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Full-Text Articles in Education

Reliability Evidence For The Nc Teacher Evaluation Process Using A Variety Of Indicators Of Inter-Rater Agreement, T. Scott Holcomb, Richard Lambert, Bryndle L. Bottoms Apr 2022

Reliability Evidence For The Nc Teacher Evaluation Process Using A Variety Of Indicators Of Inter-Rater Agreement, T. Scott Holcomb, Richard Lambert, Bryndle L. Bottoms

Journal of Educational Supervision

In this study, various statistical indexes of agreement were calculated using empirical data from a group of evaluators (n = 45) of early childhood teachers. The group of evaluators rated ten fictitious teacher profiles using the North Carolina Teacher Evaluation Process (NCTEP) rubric. The exact and adjacent agreement percentages were calculated for the group of evaluators. Kappa, weighted Kappa, Gwet’s AC1, Gwet’s AC2, and ICCs were used to interpret the level of agreement between the group of raters and a panel of expert raters. Similar to previous studies, Kappa statistics were low in the presence of high levels of ...


Instructional Supervision: Is It Culturally Responsive? A Textbook Analysis, Patricia L. Guerra, A. Minor Baker, Ann Marie Cotman Apr 2022

Instructional Supervision: Is It Culturally Responsive? A Textbook Analysis, Patricia L. Guerra, A. Minor Baker, Ann Marie Cotman

Journal of Educational Supervision

The purpose of this study was to determine whether and to what degree textbooks are preparing aspiring principals as culturally responsive instructional supervisors. After evaluating multiple textbooks against selection criteria, SuperVision and Instructional Leadership: A Developmental Approach, was identified as the study’s unit of analysis. An audit of the subject index was conducted to answer: How are culturally responsive instructional supervision competencies addressed in this leading supervision textbook? Findings revealed content related to cultural responsiveness was concentrated in a chapter at the back of the textbook and the clinical supervision cycle, a powerful means of changing instructional practices (Gordon ...


Personal Reflections On Supervision As Instructional Leadership: From Whence It Came And To Where Shall It Go?, Jeffrey Glanz Jan 2022

Personal Reflections On Supervision As Instructional Leadership: From Whence It Came And To Where Shall It Go?, Jeffrey Glanz

Journal of Educational Supervision

The field of supervision has perennially struggled to define itself and, hence, find a niche within the larger field of education and, more narrowly, even within the field of instructional leadership. A sort of an odd, almost contradictory state exists, one in which precludes, in my opinion, the field of supervision from gaining traction as a field, but also, perhaps more importantly, as an influential practice in schools. Books on supervision seem popular, but only in title. In others words, publishers, for instance, prefer the word "supervision" as part of the title of books they publish on the subject, whereas ...


Advancing A Democratic Pedagogy And Supervision Framework: An Illustrative Case Of Teacher Questioning In Secondary Mathematics Instruction, Esther A. Enright, Douglas Wieczorek Jan 2022

Advancing A Democratic Pedagogy And Supervision Framework: An Illustrative Case Of Teacher Questioning In Secondary Mathematics Instruction, Esther A. Enright, Douglas Wieczorek

Journal of Educational Supervision

This article pushes back against the evalu-centric view of improvement (Hazi, 2018; 2020) in the supervision literature by advocating for a democratic pedagogy and supervision framework developed to support instructional supervision and evaluation dialogue between teachers and leaders. This democratized approach honors and centers the teacher’s expertise and learning as well as the leader’s in the observation, debrief, and reflection process. Through this decentering of expertise in the instructional supervision cycle, our goal is to build leaders’ and teachers’ mutual capacity to develop, implement, and sustain democratic instructional supervision cultures in classrooms and schools. Additionally, we illustrate our ...


Semiotic Analysis Of A Foundational Textbook Used Widely Across Educational Supervision, Dwayne Ray Cormier, Toshna Pandey Dec 2021

Semiotic Analysis Of A Foundational Textbook Used Widely Across Educational Supervision, Dwayne Ray Cormier, Toshna Pandey

Journal of Educational Supervision

This article details a semiotic analysis of a foundational textbook used widely across the field of supervision. The purpose of this study was to explore how signs associated with key concepts in education may actualize through the work of supervision. The textbook served as a proxy for supervisors’ professional disposition and subsequent praxis within educational leadership and teacher education programs and U.S. PreK-12 school systems. Additionally, investigators served as proxies for equity-minded supervisors through an analytical framework, which centers race and cultural differences within the broader context of social justice. This investigation drew from the following theoretical constructions: (a ...


Examining Opportunities For Higher-Order Thinking In Secondary And Middle-Level Proficiency-Based Mathematics Classrooms, Quinton Donahue Dec 2021

Examining Opportunities For Higher-Order Thinking In Secondary And Middle-Level Proficiency-Based Mathematics Classrooms, Quinton Donahue

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In 2011, the state of Maine introduced a statute that required all diplomas to be awarded on the basis of proficiency by 2017. During this period of time, school districts moved to incorporate Proficiency-based Education (PBE) systems of instruction and learning. This prompted educators to bring clarity to standards, assessment, and grading practices. In many schools, they also began to focus on the idea that mastery drives movement. Districts were encouraged to integrate higher-order thinking opportunities for students when making these changes to their learning system. Despite this guidance, it is not clear as to the extent that higher-order thinking ...


Supervision To Deepen Teacher Candidates’ Understanding Of Social Justice: The Role Of Responsive Mediation In Professional Development Schools, Megan E. Lynch Nov 2021

Supervision To Deepen Teacher Candidates’ Understanding Of Social Justice: The Role Of Responsive Mediation In Professional Development Schools, Megan E. Lynch

Journal of Educational Supervision

Those responsible for supervising teacher candidates have an obligation to promote socially just pedagogies. In this paper, I investigate my own supervisory practice as a novice supervisor in my mediation of a teacher candidate’s understanding of social justice. I rely on a sociocultural theoretical perspective (Vygotsky, 1978) and the psychological tool of responsive mediation (Johnson & Golombek, 2016) for my supervisory practice and an anti-capitalist interpretation of socially just teaching (Apple, 2004; Ayers, 2010; Bowles & Gintis, 2011). Through a microgenetic analysis (Wertsch, 1985) of a post-observation transcript, I empirically document the developmental opportunities that take place over a span of 15 minutes and how my responsive mediation shaped how the teacher candidate shifted to talking about ...


Towards A Theory Of Critical Consciousness: A New Direction For The Development Of Instructional And Supervisory Leaders, Shannon R. Waite Nov 2021

Towards A Theory Of Critical Consciousness: A New Direction For The Development Of Instructional And Supervisory Leaders, Shannon R. Waite

Journal of Educational Supervision

COVID-19 and the demand for racial justice caused the dark underbelly of white supremacy to be laid bare during 2020. These events call for a reexamination of the ontological and epistemological frameworks in academe and specifically within the field of educational leadership. The legacy of white supremacist ideology prevails as the existing and accepted ontological and epistemological perspectives of history offered in PreK-12 through post-secondary education. The political, economic, and social context highlights the need for instructional and supervisory leaders to be culturally responsive school leaders. This requires that programs preparing these leaders must grapple with and problematize the existing ...


Addressing Dehumanizing Mathematical Practices: Using Supervisory Leaders’ Experiential Knowledge To Transform The Mathematics Classroom, Allison Mudd, Stefanie D. Livers, Artavia Acklin, Tommy Acklin, Linda D. Harper, Tiffany Davis Nov 2021

Addressing Dehumanizing Mathematical Practices: Using Supervisory Leaders’ Experiential Knowledge To Transform The Mathematics Classroom, Allison Mudd, Stefanie D. Livers, Artavia Acklin, Tommy Acklin, Linda D. Harper, Tiffany Davis

Journal of Educational Supervision

Deficit language concerning historically marginalized students pervades much of education today. Black, Brown, and Indigenous children experience marginalization and dehumanizing practices in classrooms instead of participating in a safe space to learn and grow. For this paper we employ a crucial component from Critical Race Theory to address systemic racism in schools: we listen to the lived experiences of professionals of color. These personal narratives open avenues for social justice through critiquing current and historical political, economic, and sociocultural practices and policies. This study examined how four Black collaborators – one high school principal, one middle school principal, one elementary principal ...


A Quantitative Study Of Mathematics Anxiety In First-Generation Pre-Service Teachers, Wendi Malenfant Aug 2021

A Quantitative Study Of Mathematics Anxiety In First-Generation Pre-Service Teachers, Wendi Malenfant

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Many pre-service teachers suffer from mathematics anxiety which can lead to mathematics avoidance, poor mathematics performance, and the potential to pass on mathematics anxiety to their future students. More and more first-generation college students, who also suffer from math anxiety, are attending four-year universities and studying to be teachers. School leaders, educators, and researchers must recognize the serious nature of mathematics anxiety, how it negatively impacts learners, and how the cycle is perpetuated if the root causes of mathematics anxiety are not mitigated, especially in elementary teachers.

This quantitative study, which utilized an anonymous mathematics anxiety survey, examined the prevalence ...


Empowering Teachers Through Instructional Supervision: Using Solution Focused Strategies In A Leadership Preparation Program, Marla W. Mcghee, Marcella D. Stark Jun 2021

Empowering Teachers Through Instructional Supervision: Using Solution Focused Strategies In A Leadership Preparation Program, Marla W. Mcghee, Marcella D. Stark

Journal of Educational Supervision

The purpose of this study was to determine how students in an educational leadership preservice program perceived the effectiveness of solution-focused supervision (SFS) taught in an instructional supervision class. Interviews, observations, and artifacts, and a case study design, were applied to address two primary research questions. Findings revealed the use of solution-focused (SF) strategies produced positive outcomes, but required dramatic paradigm shifts from study participants. Moreover, the researchers found that respondents used a wide range of SF strategies in the clinical cycle exercise. Participants, furthermore, affirmed that SF structures and language promoted reflection, conversation, and empowerment of teachers. These positive ...


Examining Factors Predictive Of Hazing In Ncaa Division Iii Athletics And Considering The Implications For Prevention, David James Kerschner May 2021

Examining Factors Predictive Of Hazing In Ncaa Division Iii Athletics And Considering The Implications For Prevention, David James Kerschner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hazing is a concern throughout postsecondary education, with students experiencing psychological, emotional, and physical harm. Although several scholars have identified college athletes to be an at-risk group for hazing and Division III is the largest division of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), there is a lack of research focused on hazing in this context. Utilizing a critical quantitative research paradigm and considering limitations of the extant literature focused on NCAA Division III, I examined the nature and extent of varsity athlete and non-athlete hazing and factors predictive of hazing experiences for students and varsity athletes at five NCAA Division ...


The Impact Of Elementary Mathematics Coaches On Elementary Teachers' Attitudes Towards Teaching Mathematics, Samuel R. Ward Aug 2020

The Impact Of Elementary Mathematics Coaches On Elementary Teachers' Attitudes Towards Teaching Mathematics, Samuel R. Ward

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study compares levels of mathematics anxiety and teacher efficacy between inservice and preservice elementary teachers. Prior research has indicated that mathematics anxiety is a common trait among elementary teachers. Mathematics anxiety has also been found to have a negative impact on preservice elementary teachers’ efficacy towards teaching mathematics. To address this challenge, some states have begun hiring elementary mathematics coaches to support elementary teachers. Besides focusing on mathematics anxiety and teacher efficacy, this study also investigated the impacts of elementary mathematics coaches on inservice elementary teachers.

A total of 174 inservice teachers and 51 preservice teachers completed a survey ...


A Thirty State Analysis Of Teacher Supervision And Evaluation Systems In The Essa Era, Ian M. Mette, Israel Aguilar, Douglas Wieczorek Jun 2020

A Thirty State Analysis Of Teacher Supervision And Evaluation Systems In The Essa Era, Ian M. Mette, Israel Aguilar, Douglas Wieczorek

Journal of Educational Supervision

We analyzed teacher supervision and evaluation policy systems in 30 states since the passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015 in the United States (US). This qualitative study of state ESSA policy documents and legislation examined how teacher supervision and evaluation systems (TSES) models have been developed under ESSA, specifically regarding how the construction of TSES models conflated formative feedback with summative evaluation. Despite evolving federal-level and state-level education accountability policies spurred by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in 2001, we argue that TSES systems are influenced by state-level historical political culture (Elazar, 1994; Fowler, 2013), workplace ...


Making A Shift In Educator Evaluation, Diane M. Carreiro Jun 2020

Making A Shift In Educator Evaluation, Diane M. Carreiro

Journal of Educational Supervision

The educator evaluation process can be a compliance task as well as an arduous process causing stress and anxiety for educators and their evaluators. The evaluation process in this suburban district is changing. Educators and evaluators are working together to create a new knowledge base and share it amongst their school community and others. Educators are being allowed voice and choice when determining how they will be evaluated and the areas in which they are going to focus their own personal growth. Teachers are becoming school-based experts on the topics that they are learning and researching. This has allowed for ...


To Be Continued: Carl Glickman’S Work As The Beginning Of The Story, Sara Espinoza Jun 2020

To Be Continued: Carl Glickman’S Work As The Beginning Of The Story, Sara Espinoza

Journal of Educational Supervision

Carl Glickman's life has been dedicated to researching and supporting school improvement initiatives that honor purposeful student learning. Currently, this kind of learning stands in contrast to mainstream educational practices. As a means of inviting school leaders to apply his work, this article highlights the commons threads in Glickman's writings, demonstrates their immediate relevance to all educators, and offers suggestions for taking action. With a framework of instructional supervision that emphasizes community, diversity, empowerment, democracy, and authenticity, there is a greater hope for bettering America's schools.


Role Enactment And Types Of Feedback: The Influence Of Leadership Content Knowledge On Instructional Leadership Efforts, Sarah Quebec Fuentes, Jo Beth Jimerson Jun 2020

Role Enactment And Types Of Feedback: The Influence Of Leadership Content Knowledge On Instructional Leadership Efforts, Sarah Quebec Fuentes, Jo Beth Jimerson

Journal of Educational Supervision

Instructional leadership is a primary task of school leaders, but this work may be complicated when leaders and teachers do not share content area or grade level expertise. Work around leadership content knowledge (LCK) acknowledges that school leaders cannot know everything about teaching in the content areas, but suggests leaders can work to bridge this divide. Still, little is known about how leaders’ LCK intersects with their efforts to support improvements in teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to explore ways in which LCK facilitates or, in its absence, hinders instructional leadership efforts. Thirty-one teachers and school ...


The Supervision-Evaluation Debate Meets The Theory-To-Practice Conundrum: Contemplations Of A Practitioner Turned Professor, Marla W. Mcghee Jun 2020

The Supervision-Evaluation Debate Meets The Theory-To-Practice Conundrum: Contemplations Of A Practitioner Turned Professor, Marla W. Mcghee

Journal of Educational Supervision

This article explores the tension between instructional supervision and teacher evaluation inherent in the professional literature and in practice. Moreover, it suggests engaging in formal appraisal processes less often to allow instructional leaders and classroom teachers more time for formative support for growth and improvement. Finally, this piece offers a range of formative development options and advocates teachers as educational professionals at a time when teacher quality and retention to the profession are paramount.


An Analysis Of Superintendent And Principal Perceptions Regarding The Supervision And Evaluation Of Principals, Courtney Ann Mckim, David Hvidston, Barbara J. Hickman Nov 2019

An Analysis Of Superintendent And Principal Perceptions Regarding The Supervision And Evaluation Of Principals, Courtney Ann Mckim, David Hvidston, Barbara J. Hickman

Journal of Educational Supervision

The goals for this study were to examine principals’ perceptions regarding their own supervision and evaluation and compare to superintendents’ perceptions regarding the supervision and evaluation of principals. Three research questions guided the inquiry: (1) What are the perceptions of principal and superintendents’ regarding their own supervision?; (2) What are the perceptions of principal and superintendents’ regarding their own evaluation?; and (3) What are the differences in perceptions of principal and superintendents’ regarding supervision and evaluation? This study followed a descriptive format and used a 20 item on-line survey to measure principal and superintendents’ perceptions regarding critical elements in their ...


An Exploration Of Technology Leadership In Three Maine Public School Districts, David L. Fournier May 2019

An Exploration Of Technology Leadership In Three Maine Public School Districts, David L. Fournier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The promise of technology for positively influencing student outcomes is being hampered by a lack of understanding of who is leading technology in public schools and differing beliefs of technology use among technology leaders. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to describe and understand the nature of technology leadership in three Maine public school districts. Research questions explored the roles, responsibilities, values, and beliefs of the technology leaders and examined how technology leaders mobilized stakeholders in using technology to positively influence student outcomes. Fifteen participants were interviewed from across three case sites. Data analysis was guided by the ...


Shocks To The System: The Micropolitics Of Communities In Economic Shock When Determining The Outcome Of Local Education, Kathy Jeanne Harris-Smedberg May 2019

Shocks To The System: The Micropolitics Of Communities In Economic Shock When Determining The Outcome Of Local Education, Kathy Jeanne Harris-Smedberg

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is estimated that the United States lost almost eight million manufacturing jobs in total from its peak in 1979 to 2010, which not only resulted in job loss, but wage depression and higher welfare spending in the US (Dubner, 2017, DeSilver, 2017). These losses were exacerbated in small rural mill towns where up to 70% of a town’s revenues, at some point, had depended on the exiting industry. Too often, affected workers, if they did find work, were reallocated to jobs with dramatic wage reductions, leaving communities with substantially reduced funding revenues and rising welfare, disability, public service ...


Principals’ Perceptions Of Teacher Evaluation Reform From Structural And Human Resource Perspectives, John Wilson Campbell, Mary Lynne Derrington May 2019

Principals’ Perceptions Of Teacher Evaluation Reform From Structural And Human Resource Perspectives, John Wilson Campbell, Mary Lynne Derrington

Journal of Educational Supervision

Driven by Race to the Top funding and quickly designed and deployed in 2010-2011, a new teacher evaluation policy in Tennessee altered principals’ supervisory practices regarding their use of time for observation and reporting, their interaction with teachers, and the methods for giving teachers performance ratings. In addition, student test score data were integrated into final ratings, and professional consequences were linked with those ratings. Researchers in this study followed fourteen school principals over a five-year period to understand how their perceptions of new evaluation policy components affected their implementation. Data were analyzed using the structural and human resource frames ...


Shedding Light On The Phenomenon Of Supervision Traveling Incognito: A Field’S Struggles For Visibility, Jeffrey Glanz, Helen M. Hazi Feb 2019

Shedding Light On The Phenomenon Of Supervision Traveling Incognito: A Field’S Struggles For Visibility, Jeffrey Glanz, Helen M. Hazi

Journal of Educational Supervision

As a field of study, supervision has gone through a tumultuous history and continues to struggle for visibility. Its principles related to teaching and learning are often discussed, yet the term supervision has been controversial more than once. For a variety of reasons, historically and conceptually, supervision has traveled incognito under several guises. In this article, the history of supervision is explored as it relates to its ties with educational administration, curriculum, and more recently instructional leadership to explain its absence from the research literature, and to present implications for supervision as a field of study. An understanding of this ...


A Study Of Teacher Growth, Supervision, And Evaluation In Alberta: Policy And Perception In A Collective Case Study, Pamela Adams, Carmen Mombourquette, Jim Brandon, Darryl Hunter, Sharon Friesen, Kim Koh, Dennis Parsons, Bonnie Stelmach Nov 2018

A Study Of Teacher Growth, Supervision, And Evaluation In Alberta: Policy And Perception In A Collective Case Study, Pamela Adams, Carmen Mombourquette, Jim Brandon, Darryl Hunter, Sharon Friesen, Kim Koh, Dennis Parsons, Bonnie Stelmach

Journal of Educational Supervision

Teacher effectiveness has long been identified as critical to student success and, more recently, supporting students attaining the skills and dispositions required to be successful in the early 21st century. To do so requires that teachers engage in professional learning characterized as a shift away from conventional models of evaluation and judgment. Accordingly, school and system leaders must create “policies and environments designed to actively support teacher professional growth” (Bakkenes, Vermunt, & Webbels, 2010). This paper reports on the Alberta Teacher Growth, Supervision, and Evaluation (TGSE) Policy (Government of Alberta, 1998) through the eyes of teachers, school leaders, and superintendents. The ...


Teacher Performance Evaluation And Professional Growth In The Era Of "Educator Effectiveness" In Maine, Jonathan E. Doty May 2018

Teacher Performance Evaluation And Professional Growth In The Era Of "Educator Effectiveness" In Maine, Jonathan E. Doty

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Maine is one of many states that undertook reform to teacher supervision and evaluation in the wake of public attention (e.g., Waiting for Superman) and federal pressure (e.g., NCLB Flexibility Waivers). The Maine Legislature passed An Act to Ensure Effective Teaching and School Leadership (2012), shifting from local discretion to greater state influence on the functions of formative supervision and summative evaluation. As school districts created systems to meet the state’s mandates, they combined growth and employment functions and navigated persistent challenges described in the literature on evaluation and supervision.

The purpose of this study was to ...


A Multiple Case Study Of Secondary School Teachers' Understanding Of Learning Relationships In Virtual Schools: Implications For Teacher Identity, Linda M. Fuller May 2018

A Multiple Case Study Of Secondary School Teachers' Understanding Of Learning Relationships In Virtual Schools: Implications For Teacher Identity, Linda M. Fuller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is now a strong presence of virtual schools in the United States serving K-12 students, along with increased opportunities for brick-and-mortar students to take virtual courses (Ash, 2011; Luo, Hibbard, Franklin, & Moore, 2017). Research into the human impact of virtual education is not keeping pace (Gulosino & Miron, 2017; Rice et al., 2014). This study focused on the experiences and insights of virtual teachers in terms of their relationships with learners as well as on potential changes in their sense of professional identity as they moved from one setting to the other. During a series of three individual, semi-structured interviews, five teachers described their teaching first as brick-and-mortar high school teachers and then as teachers in virtual ...


Muslim International Student And Higher Education: A Qualitative Study Of Students' Experiences Against A Backdrop Of Islamophobia, Donna M. Seppy May 2018

Muslim International Student And Higher Education: A Qualitative Study Of Students' Experiences Against A Backdrop Of Islamophobia, Donna M. Seppy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

International student enrollment at institutions of higher education in the United States continues to rise. Despite political and social tensions, students from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) nations continue to enroll in record numbers, yet there is minimal literature focused on the experiences of this sub-group of international students.

This qualitative study sought to understand the lived-experiences and perceived needs of Muslim International students from Middle East and North Africa nations enrolled in an institution of higher education in the northeast United States. This study employed a phenomenological approach to discovery aimed to develop new understandings of their ...


Office Of Student Activities & Organizations (University Of Maine) Records, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine Jan 2018

Office Of Student Activities & Organizations (University Of Maine) Records, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University Of Maine

Finding Aids

The records mainly contain textual information created and curated by the University of Maine's Office of Student Activities & Organizations. The record group includes copies of Dean of Students meeting minutes, various memorandums, policies, procedures, by-laws, and regulations related to student organizations, parietals, dormitories, open houses, records, and behavior, copy of University of Maine Judicial Code, miscellaneous information regarding social affairs including contracts and financial statements, and miscellaneous information regarding fraternities and sororities and the University of Maine's Student Senate.


Exploring The Ways In Which Highly Efficacious Intermediate Teachers Employ Best Practices In Reading Instruction For Struggling Readers, Terrence P. Young Aug 2017

Exploring The Ways In Which Highly Efficacious Intermediate Teachers Employ Best Practices In Reading Instruction For Struggling Readers, Terrence P. Young

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this mixed method study was to build on the earlier efficacy work of Tschannen, Moran, and Hoy (2001) and the reading teacher efficacy work of Szabo and Mokhtari (2004) to add to educational research related to teacher efficacy and reading. This study is specifically focused on the teaching of reading to struggling readers at the intermediate levels. The study was guided by four research questions that focused on the teaching of struggling readers at the intermediate level. Reading teacher self-efficacy levels were established through a survey instrument. In addition, data from two interviews, structured and semi-structured, about ...


Discourses Of Developmental English Education: Reframing Policy Debates, Aaron R. Tolbert May 2017

Discourses Of Developmental English Education: Reframing Policy Debates, Aaron R. Tolbert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

According to the National Educational Longitudinal Study, an estimated 28% of academically underprepared students who take developmental courses (preparatory, not credit-bearing) graduate within 8.5 years (Attewell, Lavin, Domina, & Levey, 2006), far below the national average graduation rate of near 60% of students for all postsecondary institutions (USDE, 2016). Given these statistics, some conclude that developmental education itself contributes to the low graduation rate of developmental students (Bailey, Jaggars, & Jenkins, 2015). Indeed, the causes of this attainment gap are the focus of vigorous debates by scholars from numerous disciplines, defining whether the problems exist within the organizational structure and climate of the institution, the developmental coursework, the students’ academic preparedness, or with other factors (Bailey et al., 2015; Goudas & Boylan, 2012; Grubb & Babriner, 2013). Similarly, the research methodologies most appropriate to analyze the problems are also debated (Bailey et al., 2015; Goudas & Boylan, 2012; Grubb & Babriner, 2013). In fact, since developmental education’s inception, scholars have disputed how to conduct basic skills education (Grubb & Babriner, 2013) and how best to support developmental students (Soliday, 2002). Despite the breadth of current inquiry, few scholars have used poststructural methodologies to explore the conceptual construction of “problems” related to developmental education, except within the field of basic writing (Horner & Lu, 1999).

Accordingly, the purpose of ...