty surveys often ask teachers to share their perceptions of their campus, including but not limited to, faculty relationships, administrative decisions, student discipline, and learning and assessment. While teachers’ perceptions of these areas of campus life might be positive or negative, do any of these areas motivate a teacher to leave or to stay? The purpose of this research is to investigate high school …


"It Hurts Me To Say": Preservice Teachers' Use And Disapproval Of Deficit Discourse In Urban Schools, Sherridon Sweeney, Brian Flores Jun 2024

"It Hurts Me To Say": Preservice Teachers' Use And Disapproval Of Deficit Discourse In Urban Schools, Sherridon Sweeney, Brian Flores

Journal of Research Initiatives

Extensive research examines the development and impact of deficit discourse in schools. However, more research needs to be needed to explore how preservice teachers use this language during their preparation. Therefore, our qualitative study explored how deficit discourse became part of five preservice teachers' vernacular when speaking about children and teaching. Findings suggest participants (a) Relied on reductive labels to describe children, (b) attributed their use of these labels to their exposure to them during their practicum, and (c) demonstrated both cognitive dissonance and silent resistance toward deficit language. Implications are for teacher educators and school leaders.


Middle School Teachers' Perceptions Of The Use Of Serious Games For Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Latoyia R. Stewart Jun 2024

Middle School Teachers' Perceptions Of The Use Of Serious Games For Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Latoyia R. Stewart

Journal of Research Initiatives

Attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurodevelopment disorder, and severe digital game use has recently shown significant promise in this psychotherapeutic area. Digital serious games have also been used as an innovative teaching and learning approach. This study aimed to explore middle school teachers' perceptions of the use of digital severe games for students with ADHD. The conceptual framework for this study was Sherry's model of game engagement. The two research questions for this basic qualitative study focused on middle school teacher perceptions regarding the benefits and challenges related to the use of digital serious games …


استراتيجيّات الرّيادة التعليمية وأثرها في التّعليم المدمج: استراتيجيّات الّتدريس كمتغير وسيط في المدارس الحكومية من وجهة نظر معلمي المرحلة الثّانويّة, Nisreen Khalid Saleem Alkailani Jun 2024

استراتيجيّات الرّيادة التعليمية وأثرها في التّعليم المدمج: استراتيجيّات الّتدريس كمتغير وسيط في المدارس الحكومية من وجهة نظر معلمي المرحلة الثّانويّة, Nisreen Khalid Saleem Alkailani

Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Research in Higher Education (مجلة اتحاد الجامعات العربية (للبحوث في التعليم العالي

هدف المقال إلى بيان دور استراتيجيّات الرّيادة التعليمية في التّعليم المدمج: استراتيجيات التّدريس كمتغير وسيط، من وجهة نظر معلمي المرحلة الثّانوية، واستخدمت الدّراسة المنهج الوصفيّ التّحليليّ، وتكوّنت عيّنة الدراسة من جميع المعلّمين والمعلّمات في المدارس الحكوميّة في العاصمة الأردنية عمّان، وبلغ حجم المجتمع (25000) معلم، وتمّ سحب عينة بلغ حجمها (290) معلمًا، وتمّ حساب حجم العيّنة اعتمادًا على معادلة تحديد حجم العينة الإحصائية على طريقة نموذج مورغان، وتمّ اختبار الفرضيّات باستخدام الأساليب الإحصائيّة المناسبة من الحزمة الإحصائيّة للعلوم الاجتماعيّة (SPSS). وتوصّلت الّدراسة إلى وجود ارتفاع في التّكلفة الماديّة للبنية التحتيّة للتّعليم المدمج في المدارس، ومع ذلك يسعى المعلمون إلى مواكبة …


Family Matters: Teachers' Perceptions Of Community And School Culture After Seven Years Of Personalized Learning Reform, Tony Durr, Nicole Graves, Patrick D. Hales Jun 2024

Family Matters: Teachers' Perceptions Of Community And School Culture After Seven Years Of Personalized Learning Reform, Tony Durr, Nicole Graves, Patrick D. Hales

Middle Grades Review

This paper explores the school culture and sense of community of a Midwestern middle school after seven years of personalized learning reform. This mixed method study identified a strong school culture based on the School Culture Triage Survey. Focus group interviews supported the survey findings and attributed the successful implementation and expansion of the personalized learning program to affiliative collegiality, autonomy/innovation, being student-centered, and intentional. These findings can be powerful for any school in instituting personalized or customized learning models.


Professional Learning Communities: Structures And Implementation For Small Middle Schools And Singleton Teachers, Gerrie Aulisa Jun 2024

Professional Learning Communities: Structures And Implementation For Small Middle Schools And Singleton Teachers, Gerrie Aulisa

Dissertations

Professional Learning Communities are essential to building interdependent collaborative teacher teams to elevate teaching and learning for students. One struggle with implementing PLCs comes about when you have singleton teachers who do not have a colleague who teaches the same grade and content as them. This study reviewed the research-based PLC implementation strategies used at one small middle school. The main research question was: How can PLCs work effectively for small middle schools and singleton teachers? Other related questions were:

● How can PLCs feel relevant to our elective area teachers?

● What determines a successful PLC?

● Should middle …


Principals As Instructional Leaders: Supporting New Middle School Principals To Implement Systems Allowing For Instructional Leadership, Jason Kaiz Jun 2024

Principals As Instructional Leaders: Supporting New Middle School Principals To Implement Systems Allowing For Instructional Leadership, Jason Kaiz

Dissertations

This study is a collection, interpretation, and, eventually, recommendations based on data collected through interviews with current middle school principals. The research questions examine how middle school principals can increase their effectiveness as an instructional leader within the building. The research begins by examining the factors contributing to the principal being an instructional leader and what systems can be implemented to support this goal. These systems should include the ability for principals to facilitate learning for staff, just as staff facilitate learning within their classroom. Policy implications and recommendations highlight the need to look at resources available for principals as …


Black School Leader Truth: How Black School Leader Epistemology Influences Liberatory Mindset Development In Their Staff, Orpheus Williams May 2024

Black School Leader Truth: How Black School Leader Epistemology Influences Liberatory Mindset Development In Their Staff, Orpheus Williams

Dissertations

Black students in the United States have consistently been denied access to empowering, culturally affirming, and responsive learning experiences in the traditional public system. The epistemological and pedagogical beliefs embedded in a liberatory mindset can subvert this pattern of disempowerment (Shujaa, 1998). Black school leaders (BSLs) who understand the systemic and institutional pressures Black children may face and have to overcome, having undergone similarly racialized experiences in school, are uniquely placed to create liberatory spaces for Black students by recruiting and developing these liberatory mindsets in their staff. This instrumental case study used qualitative research methods of front-porch pedagogy (McTighe …


Borderland Voices: Exploring The Educational Journey Of Transfronterizx Students, Families, And Educators For Enhanced Engagement And Empowerment, Sobeida Velazquez May 2024

Borderland Voices: Exploring The Educational Journey Of Transfronterizx Students, Families, And Educators For Enhanced Engagement And Empowerment, Sobeida Velazquez

Dissertations

Transfronterizx students and their families cross the U.S.–Mexico border for academic, economic, social, cultural, and linguistic reasons. Socioeconomic disparities, deportation, and work have propelled some families to live in Mexico and enroll their U.S.-born children in U.S. schools to provide more socioeconomic opportunities in the United States. Educators of transfronterizx students are uniquely tasked to work with these nontraditional students. Moreover, transfronterizx students and their families have distinct needs in U.S. schools; as such, there is a need for further research on the transfronterizx experience in the U.S. K–12 system. This qualitative narrative inquiry study aimed to understand the experiences …


Ripple Of Hope: Understanding The Lived Experience And Academic Achievement Of Latinx Students At Arrupe College And Dougherty Family College: A Case Study, Richard P. Virgin May 2024

Ripple Of Hope: Understanding The Lived Experience And Academic Achievement Of Latinx Students At Arrupe College And Dougherty Family College: A Case Study, Richard P. Virgin

Dissertations

One of the most common and important entry points into higher education for Latinx and other underrepresented students is through community college. However, national completion rates for Latinx community college students have been trailing their white peers. This gap in academic achievement has prevailed since the 1990s. The trailing rates of degree completion for Latinx students can lead to lower lifetime salary earnings, lack of career advancement, greater risk of losing employment, and an increased chance of living in poverty. However, a successful community college model may be seen as a disruptor in the educational sector due to its much …


The Exodus Of Filipino Teachers To Uzbekistan: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study, Frank Angelo Pacala May 2024

The Exodus Of Filipino Teachers To Uzbekistan: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study, Frank Angelo Pacala

Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia

The Filipino teachers drawn to Uzbekistan were enticed by the prestige and mission of the government schools of Uzbekistan, bringing world-class teaching experience from various countries. This exodus of Filipino teachers to Uzbekistan is given a hermeneutic phenomenological study that reveals a rich tapestry of themes that encapsulate the multifaceted nature of the educators' journey. The Filipino teachers who participated in this study were employed for at least two years. Conducted through semi-structured interviews, the data underwent structural and thematic analysis, revealing a narrative around various distinct theme. Firstly, the educators' resilience, adaptability, and empowerment of local teachers within the …


Politics, Policies, And Procedures: The Iron Triangle Of Implementing Education Reform, Clint Reardon Jr May 2024

Politics, Policies, And Procedures: The Iron Triangle Of Implementing Education Reform, Clint Reardon Jr

Honors College Theses

Education is often seen as a living thing, something that should grow and change with time. However, for far too many people who experience education from both within the school structure and for those who experience education from outside the school structure it can often seem like the educational system is stagnate, dying, and in some cases dead. One shared reason for this perception is perceived barriers in education that stifle creativity and allow educational systems to grow, adapt, and change to meet the needs of the students they serve. This study set out to identify what those barriers are …


Breaking Through: A Study Of Educators In All-Male Classrooms And The Instructional Decisions They Use To Bridge The Gender Academic Achievement Gap, Kelly M. Clark May 2024

Breaking Through: A Study Of Educators In All-Male Classrooms And The Instructional Decisions They Use To Bridge The Gender Academic Achievement Gap, Kelly M. Clark

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In reviewing academic achievement gaps across United States school districts, educational research samples show deviations between males and females with males statistically outperforming females in math while females typically outperform males in reading and language arts. With strict American educational policies set in place to promote equality and equity in the classroom, research and long-term results on the impact and possible benefits of male, single-sex classrooms in the American educational system are limited. This study seeks to explore educators’ best practices for teaching male students and effective strategies to cater to their different needs. By qualitatively studying the experiences of …


Principal Perceptions Of District Supported Job-Embedded Professional Development, Kelly Ledet Burlette May 2024

Principal Perceptions Of District Supported Job-Embedded Professional Development, Kelly Ledet Burlette

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

In a 2021 Wallace Foundation study, researchers concluded that effective school leaders may have a greater impact on student achievement than any single classroom teacher, primarily because of the principal’s scope of influence. Therefore, district leaders may consider how to support school leaders and build their capacity to effectively lead schools and school improvement initiatives. Job-embedded professional development has demonstrated promise in providing principals with opportunities to deepen their instructional leadership practice within an authentic school setting. Even though the current research on job-embedded support for school leaders is limited, this study builds on existing research to focus on the …


An Examination Of Early Childhood Leadership In Public Elementary Schools: A Mixed Methods Study, Wesam Alshahrani May 2024

An Examination Of Early Childhood Leadership In Public Elementary Schools: A Mixed Methods Study, Wesam Alshahrani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As state-funded Pre-K programs in elementary schools continue to grow, elementary principals are increasingly responsible for supporting, supervising, and leading these programs. Therefore, examining elementary principals' early childhood leadership competencies and the factors influencing them may help understand and improve their experiences as early childhood education (ECE) leaders. This explanatory sequential mixed methods study examined the ECE leadership of Tennessee public elementary school principals in two phases.

In the quantitative phase, statewide surveys were used to collect data from 67 principals. The survey comprised 51 items assessing nine ECE leadership competencies, synthesized from statements of leading ECE and elementary education …


Impact Of Reclassification Of Assessments Tests Of English Language Proficiency Assessments For California (Elpac) On The English Language Learners, Nivardo Martinez Nunez May 2024

Impact Of Reclassification Of Assessments Tests Of English Language Proficiency Assessments For California (Elpac) On The English Language Learners, Nivardo Martinez Nunez

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

The reclassification process of English Language Proficiency Assessments for California (ELPAC) significantly impacted the English Language Learners (ELLs) in educational settings. This senior capstone examines the multifaceted impacts of reclassification of assessment tests of ELPAC on the ELLs, and discusses its implications for academic achievement, language proficiency development, and socio-emotional well-being on them. Through a comprehensive review of literature, interviews with English language teaches and anonymous survey for middle school and high school students, the findings indicated that there are benefits as well as challenges for the ELL students when they take the ELPAC assessment tests involving a much more …


Navigating New Frontiers: A Narrative Of Cte Administrators Leading Rural Innovation, Claire Bass May 2024

Navigating New Frontiers: A Narrative Of Cte Administrators Leading Rural Innovation, Claire Bass

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Public school districts play a pivotal role in the well-being of rural communities. To help mitigate the impact of labor market trends, societal shifts, and the skilled labor shortage, rural schools are in the initial stages of expanding innovative career pathways. As such, career and technical education (CTE) administrators serve their rural communities by facilitating robust career pathways to support local labor markets. Due to a skilled labor shortage, a declining labor force participation rate, and a rapidly evolving labor market, there is a lack of qualified and certified personnel to fill industry jobs (Davis et al., 2022). School districts …


P-12 School Administrators' Experiences, Opinions, And Perceptions Of Speech-Language Pathologists In Written Language Instruction And The Response To Intervention, Alison Webster May 2024

P-12 School Administrators' Experiences, Opinions, And Perceptions Of Speech-Language Pathologists In Written Language Instruction And The Response To Intervention, Alison Webster

Dissertations

Many speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are employed in public school systems as part of the special education department to work with students with deficits in oral and written language skills. The literature shows a direct relationship between oral language development and early literacy skills. SLPs can provide a preventative role through the multitiered systems of support (MTSS) or response to intervention (RTI) programs. However, many SLPs report barriers to accessing students in the general education setting. One of these reported barriers is a lack of administrative support. Therefore, this research explored factors that impact a P-12 school administrator’s experiences, opinions, and …


Music Education: Right From The Start. Primary Teachers Survey - South Australia, Rachel Felgate, Toby Carslake, Tanya Vaughan May 2024

Music Education: Right From The Start. Primary Teachers Survey - South Australia, Rachel Felgate, Toby Carslake, Tanya Vaughan

School and system improvement

A broad-ranging survey of teachers and representatives from 115 South Australian government primary schools. The research in South Australia underscores overwhelming support among teachers for the benefits of music learning. However, it also highlights widespread concerns regarding inadequate investment in teacher training, dedicated facilities, and necessary resources.65% of respondents indicated that less than nine hours were allocated to music learning within their initial teaching degrees. Additionally, only about half (53%) said their school has appropriate musical equipment, with just 7% reporting having a purpose-built building to conduct music learning.


Factors Affecting Teacher Retention In A Selected South Carolina School District: Perspectives Of Administrators And Teachers, Alvilda Graham May 2024

Factors Affecting Teacher Retention In A Selected South Carolina School District: Perspectives Of Administrators And Teachers, Alvilda Graham

All Dissertations

In this qualitative descriptive case study, I explored the issue of teacher retention, a growing concern within public K-12 education systems in the United States, particularly in South Carolina. I aimed to understand the unique organizational factors within individual school districts that influence retention decisions from the perspectives of teachers and administrators at the middle school level. I focused on a selected South Carolina school district (SSD) and explored the viewpoints of teachers and administrators regarding teacher retention. To better understand their lived experiences, I conducted semi-structured interviews and surveys with middle school teachers and administrators. Using an improvement science …


El Testimonio De Los Niños De El Parque: Discipline Practices And The Impact On Public High School Students, Francisco E. Huizar-Gonzalez May 2024

El Testimonio De Los Niños De El Parque: Discipline Practices And The Impact On Public High School Students, Francisco E. Huizar-Gonzalez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

What happens to our students when they do not complete their studies and drop out of school? Perhaps this question is probably not something that we reflect on as educators. This study seeks to amplify three studentsâ?? voices and explore their unique experiences and the challenges they faced after they did not complete their high school studies. The interviews that I conducted tell the story of three minority students from lower-income families. Their stories highlight the overall purpose of this study, which is how students who find themselves involved in disciplinary issues are pushed out of school. The interviews capture …


School Leaders' Ethical Decision-Making Related To Student Cyberbullying: A Multi-Case Study Of Two Tennessee School Districts, Jeana M. Partin May 2024

School Leaders' Ethical Decision-Making Related To Student Cyberbullying: A Multi-Case Study Of Two Tennessee School Districts, Jeana M. Partin

Doctoral Dissertations

This multi-case study was designed to explore cyberbullying issues and how school leaders handle student issues related to cyberbullying. I explored how ethical decisions related to student cyberbullying are processed within two school districts in Tennessee. Furthermore, understanding how districts implement and interpret Tennessee Bullying and Harassment Policies helps in exploring school leaders' ethical decision-making process regarding student cyberbullying. Shapiro and Stefkovich's (2021) multiple ethical paradigms, care, critique, justice, and the profession, provided a comprehensive framework for analyzing how school leaders process complex 21st-century ethical decisions related to student-centered cyberbullying issues. A multi-case study supports the research questions …


Programas De Ell Dentro Del Área De Fredericksburg, Va: Una Descripción Y Justificación Para Su Defensa, Natalie Buchanan Apr 2024

Programas De Ell Dentro Del Área De Fredericksburg, Va: Una Descripción Y Justificación Para Su Defensa, Natalie Buchanan

Student Research Submissions

El propósito de esta investigación es analizar y discutir los desafíos comunes que los estudiantes aprendiendo Inglés como segundo idioma (para aquí y delante ELL) experimentan en Virginia. Con el fin de lograr este objetivo, realizaré entrevistas a varios maestros de ELL en las Escuelas Públicas de la Ciudad de Fredericksburg para discutir los problemas y desafíos que estos programas experimentan. Con mis hallazgos espero abogar por la comprensión de estos temas y sugerir ideas para ayudar a desarrollar programas de ELL más eficientes para la población actual de K-12 de ELL del 10% en las escuelas públicas de Virginia …


Comparison Of Dual Enrollment Student Grades In Introductory Biology College Dual-Enrollment Courses Taken In Texas High Schools Or Colleges For School Leaders, Cynthia A. Gallardo Apr 2024

Comparison Of Dual Enrollment Student Grades In Introductory Biology College Dual-Enrollment Courses Taken In Texas High Schools Or Colleges For School Leaders, Cynthia A. Gallardo

School Leadership Review

Dual Enrollment (DE) or Dual Credit (DC) programs have become increasingly prevalent at both the high school and college settings. These programs enable students to earn both high school and college credit and get a head start on their college education. Additionally, students in these programs must take university core curriculum courses to fulfill their college education requirements. A course that several students take is Introductory to Biology, a STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) course. This course is an introductory science course and may present a challenge for students in that there is a large quantity of material discussed. …


Perception, Practice, And Reality: Implementing Effective Professional Development Structures In K-12 School Systems, Rebecca M. Howell, Taylor C. Lauck, Leslie T. Watts Apr 2024

Perception, Practice, And Reality: Implementing Effective Professional Development Structures In K-12 School Systems, Rebecca M. Howell, Taylor C. Lauck, Leslie T. Watts

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A capstone submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education in the Ernst and Sara Lane Volgenau College of Education at Morehead State University by Rebecca M. Howell, Taylor C. Lauck, and Leslie T. Watts on April 9, 2024


The Sound Of Silence: The Educator’S Perspective On Silence During Staff Meetings, Anne Zito Edd, Karen H. Larwin Phd Apr 2024

The Sound Of Silence: The Educator’S Perspective On Silence During Staff Meetings, Anne Zito Edd, Karen H. Larwin Phd

Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership

Staff meetings are a regular occurrence in schools, yet both teachers and principals typically report dissatisfaction with these meetings. The current investigation seeks to understand the viewpoints of public-school teachers on silence during staff meetings. This was the first known investigation on the topic using Q methodology. Data analysis extracted three distinct viewpoints: Get the Party Started, I Don’t Care Anymore, and Don’t Stop Believin’. This study provides the results of data analysis, responds to research questions, and makes recommendations for meeting design and facilitation. The findings indicate how the principal facilitates the meeting seems to have …


Exploring School Leaders' Perceptions Of Gifted Education Educator And Gifted Program Evaluation, Rachel Louise Geesa, Krista M. Stith Apr 2024

Exploring School Leaders' Perceptions Of Gifted Education Educator And Gifted Program Evaluation, Rachel Louise Geesa, Krista M. Stith

Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership

In an effort to better support the needs of PK-12 students identified as gifted or high-ability, school leaders need to be familiar and comfortable with supporting gifted education educators and developing and evaluating gifted education programs. Gifted education educators should have defined roles and responsibilities, and school leaders need to be prepared to effectively evaluate gifted education educators. In this mixed-methods study, we explored pre-service and in-service school leaders’ perceptions of evaluation of gifted education programs or gifted education educators through responses from one anonymous survey with 36 respondents and one optional, confidential interview with seven participants. The findings from …


Exploring Superintendents’ Understandings On Virtual Learning Responses, Kate Maxlow, Karen Sanzo Apr 2024

Exploring Superintendents’ Understandings On Virtual Learning Responses, Kate Maxlow, Karen Sanzo

Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership

In this study, the authors sought to explore superintendents’ understandings of the various influences on how their districts implemented a 100% virtual learning experience for students for the 2020-2021 academic year. Understanding these influences allowed the authors to develop a framework for leading redesigns of learning systems in long-term crisis situations. In this qualitative study we conducted semi-structured interviews with fifteen superintendents in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Findings showed that districts sought to plan equitable virtual learning experiences for all students based on unintentional influences and the district’s intentional responses. We found that during an educational crisis, learning plans emerged …


Building Leadership Capacity & Succession Planning In The Archdiocese Of Seattle Catholic Schools, Pamela J. Schwartz Apr 2024

Building Leadership Capacity & Succession Planning In The Archdiocese Of Seattle Catholic Schools, Pamela J. Schwartz

Education Dissertations

Research shows that Catholic schools are important factors that contribute to the proliferation of the faith (Gray, 2014). Additionally, studies reveal that effective principals have a positive impact on student achievement and school improvement (Leithwood et al., 2004; Waters et al., 2003). Because effective leaders are vital to the success of Catholic schools, it is logical to deduce the importance of investing in robust leadership development and succession programs to ensure the longevity of both Catholic schools and the Church. Rooted in the servant and contemplative leadership theories, this study examined important practices within leadership development and succession planning through …


Navigating The Post-Pandemic Educator Crisis: Evaluating Effective Educational Leadership Styles For Improved Retention And Job Satisfaction (Capstone Project)., Charlotte R. Holt Apr 2024

Navigating The Post-Pandemic Educator Crisis: Evaluating Effective Educational Leadership Styles For Improved Retention And Job Satisfaction (Capstone Project)., Charlotte R. Holt

M.S. in Leadership

This mixed-methods study sought to identify the best practices for educational leaders to promote job satisfaction and retention in the post-pandemic educational landscape. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative methodologies using data from a unique survey and an

in-depth literature review on effective leadership skills. The analysis of survey data, combined with insights from the literature review, offered a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between teacher retention and educational leadership. The study concluded that there is a correlation between effective leadership skills and job satisfaction and found that Democratic-Transformational and Autocratic-Transformational leadership styles are preferred of the six styles …