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Revisiting Meta-Analytic Estimates Of Validity In Personnel Selection: Addressing Systematic Overcorrection For Restriction Of Range, Paul R. Sackett, Charlene Zhang, Christopher M. Berry, Filip Lievens Dec 2021

Revisiting Meta-Analytic Estimates Of Validity In Personnel Selection: Addressing Systematic Overcorrection For Restriction Of Range, Paul R. Sackett, Charlene Zhang, Christopher M. Berry, Filip Lievens

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This paper systematically revisits prior meta-analytic conclusions about the criterion-related validity of personnel selection procedures, and particularly the effect of range restriction corrections on those validity estimates. Corrections for range restriction in meta-analyses of predictor–criterion relationships in personnel selection contexts typically involve the use of an artifact distribution. After outlining and critiquing five approaches that have commonly been used to create and apply range restriction artifact distributions, we conclude that each has significant issues that often result in substantial overcorrection and that therefore the validity of many selection procedures for predicting job performance has been substantially overestimated. Revisiting prior meta-analytic …


Actions Define A Character: Assessment Centers As Behavior-Focused Personality Measures, Anna Luca Heimann, Pia V. Ingold, Filip Lievens, Klaus G. Melchers, Gert Keen, Martin Kleinmann Aug 2021

Actions Define A Character: Assessment Centers As Behavior-Focused Personality Measures, Anna Luca Heimann, Pia V. Ingold, Filip Lievens, Klaus G. Melchers, Gert Keen, Martin Kleinmann

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

To expand our knowledge of personality assessment, this study connects research and theory related to two common selection methods: assessment centers (ACs) and personality inventories. We examine the validity of personality-based AC ratings within a multi-method framework. Drawing from the self-other knowledge asymmetry model (Vazire, 2010), we propose that AC ratings are suited to capture personality traits that are observable in social interactions, whereas other methods (i.e., self-ratings) are useful to assess more internal traits. We obtained data from two personality-based ACs, self- and other-rated personality inventories, and supervisor ratings of job performance. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that personality-based AC …


Arousing Motives Or Eliciting Stories? On The Role Of Pictures In A Picture–Story Exercise, Philipp Schäpers, Stefan Krumm, Filip Lievens, Nikola Stenzel Jul 2021

Arousing Motives Or Eliciting Stories? On The Role Of Pictures In A Picture–Story Exercise, Philipp Schäpers, Stefan Krumm, Filip Lievens, Nikola Stenzel

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Picture–story exercises (PSE) form a popular measurement approach that has been widely used for the assessment of implicit motives. However, current theorizing offers two diverging perspectives on the role of pictures in PSEs: either to elicit stories or to arouse motives. In the current study, we tested these perspectives in an experimental design. We administered a PSE either with or without pictures. Results from N = 281 participants revealed that the experimental manipulation had a medium to large effect for the affiliation and power motive domains, but no effect for the achievement motive domain. We conclude that the herein chosen …


Hidden Framings And Hidden Asymmetries In The Measurement Of Personality: A Combined Lens-Model And Frame-Of-Reference Perspective, Julian Schulze, Stephen G. West, Jan-Philipp Freudenstein, Philipp Schaepers, Patrick Mussel, Michael Eid, Stefan Krumm Apr 2021

Hidden Framings And Hidden Asymmetries In The Measurement Of Personality: A Combined Lens-Model And Frame-Of-Reference Perspective, Julian Schulze, Stephen G. West, Jan-Philipp Freudenstein, Philipp Schaepers, Patrick Mussel, Michael Eid, Stefan Krumm

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Objective: The symmetry principle and the frame-of-reference perspective have each made contributions to improving the measurement of personality. Although each perspective is valuable in its own right, we argue that even greater improvement can be achieved through the combination of both. Therefore, the goal of the current article was to show the value of a combined lens-model and frame-of-reference perspective. Method We conducted a literature review to summarize relevant research findings that shed light on the interplay of both perspectives and developed an integrative model. Results: Based on the literature review and on theoretical grounds, we argue that a basic …


Personnel Selection: A Longstanding Story Of Impact At The Individual, Firm, And Societal Level, Filip Lievens, Paul R. Sackett, Charlene Zhang Nov 2020

Personnel Selection: A Longstanding Story Of Impact At The Individual, Firm, And Societal Level, Filip Lievens, Paul R. Sackett, Charlene Zhang

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This paper discusses how and why the field of personnel selection has made a long-lasting mark in work and organizational psychology. We start by outlining the importance and relevance of the well-established analytical framework (criterion-related validity, incremental validity, utility) for examining the impact of selection at the individual (job performance) level. We also document the substantive criterion-related validities of most common selection procedures on the basis of cumulative meta-analytic research. Next, we review more recent research that investigated the impact of selection at the more macro organizational (firm performance) level. We show that the positive relationship between selection and performance …


The Role Of Situations In Situational Judgment Tests: Effects On Construct Saturation, Predictive Validity, And Applicant Perceptions, Philipp Schäpers, Patrick Mussel, Filip Lievens, Cornelius J. König, Jan-Philipp Freudenstein, Stefan Krumm Aug 2020

The Role Of Situations In Situational Judgment Tests: Effects On Construct Saturation, Predictive Validity, And Applicant Perceptions, Philipp Schäpers, Patrick Mussel, Filip Lievens, Cornelius J. König, Jan-Philipp Freudenstein, Stefan Krumm

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Recent theorizing and empirical evidence suggesting thatsituational judgment tests (SJTs) are more context-independent than previouslythought has sparked a debate about the role of situation descriptions in SJTs.To contribute to this debate and add to our understanding of how SJTs work,this paper conceptually embeds SJT performance in a situation construal modeland examines the effects of situation descriptions on the construct saturationand predictive validity of SJT scores, as well as on applicant perceptions.Across two studies (N = 1,092 and 578) and different SJTs, personality andcognitive ability were equally important determinants of SJT performance regardlessof whether situation descriptions were presented or omitted. The …


Is It All In The Eye Of The Beholder? The Importance Of Situation Construal For Situational Judgment Test Performance, Jan-Philipp Freudenstein, Philipp Schaepers, Lena Roemer, Patrick Mussel, Stefan Krumm Feb 2020

Is It All In The Eye Of The Beholder? The Importance Of Situation Construal For Situational Judgment Test Performance, Jan-Philipp Freudenstein, Philipp Schaepers, Lena Roemer, Patrick Mussel, Stefan Krumm

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Recent research challenges the importance of situation descriptions for situational judgment test (SJT) performance. This study contributes to resolving the ongoing debate on whether SJTs are situational measures, by incorporating findings on person x situation interactions into SJT research. Specifically, across three studies (N-Total = 1,239), we first tested whether situation construal (i.e., the individual perception of situations in SJTs) predicts responses to SJT items. Second, we assessed whether the relevance of situation construal for SJT performance depends on test elements (i.e., situation descriptions and response options) and item features (i.e., description-dependent vs. description-independent SJT items). Lastly, we determined whether …


A Dual-Process Theory Perspective To Better Understand Judgments In Assessment Centers: The Role Of Initial Impressions For Dimension Ratings And Validity, Pia V. Ingold, Mirjam Donni, Filip Lievens Dec 2018

A Dual-Process Theory Perspective To Better Understand Judgments In Assessment Centers: The Role Of Initial Impressions For Dimension Ratings And Validity, Pia V. Ingold, Mirjam Donni, Filip Lievens

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Insight into assessors’ initial impressions has the potential to advance knowledge on how assessors form dimension-based judgments and on possible biases in these ratings. Therefore, this study draws on dual process theory to build and test a model that integrates assessors’ dimension ratings (i.e., systematic, slow, deliberate processing mode) with their initial impressions (i.e., intuitive, fast, automatic processing mode). Data collection started with an AC where assessors provided ratings of assessees, and an online survey of assessees’ supervisors who rated their job performance. In addition, two other rater pools provided initial impressions of these assessees by evaluating extracted 2-min video …


Assessing The Validity Of Emotional Intelligence Measures, Christopher T. H. Miners, Stéphane Cote, Filip Lievens Jan 2018

Assessing The Validity Of Emotional Intelligence Measures, Christopher T. H. Miners, Stéphane Cote, Filip Lievens

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We describe an approach that enables a more complete evaluation of the validity of emotional intelligence measures. We argue that a source of evidence for validity is often overlooked by researchers and test developers, namely, evidence based on response processes. This evidence can be obtained through (a) a definition of the ability, (b) a description of the mental processes that operate when a person uses the ability, (c) the development of a theory of response behaviour that links variation in the construct with variation on the responses to the items of a measure, and (d) a test of the theory …


The Effects Of Predictor Method Factors On Selection Outcomes: A Modular Approach To Personnel Selection Procedures, Filip Lievens, Paul R. Sackett Jan 2017

The Effects Of Predictor Method Factors On Selection Outcomes: A Modular Approach To Personnel Selection Procedures, Filip Lievens, Paul R. Sackett

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Past reviews and meta-analyses typically conceptualized and examined selection procedures as holistic entities. We draw on the product design literature to propose a modular approach as a complementary perspective to conceptualizing selection procedures. A modular approach means that a product is broken down into its key underlying components. Therefore, we start by presenting a modular framework that identifies the important measurement components of selection procedures. Next, we adopt this modular lens for reviewing the available evidence regarding each of these components in terms of affecting validity, subgroup differences, and applicant perceptions, as well as for identifying new research directions. As …


Validity And Reliability Of Situational Judgement Test Scores: A New Approach Based On Cognitive Diagnosis Models, Miguel A. Sorrel, Julio Olea, Francisco J. Abad, Jimmy De La Torre, David Aguado, Filip Lievens Jul 2016

Validity And Reliability Of Situational Judgement Test Scores: A New Approach Based On Cognitive Diagnosis Models, Miguel A. Sorrel, Julio Olea, Francisco J. Abad, Jimmy De La Torre, David Aguado, Filip Lievens

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Conventional methods for assessing the validity and reliability of situational judgment test (SJT) scores have proven to be inadequate. For example, factor analysis techniques typically lead to nonsensical solutions, and assumptions underlying Cronbach's alpha coefficient are violated due to the multidimensional nature of SJTs. In the current article, we describe how cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) provide a new approach that not only overcomes these limitations but that also offers extra advantages for scoring and better understanding SJTs. The analysis of the Q-matrix specification, model fit, and model parameter estimates provide a greater wealth of information than traditional procedures do. Our …


How "Situational" Is Judgment In Situational Judgment Tests?, Stefan Krumm, Filip Lievens, Joachim Huffmeier, Anastasiya A. Lipnevich, Hanna Bendels, Gudio Hertel Mar 2015

How "Situational" Is Judgment In Situational Judgment Tests?, Stefan Krumm, Filip Lievens, Joachim Huffmeier, Anastasiya A. Lipnevich, Hanna Bendels, Gudio Hertel

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Whereas situational judgment tests (SJTs) have traditionally been conceptualized as low-fidelity simulations with an emphasis on contextualized situation descriptions and context-dependent knowledge, a recent perspective views SJTs as measures of more general domain (context-independent) knowledge. In the current research, we contrasted these 2 perspectives in 3 studies by removing the situation descriptions (i.e., item stems) from SJTs. Across studies, the traditional contextualized SJT perspective was not supported for between 43% and 71% of the items because it did not make a significant difference whether the situation description was included or not for these items. These results were replicated across construct …


A Different Look At Why Selection Procedures Work: The Role Of Candidates' Ability To Identify Criteria, Martin Kleinmann, Pia V. Ingold, Filip Lievens, Anne Jansen, Klaus G Melchers, Cornelius J. Konig May 2011

A Different Look At Why Selection Procedures Work: The Role Of Candidates' Ability To Identify Criteria, Martin Kleinmann, Pia V. Ingold, Filip Lievens, Anne Jansen, Klaus G Melchers, Cornelius J. Konig

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Personnel selection procedures such as assessment centers, structured interviews, and personality inventories are useful predictors of candidates' job performance. In addition to existing explanations for their criterion-related validity, we suggest that candidates' ability to identify the criteria used to evaluate their performance during a selection procedure contributes to the criterion-related validity of these procedures. Conceptually, the ability to identify criteria can be framed in the broader literature on peoples' ability to read situational cues. We draw on both theory and empirical research to outline the potential this ability has to account for selection results and job performance outcomes. Finally, implications …


Personnel Selection, Paul R. Sackett, Filip Lievens Jan 2008

Personnel Selection, Paul R. Sackett, Filip Lievens

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We review developments in personnel selection since the previous review by Hough & Oswald (2000) in the Annual Review of Psycholog. We organize the review around a taxonomic structure of possible bases for improved selection, which includes (a) better understanding of the criterion domain and criterion measurement, (b) improved measurement of existing predictor methods or constructs, (c) identification and measurement of new predictor methods or constructs, (d) improved identification of features that moderate or mediate predictor-criterion relationships, (e) clearer understanding of the relationship between predictors or between predictors and criteria (e.g., via meta-analytic synthesis), (f) identification and prediction of new …


Assessment Centers In Belgium: The Results Of A Study On Their Validity And Fairness, Filip Lievens, Etienne Van Keer, Morel De Witte Mar 2005

Assessment Centers In Belgium: The Results Of A Study On Their Validity And Fairness, Filip Lievens, Etienne Van Keer, Morel De Witte

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

In Belgium, assessment centers have grown in popularity. Despite this growing popularity, the validity of these selection and development methods has not been examined in Belgium. Therefore, this study examines the predictive validity and fairness of an assessment center of a large bank. The sample consisted of 252 middle level managers. Results revealed that the assessment center provides a valid prediction of success in higher managerial positions. With respect to fairness, this assessment center also scores well. Virtually no significant differences between men and women and between Flemish and French speaking Belgians are found. These positive results might be explained …


Situational Judgment Tests And Their Predictiveness Of College Students' Success: The Influence Of Faking, Helga Peeters, Filip Lievens Feb 2005

Situational Judgment Tests And Their Predictiveness Of College Students' Success: The Influence Of Faking, Helga Peeters, Filip Lievens

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

There is increasing interest in using situational judgment tests (SJTs) to supplement traditional student admission procedures. An important unexplored issue is whether students can intentionally distort or fake their responses on SJTs. This study examined the fakability of an SJT of college students' performance. Two hundred ninety-three psychology students completed a cognitive test, a personality measure, and an SJT. Only for the SJT, the students were assigned to either an honest or a fake condition. The scores of students in the fake condition were significantly higher than those of students in the honest condition (d = .89). Furthermore, faking had …


An Examination Of The Accuracy Of Slogans Related To Assessment Centres, Filip Lievens Jan 2002

An Examination Of The Accuracy Of Slogans Related To Assessment Centres, Filip Lievens

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

To diffuse new management fads or to promote existing management practices slogans are often used. In this study eight slogans regarding assessment centres were retrieved from brochures of consultancy agencies and were compared to empirical research. These slogans were that assessment centres work, are expensive, fair, have a potent influence on candidates, protide insight into candidates' personality, and are not prone to trainability effects. Other slogans include that trained assessors speak the same language and that candidate reactions are positive. Resulting from this comparison a more fine-grained picture of the strengths and weaknesses of assessment centres emerges. In particular, it …