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Self-regulation

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Full-Text Articles in Education

A Transcendental Phenomenological Study Of Quality-Of-Life Training In Self-Regulation Skills Of Young Adults With Asperger's Syndrome, Traci L. Maynard Dec 2023

A Transcendental Phenomenological Study Of Quality-Of-Life Training In Self-Regulation Skills Of Young Adults With Asperger's Syndrome, Traci L. Maynard

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to understand lived experiences in young adults with Asperger’s syndrome (AS) as they transitioned out of high school after completion of quality-of-life training. The theories guiding this study were Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning and Adam Morton’s theory of mind in predictive behaviors. Pavlov’s theory relates to understanding whether individuals could be classically conditioned to reinforce a natural reflex or some involuntary behavior that would occur as a response to classical conditioning. Morton’s theory helped focus this phenomenological study by describing the training in predictive behaviors by conceptual structure. Participants were selected from …


The Relationship Between The Volume And Complexity Of Books Read Based On Accelerated Reader Assessment Data And The 5th-Grade Students’ Reading Achievement Scores, Glenda Edna Rodriguez Dec 2023

The Relationship Between The Volume And Complexity Of Books Read Based On Accelerated Reader Assessment Data And The 5th-Grade Students’ Reading Achievement Scores, Glenda Edna Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the reading performance data for a grade level of fifth graders using the Web-based Accelerated Reader assessment program. Based solely on student archival data, this study focused on the hypothesized relationship between the volume and complexity of quizzes taken from books read using the Accelerated Reader assessment program and academic performance on the state’s standardized reading achievement portion of the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR) test. An independent sample t – test was also performed to investigate if there were any differences between the gender, language, and socioeconomic status of the subgroup …


Writing As A Vessel For Thinking: Incorporating Self-Regulation, Metacognition, And Formative Assessment In The Middle School Ela Classroom, Alyssha N. Ginzel May 2022

Writing As A Vessel For Thinking: Incorporating Self-Regulation, Metacognition, And Formative Assessment In The Middle School Ela Classroom, Alyssha N. Ginzel

Michigan Reading Journal

This article examines three approaches to teaching writing: self-regulated instruction (Graham, 2018; Graham, 2020; Graham & Perin, 2007), metacognitive strategies (Hacker, 2018; Madison et al., 2019), and formative assessment (Black & Wiliam, 1998; Fleischer, 2013; Madison et al., 2019). Implementing these approaches, secondary ELA teachers can strike a balance between order and chaos while empowering adolescents to recognize, develop, and take ownership of their thinking and writing. Writing can and should be about grappling with big ideas that ultimately help us come to deeper, fuller understandings of ourselves and the world. This article explores how secondary ELA teachers can help …


Using Blended Learning And Writing Conferences To Develop High Schoolers’ Writing Skills And Self-Regulated Learning, Ashley Nicole Galloway-Speight Jul 2021

Using Blended Learning And Writing Conferences To Develop High Schoolers’ Writing Skills And Self-Regulated Learning, Ashley Nicole Galloway-Speight

Theses and Dissertations

Strong writing skills are an essential element in all areas of life. Written communication is pervasive in both daily life and the workplace. Yet nationwide studies reveal that many students in America graduate from high school with insufficient writing skills. Studies on writing instruction suggest that a shift to teaching writing as a process rather than a product, presentation of quality individualized, focused feedback, and teaching of metacognitive writing skills can help improve writing skills in high school students. The purpose of this mixed methods action research was to determine how the supplemental use of face-to-face writing conferences combined with …


Think Aloud Modeling: Expert And Coping Models In Writing Instruction And Literacy Pedagogy, Zoi A. Traga Philippakos Jun 2021

Think Aloud Modeling: Expert And Coping Models In Writing Instruction And Literacy Pedagogy, Zoi A. Traga Philippakos

The Language and Literacy Spectrum

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to review the utility of think alouds in writing instruction and highlight the function of think-aloud modeling in the development of cognitive and metacognitive strategies that support learners’ independence. For these purposes, modeling with coping is also explained. Coping models, in which teachers encounter challenges and show how to resolve them using specific strategies, are more effective than expert models according to which tasks are completed at a level of mastery. The paper reviews learning theories and focuses on specific practices that can support learners’ self-regulation through the use of models that verbalize …


The Effects Of Mindful Yoga Instruction On Participants' Academic Stamina And Self-Regulation In A Kindergarten Classroom, Taylor Jeppson Jun 2021

The Effects Of Mindful Yoga Instruction On Participants' Academic Stamina And Self-Regulation In A Kindergarten Classroom, Taylor Jeppson

Education Masters Papers

This study consisted of 15 participants in a kindergarten classroom. Participants were involved in an intervention where they participated in mindful yoga instruction. Mindful yoga instruction refers to the concentration on the present moment in time (Germer, 2004) and consisting of yoga poses that involve stretching in combination with the inhalation and exhalation of the breath (Field, 2011). The yoga instruction was given to participants for ten minutes a day, every day, for a four-week long duration. This intervention was given by the classroom teacher (researcher) and was conducted before participants’ whole-group math lesson. The data collected reflects the impact …


Montessori Education: Teaching Self-Regulation Through Virtual Instruction, Brooke M. Myers, Catherine Scott Apr 2021

Montessori Education: Teaching Self-Regulation Through Virtual Instruction, Brooke M. Myers, Catherine Scott

Honors Theses

One of the hallmarks of a Montessori education is the development of children’s social and emotional regulation skills. However, what happens when the Montessori curriculum is interrupted due to the onset of COVID-19? Does the transition to online learning impact student opportunities for social and emotional self-regulation? This case study attempts to examine the ways in which a school’s four lower and upper elementary Montessori teachers adjust their instruction to meet student needs online, and the benefits and challenges they experienced as a result. Findings are shared, as well as implications for those engaged in virtual instruction of K-6 students.


Using Mindfulness Practices To Increase Self-Regulation In Pre-Kindergarten And Kindergarten-Aged Children, Ellyn E. Culotta Mar 2021

Using Mindfulness Practices To Increase Self-Regulation In Pre-Kindergarten And Kindergarten-Aged Children, Ellyn E. Culotta

LSU Master's Theses

BACKGROUND: Self-regulation is identified in the literature as an early predictor of later life success and an important skill that develops over the course of a lifetime beginning in early childhood (Flook et al., 2015; Montroy et al., 2016; Murray et al., 2017). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research study was to assess whether direct instruction of Mindfulness Practices, such as guided meditation and yoga poses (Lee et al., 2020; Poehlmann-Tynan et al., 2016; Zelazo et al., 2012) would increase self-regulatory behaviors, such as impulse control, emotion regulation, and problem-solving in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten aged children. METHOD: Target children were …


A Matrix Of Feedback For Learning, Cam Brooks, Annemaree Carroll, Robyn M. Gillies, John Hattie Jan 2019

A Matrix Of Feedback For Learning, Cam Brooks, Annemaree Carroll, Robyn M. Gillies, John Hattie

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The present study used an established model of feedback (Hattie & Timperley, 2007) as a framework to explore which types and levels of feedback are most common in the upper primary classroom. Results demonstrate that feedback was predominantly directed toward the task level and that feed forward, information about the next steps for learning, was the least occurring feedback type in the classroom. Based upon research and findings, the authors propose a conceptual matrix of feedback that bridges research to practice with the aim of feedback being a driver to promote improvement.


The Effects Of Metacognitive Training On Algebra Students’ Calibration Accuracy, Achievement, And Mathematical Literacy, Deana J. Ford Oct 2018

The Effects Of Metacognitive Training On Algebra Students’ Calibration Accuracy, Achievement, And Mathematical Literacy, Deana J. Ford

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation describes an empirical study that investigated how metacognitive training influenced lower achieving Algebra students’ calibration accuracy, achievement, and development of mathematics literacy. Multiple methods were used to collect and analyze the data. Close analysis of students’ work and classroom observations revealed that students that were exposed to the metacognitive training had significantly higher prediction accuracy and made gains in their understanding of the mathematics word problems than did students who did not receive the metacognitive training. Overall, however, both the intervention and comparison groups improved in their academic performance and became more mathematically literate and accurate in their …


A Single Case Study Exploring Self-Efficacy In An After-School Program, Dubois T. Mcmillan Oct 2018

A Single Case Study Exploring Self-Efficacy In An After-School Program, Dubois T. Mcmillan

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this single-case study was to examine the impact that the Young Moviemakers of America (YMA) after-school program had on the self-efficacy levels of six student-participants. Self-efficacy is considered a strong predictor of students’ academic success and social-emotional intelligence that influences life trajectories. YMA was formed to provide an outlet for youth in south Los Angeles to express their creative voices through a project-based, hands-on model where participants write and produce an original short documentary film.

This study was conducted to examine how YMA’s use of self-efficacy building strategies might impact students’ personal perceptions of general self-efficacy. Various …


Self-Regulation, Co-Regulation, And Feedback In The Context Of Cross-Cultural Language Acquisition In Higher Education: A Conceptual Approach, Papia Bawa Sep 2018

Self-Regulation, Co-Regulation, And Feedback In The Context Of Cross-Cultural Language Acquisition In Higher Education: A Conceptual Approach, Papia Bawa

Journal of Research Initiatives

Given the exponential growth in international student populations in the United States, supporting cross cultural language learners (CCLL) in developing their self and co-regulated learning is highly important. This paper presents a conceptual framework on the value of feedback within self-regulated versus co-regulated environments, in the context of cross- cultural language learning. We use the term cross cultural language learners (CCLL) to refer to international learners, in particular from Asia. When exploring the issues of cross cultural language acquisition relating to logographic (Chinese) and alphabetic (English) languages, we examine the literature that support self and co-regulated learning within the frame …


Movement Break Effects On Second Graders: An Action Research Study, Windy K. Sizemore Jan 2018

Movement Break Effects On Second Graders: An Action Research Study, Windy K. Sizemore

Theses and Dissertations

This paper describes an action research study regarding the amount of time elementary school children have to engage in movement and play during the school day. The teacher-researcher focused on using transitional movement breaks before math whole group instruction in an effort to answer the question: How do various types of movement breaks during instructional transitions impact off-task behaviors among second grade students during classroom instruction? The data results showed that physical activity related to students’ abilities to stay on-task during instruction when regularly scheduled movement breaks have been implemented as transitions. Student off-task behaviors decreased after using a physical …


Impact Of An Intervention To Improve Self-Regulation Skills Among Students In The Introductory Biology Course At A Southern Technical College, Jessica Burr Lea Jan 2018

Impact Of An Intervention To Improve Self-Regulation Skills Among Students In The Introductory Biology Course At A Southern Technical College, Jessica Burr Lea

Theses and Dissertations

This paper describes a problem of practice centered on Introductory Biology students’ at a southern technical college’s struggle for course success due to an insufficient ability to self-regulate. It is the concern of the researcher that many students do not experience course success because of their poor time management skills, lack of self-reflective behaviors, and failure to correct unsuccessful habits. Wilde and Hardaker (1997) refer to the need for college students to self-regulate as a form of educational “autonomy” which places a larger portion of the learning in the hands of the student rather that solely at the hands of …


The Impact Of Graphic Organizer Use On The Metacognitive Skills Of Ten Senior High School Students In An English Iv British Literature Class At Seaside High School, Josie P. White Jan 2017

The Impact Of Graphic Organizer Use On The Metacognitive Skills Of Ten Senior High School Students In An English Iv British Literature Class At Seaside High School, Josie P. White

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of graphic organizer use on the metacognitive skills of 10 senior high school students in English IV British Literature at Seaside High School.

This study took place over the course of five weeks in Spring 2017 and involved one section of the teacher-researcher’s English IV British Literature class at Seaside High School. Through student surveys, a pre-study interview with each student-participant, a learning styles inventory, students’ use of graphic organizers, the teacher-researcher’s observations and field notes, two writing assignments, and a post-study interview with each student-participant, extensive data was collected …


Teaching Goal Setting Strategies In A Title I Elementary School; An Action Research Study, Susan Ridgeway Nunamaker Jan 2017

Teaching Goal Setting Strategies In A Title I Elementary School; An Action Research Study, Susan Ridgeway Nunamaker

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative action research study is to explore the impact of goal setting on the learning process of fifth-grade students in a Title I school. The subjects of this research study are 17 fifth-grade student-participants along with their homeroom teacher-participant. A goal setting unit was designed specifically for this action research study to enable student-participants to experience setting mastery goals and to develop an academic engagement practice through goal setting; thus empowering them for future learning. Semi-structured student interviews, student data journals in the form of goal setting forms, and an open-ended interview with the teacher-participant provide …


The Impact Of Self-Regulating Practice Strategies On The Achievement Perceptions Of Sixth-Grade String Orchestra Students, Anne Poe Matthews Jan 2017

The Impact Of Self-Regulating Practice Strategies On The Achievement Perceptions Of Sixth-Grade String Orchestra Students, Anne Poe Matthews

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of self-regulating strategies on the musical achievement perceptions of 8 6th-grade students in a beginning orchestra class. For the purposes of the study, musical achievement was measured using two parameters: (a) student self-reports of improvement and ability to effectively use self-regulating strategies and (b) teacher observations ascertaining improved class performance and student use of self-regulating strategies. During the Fall 2016 semester, students received instruction during class on goal setting, monitoring, and evaluating strategies that they were to incorporate during self-directed practice. Data were collected during pre- and postinterviews conducted in …


Self-Regulation And Cognitive Load As Mediating Factors For Tailored Interactive Multimedia Instruction, Tammy Ann Bankus Oct 2016

Self-Regulation And Cognitive Load As Mediating Factors For Tailored Interactive Multimedia Instruction, Tammy Ann Bankus

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The primary purpose of this dissertation was to explore whether self-regulation or cognitive load have mediating effects on both learning experiences and learning effectiveness in tailored versus non-tailored interactive multimedia instructional (IMI) training. Although, there is a plethora of literature looking at the impact of cognitive load in IMI (Clark, 2008; Mayer, 2005; Mayer, 2008; Mayer, Griffith, Jurkowitz, & Rothman, 2008; Sweller, 2011) or looking at self-regulation (Pintrich, 2000a, 2000b; Schunk, Meece, & Pintrich, 2012; Zimmerman et al., 2000) separately, there is limited literature that looks at self-regulation and cognitive load in tailored IMI instruction, and even less literature examining …


Perception, Self-Regulation And Self-Leadership: Guiding Principles For Effective Leaders In Education, Richard Pircher, Christiane Seuhs-Schoeller Sep 2016

Perception, Self-Regulation And Self-Leadership: Guiding Principles For Effective Leaders In Education, Richard Pircher, Christiane Seuhs-Schoeller

Journal of Educational Leadership in Action

The ability of an organization to survive and to be successful relates to its potential to adapt to a changing environment. The competence to perceive relevant stimuli from the outside and the inside of the organization constitutes a prerequisite for organizational adaptability. Consequently, appropriate perception is a crucial factor for individuals and teams to decide and behave in a productive way.

Self-leadership may be defined as “a comprehensive self-influence perspective that concerns leading oneself toward performance of naturally motivating tasks as well as managing oneself to do work that must be done but is not naturally motivating” (Manz, 1986, p. …


The Effect Of A Self-Regulated Vocabulary Intervention On Word Knowledge, Reading Comprehension, And Self-Regulated Learning For Elementary English Language Learners, Qizhen Deng May 2016

The Effect Of A Self-Regulated Vocabulary Intervention On Word Knowledge, Reading Comprehension, And Self-Regulated Learning For Elementary English Language Learners, Qizhen Deng

Department of Teaching, Learning, and Teacher Education: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

English language learners (ELLs) represent an increasing population in U.S. public schools. Research reports from the past two decades suggest a persistent reading underachievement for ELLs. Academic vocabulary knowledge, due to its frequent use in academic texts, contributes significantly to ELL children’s English language development, reading comprehension, and general academic achievement. However, a gap of vocabulary knowledge exists between ELLs and their mainstream peers. One potential approach to address this issue is to help ELLs become mastery independent and proactive word learners. This study examined the effect of a researcher-led self-regulated vocabulary intervention on word knowledge, reading comprehension, and self-regulated …


The Transfer Of Self-Regulation And Self-Monitoring From The Resource Room To The Science Classroom, Stacy Myers Apr 2016

The Transfer Of Self-Regulation And Self-Monitoring From The Resource Room To The Science Classroom, Stacy Myers

Masters Theses/Capstone Projects

The purpose of this capstone project was to determine if assignment attack strategy skills learned in the resource room setting of a middle school would transfer into the general education classroom, and if on-task behavior would increase in the general education setting as a result of the resource room instruction. The project was framed with mixed method, multiple-case study design of self-regulation across multiple settings in a middle school. The elements of the assignment attack strategy skills for my study were committing to an assignment, preparing materials, proceeding, and sustaining attention. For the study, data collection included general education teacher …


The Effects Of Student Self-Assessment With Goal Setting On Fourth Grade Mathematics Students: Creating Self-Regulating Agents Of Learning, Laura Clift Nov 2015

The Effects Of Student Self-Assessment With Goal Setting On Fourth Grade Mathematics Students: Creating Self-Regulating Agents Of Learning, Laura Clift

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

With the national trend toward student accountability as learners, few studies have identified effective instructional strategies that motivate elementary students in becoming agents of learning and the effect of these strategies on academic achievement. This quantitative study investigated the effect of student self-assessment with goal setting (SAGS), based on the work of Stiggins, Arter, Chappuis, and Chappuis (2006), on elementary school students’ academic achievement and motivation in mathematics. This study employed a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, nonequivalent control-group design. Participants were 130 students drawn from six intact classes of fourth graders from five elementary schools located in a large Archdiocese in the …


Motivation, Persistence, And Achievement In Community College Asynchronous Online Courses, Rachel Michelle Desmarais Apr 2015

Motivation, Persistence, And Achievement In Community College Asynchronous Online Courses, Rachel Michelle Desmarais

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Community college students enrolled in asynchronous online courses were examined for the correlational effects of motivation factors upon achievement and persistence in major and non-major courses. A modified version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991) was employed to obtain measurements on motivation and self-regulatory factors. Demographic factors and first generation student status were used to determine any interaction effects.

A series of binary logistic regressions demonstrated significant, positive correlations between self-efficacy and modified MSLQ task value on persistence for these students. A series of ordinal logistic regressions demonstrated significant, positive correlations between …


Keep Your Head Up: Building Life Skills In Youth For Social Reintegration And Success, Olga Lizbeth Ochoa Jan 2015

Keep Your Head Up: Building Life Skills In Youth For Social Reintegration And Success, Olga Lizbeth Ochoa

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

There are multiple factors that contribute to a juvenile's future incarceration when facing difficult environmental circumstances: adjudication (it is like an adult criminal conviction, but generally does not subject the youth to the same direct consequences), community characteristics, the age a young person is discharged, criminal history, and gender. This research is important because it applies social science research in community-based settings to address a social concern, moves beyond theoretical research while contributing to a new orientation of an applied project, and provides a model of university-community partnerships for finding innovative strategies to address issues of social concern for local …


Laptops And Language Learning: A Mixed Methods Study Of Technology Integration And Student Engagement, Ginger R. Starks-Yoble Ph.D. Aug 2014

Laptops And Language Learning: A Mixed Methods Study Of Technology Integration And Student Engagement, Ginger R. Starks-Yoble Ph.D.

Department of Teaching, Learning, and Teacher Education: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Student engagement and motivation have been a common focus among educational researchers over the last forty years. Self-determination theory and the inclusive definition of self-regulated learning have identified that both cognitive and motivational engagement are paramount for successful language learning. Within this canon of research, few have looked at student engagement as a result of effective technology integration during the language learning process. This mixed methods study explored students’ perceptions of engagement while learning with technology integration in a first-year language class. Qualitative data was collected from a sub-sample of ten students, in the form of semi-structured interviews, journal reflections, …


Students’ Perceptions Of Academic Self-Efficacy And Self-Regulation While Learning In A 1:1 Laptop Environment, Joan M. Carraher Apr 2014

Students’ Perceptions Of Academic Self-Efficacy And Self-Regulation While Learning In A 1:1 Laptop Environment, Joan M. Carraher

Department of Teaching, Learning, and Teacher Education: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

1:1 Laptop initiatives continue to grow throughout Nebraska schools. There are many questions regarding their effectiveness in improving student learning, justifications for expenses, and the process to guide such an initiative.

The purpose of this case study was to explore students’ perceptions of academic self-efficacy and self-regulation while learning in a 1:1 district where students in grades 7 through 12 have 24/7 access to a school-issued laptop. Students in their first (8th grade) and third-year (10th grade) of learning in a 1:1 environment at a Nebraska school district participated in this study. Data was collected from an online …


The Effect Of Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Training And Question Generation On Metacognitive Awareness And Achievement Among College Students Enrolled In Science Courses, Derrick L. Wilkins Jan 2014

The Effect Of Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Training And Question Generation On Metacognitive Awareness And Achievement Among College Students Enrolled In Science Courses, Derrick L. Wilkins

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Transitioning from high school students to college students can be a difficult task for students who do not know how to regulate their own study processes. Literature in the areas of metacognition, self-regulated learning (SRL), and question generation suggest a correlation between metacognitive awareness, SRL, and achievement. The present study was guided by efforts to improve college students' achievement by promoting generative learning strategies and metacognitive awareness. Fifty-one undergraduate students enrolled in a general education biology course at a southeastern university participated in this three-week experimental study. The researcher used the Metacognitive Self-Regulation Scale of the Motivated Strategies for Learning …


The Effects Of Tools Of The Mind On Math And Reading Scores In Kindergarten, Patricia Estrela Mackay Sep 2013

The Effects Of Tools Of The Mind On Math And Reading Scores In Kindergarten, Patricia Estrela Mackay

Open Access Dissertations

Although a limited body of research has supported the positive impact of the Tools of the Mind curriculum on the development of self-regulation, research supporting a direct relationship between Tools and academic achievement is extremely limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Tools of the Mind curriculum implementation in improving math and reading scores in Kindergarten by comparing scores obtained before and after Tools. This study also seeks to investigate the effects of SES on student achievement. Finally, this study seeks to identify contributions and challenges perceived by teachers during implementation. Participants included 93 …


Effects Of Self-Regulatory Status And Practice Type On Student Performance In The Mobile Learning Environment, Jeremy Tutty Aug 2013

Effects Of Self-Regulatory Status And Practice Type On Student Performance In The Mobile Learning Environment, Jeremy Tutty

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The next generation of computer-based learning environments has arrived. This generation of technology is characterized by mobile and portable devices such as smartphones and tablet computers with wireless broadband access. With these devices comes the promise of extending the online learning revolution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three levels of practice type (assessment aligned, reflective, none), and two levels of self-regulatory status (high and low) on student performance within the context of mobile instruction. Results indicated that the inclusion of practice activities in mobile instruction has a positive effect on student performance. Study participants …


The Effects Of Collaborative Strategic Reading On Informational Text Comprehension And Metacognitive Awareness Of Fifth Grade Students, Margaret Mccown Jul 2013

The Effects Of Collaborative Strategic Reading On Informational Text Comprehension And Metacognitive Awareness Of Fifth Grade Students, Margaret Mccown

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study examined the effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) on informational text comprehension and metacognitive awareness of fifth grade students. This study tested the theories of metacognition and social cognition with a focus on self-regulation and self-efficacy. Participating students included a heterogeneous mix of regular education students, students with disabilities, and English learners (ELs). Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design, this study examined the effects of CSR on informational text comprehension using the Qualitative Reading Inventory-5 (QRI-5) and Georgia's Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Metacognitive awareness was measured using the Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI). Data …