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Full-Text Articles in Business

Multinational Family Firms’ Internationalization Depth And Breadth Following The Global Financial Crisis, Sebastian P. L. Fourné, Miriam Zschoche, Christian Schwens, Reddi Kotha Apr 2023

Multinational Family Firms’ Internationalization Depth And Breadth Following The Global Financial Crisis, Sebastian P. L. Fourné, Miriam Zschoche, Christian Schwens, Reddi Kotha

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This study examines how large family firms react to a macroeconomic shock in terms of their internationalization depth and breadth. Building on new internalization theory and acknowledging the dysfunctional manifestations of bifurcation bias in large family-owned MNEs, we argue that an unexpected shock induces family firms to recombine their family firm-specific resources with their thus far underutilized or unequally treated nonfamily resources. This recombination allows most family firms to economize on bifurcation bias and leverage their resources as firm-specific advantages (FSAs) resulting in an increased depth and breadth of internationalization post shock (while some of them may continue to suffer …


Sustainability Impact Assessment Of New Ventures: An Emerging Field Of Research, Klaus Fichter, Florian Ludeke-Freund, Stefan Schaltegger, Simon J.D. Schillebeeckx Jan 2023

Sustainability Impact Assessment Of New Ventures: An Emerging Field Of Research, Klaus Fichter, Florian Ludeke-Freund, Stefan Schaltegger, Simon J.D. Schillebeeckx

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Entrepreneurs and start-ups are key actors in implementing environmental innovation and accelerating sustainability transitions. Thus, analyzing as well as predicting the impact of entrepreneurial ventures is central to management and entrepreneurship research. The sustainability performance, value and impact of incumbent firms and their products and services has been a key topic in business-related sustainability research for many years. However, assessing the sustainability effects of new ventures such as start-ups is a neglected area in the research literature. This article therefore provides an overview, including key definitions, a new conceptual framework, and notions that can help guide and inspire a future …


Experiential Learning: The Case Of Training Mba Students In An Asian School, Chiyachantana N. Chiraphol, Kuan Yong David Ding, Jack Jiajun Hong Sep 2022

Experiential Learning: The Case Of Training Mba Students In An Asian School, Chiyachantana N. Chiraphol, Kuan Yong David Ding, Jack Jiajun Hong

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Consulting for a startup company is an effective way for Master of Business Administration (MBA) students to learn about management consulting, and the ways and means of a startup company. This paper discusses the experience of an MBA startup project within the context of a core corporate finance course. The project requires the active engagement of several groups of stakeholders—MBA students, the university’s entrepreneurship incubator, a selection of startup companies, and the project’s academic collaborators. In line with the literature, we find that entrepreneurship education through student-startup collaboration contributes to the students’ entrepreneurial learning, and that the offering of an …


Do Ambitious Entrepreneurs Benefit More From Training?, Reddi Kotha, Balagopal Vissa, Yimin Lin, Anne-Valérie Corboz Jun 2022

Do Ambitious Entrepreneurs Benefit More From Training?, Reddi Kotha, Balagopal Vissa, Yimin Lin, Anne-Valérie Corboz

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Does growth training help entrepreneurs scale-up new ventures? Our field experiment answers this question using data from 181 Singapore-based, early-growth entrepreneurs drawn from a broad range of industry sectors. Treatment content focused on three growth-catalyst tools relevant for formulating and executing innovation-led growth: business-model design, leveraging external networks, building internal teams. Treatment format comprised interactive lecture sessions and workshops on these tools supplemented by personalized coaching in applying the tools to entrepreneurs’ specific challenges. We find that ventures led by entrepreneurs that received training experienced sales growth of 72.5% compared to 30.3% for those in the control condition. Furthermore, ventures …


A Foot In The Door: Field-Experiments On Entrepreneurs’ Network Activation Strategies For Investor Referrals, Jared Nai, Yimin Lin, Reddi Kotha, Vissa Balagopal Feb 2022

A Foot In The Door: Field-Experiments On Entrepreneurs’ Network Activation Strategies For Investor Referrals, Jared Nai, Yimin Lin, Reddi Kotha, Vissa Balagopal

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We investigate entrepreneurial network activation—the processes by which entrepreneurs select specific contacts from their existing personal network and persuade the selected contacts to provide referrals to access targeted early-stage investors (venture capitalists or angel-investors). We differentiate between selection of entrepreneur-centric contacts versus investor-centric contacts. We also distinguish between persuasion tactics that induce contacts' cooperation through promises of reciprocity versus offers of monetary incentives. We conducted two field-experiments in India and one in Singapore. Our primary field-experiment involved 42 Singapore-based entrepreneurs seeking referrals from 684 network contacts to reach a panel of four investors. Our evidence suggests that selecting investor-centric contacts …


Leveraging Reward-Based Crowdfunding During Covid-19, Hannah H. Chang, Erin Jasmine Guillermo, Colin Chai Dec 2021

Leveraging Reward-Based Crowdfunding During Covid-19, Hannah H. Chang, Erin Jasmine Guillermo, Colin Chai

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Over the last year, Singapore firms have faced unforeseen market disruptions created by the Covid-19 pandemic. Worldwide country lockdowns, supply chain disruptions, and restrictions on business operations due to public health and safety measures posed non-trivial challenges. Many companies scampered to find alternative sources of revenue and ramp up their efforts at digitalisation - or risk the possibility of business closure.


Platform-Dependent Entrepreneurs: Participants In An Expanding Universe Of Platforms?, Feichin Ted Tschang (Or F. Ted Tschang) Nov 2021

Platform-Dependent Entrepreneurs: Participants In An Expanding Universe Of Platforms?, Feichin Ted Tschang (Or F. Ted Tschang)

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

The article Platform-dependent entrepreneurs: Power asymmetries, risks, and strategies in the platform economy drew on the intermediary business model to review the damaging actions that platform firms may employ with entrepreneurs. This exchange argues that platform firms may treat entrepreneurs differently on other platform types-particularly ones where complex relationships may cause participants and platforms to become mutually dependent, or where the platform's position depends less on extracting revenue directly from participants. I suggest that particular business models might facilitate the use of alternative strategic actions that are more benign toward entrepreneurs. These situations can determine additional boundary conditions for this …


Bettr Barista: A Shot At Better Lives, Heli Wang, Sheetal Mittal, Adeline Natalia Sue Yi Lai Oct 2021

Bettr Barista: A Shot At Better Lives, Heli Wang, Sheetal Mittal, Adeline Natalia Sue Yi Lai

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This chapter presents a case study in which Pamela Chng, the founder of Singapore-based Bettr Barista (BB), believes that a workplace cannot exist aloof from society's challenges and that companies need to be accountable for their contribution to society. The enterprise offers a four-month-long holistic programme, equipping them with job skills as a barista. The chapter highlights the challenge in maintaining the balance between financial and social goals, as this drives most of the decisions taken by the company, be it its value chain or the key stakeholders. The social programme was a comprehensive training course for the marginalised section …


Digital Sustainability And Entrepreneurship: How Digital Innovations Are Helping Tackle Climate Change And Sustainable Development, Gerard George, Ryan K. Merrill, Simon J. D. Schillebeeckx Sep 2021

Digital Sustainability And Entrepreneurship: How Digital Innovations Are Helping Tackle Climate Change And Sustainable Development, Gerard George, Ryan K. Merrill, Simon J. D. Schillebeeckx

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We explore how digital technologies are helping address grand challenges to tackle climate change and promote sustainable development. With digital technologies, entrepreneurial organizations have adopted innovative approaches to tackle seemingly intractable societal challenges. We refer to these broadly as digital sustainability activities. By focusing on the digital toolbox employed by pioneering organizations, we propose a research agenda that generates novel questions for entrepreneurship, business models, and ecosystems as well as new ways of thinking about trust and institutional logics. We believe that digital sustainability can spur empirical advances in entrepreneurship, innovation, and strategy with potential for positive impact on society.


Tips For Sme Transformation Amid Covid-19 Pandemic, Siow-Heng Ong Apr 2021

Tips For Sme Transformation Amid Covid-19 Pandemic, Siow-Heng Ong

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

The author shared that following the economic downturn in 2020, revival in 2021 can only be very gradual. SMEs in different sectors of the economy face different challenges and have different options for response. Overall, SMEs are hopeful rather than confident. SMEs are generally hoping to manage cash flow and stretch their current funds for immediate business sustainability. Inevitably, their focus is on meeting critical business needs. Turnover and profits are not expected to return to pre-pandemic levels so any increase in hiring or other planning for the future will be slight. He suggested that for pragmatic managers of SMEs …


Emergence Of Private Markets And Exchanges As An Alternative Source Of Financing For Small- And Medium-Sized Enterprises (Sme) In Singapore, Ser Keng Ang Feb 2021

Emergence Of Private Markets And Exchanges As An Alternative Source Of Financing For Small- And Medium-Sized Enterprises (Sme) In Singapore, Ser Keng Ang

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are the engine for growth for any economy, whether big or small and developed or emerging. In the US, small firms with less than 500 employee represent 99% of all employers, provide over 80% of net new jobs and account for about one-half of the national workforce. Singapore is no exception. Hence, the well-being of the SME sector in Singapore bears huge importance in the growth and development of its economy.In practice, financing of private companies, particularly small companies, is a challenge. In general, their small size makes private firms more susceptible to exogenous shocks. …


Outcomes Of An Expert Survey: Are Singapore’S Manufacturing Small And Medium Enterprises Ready To Embrace Industry 4.0, Gopalakrishnan Surianarayanan, Thomas Menkhoff Nov 2020

Outcomes Of An Expert Survey: Are Singapore’S Manufacturing Small And Medium Enterprises Ready To Embrace Industry 4.0, Gopalakrishnan Surianarayanan, Thomas Menkhoff

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Industry 4.0 encompasses adopting opportunities from end-to-end digitalisation with connected computers and increasingly autonomous automation systems equipped with intelligent machine learning algorithms that control the robotics without much input from humans. Smart manufacturing technologies (a part of the smart industry, an extension of Industry 4.0 initiatives and implementation) involve automating various processes. It aims to connect various units in real-time while enhancing profitability by reducing costs, increasing labour productivity, and improving overall efficiency. The impetus for our paper is the assumption that the adoption of smart manufacturing technologies such as advanced robotics, cyber-physical systems, or the Internet of Things (IoT) …


How To Make Venture Capital Funding Work For You, Ser Keng Ang Nov 2020

How To Make Venture Capital Funding Work For You, Ser Keng Ang

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

From Facebook to Google, some of the biggest brands we know today got their start from venture capital funding. Prof Ang Ser Keng from the Lee Kong Chian School of Business, shares how and when involving venture capitalists in your startup can propel it to success.


The Dark Side Of Sustainability Orientation For Sme Performance, Teemu Kautonen, Simon J.D. Schillebeeckx, Johannes Gartner, Henri Hakata, Katariina Salmela-Aro, Kirsi Snellmand Nov 2020

The Dark Side Of Sustainability Orientation For Sme Performance, Teemu Kautonen, Simon J.D. Schillebeeckx, Johannes Gartner, Henri Hakata, Katariina Salmela-Aro, Kirsi Snellmand

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This article examines how a firm’s willingness to make trade-offs that favour sustainability over commercial goals attenuates the relationship between firm-level sustainability orientation and subsequent performance. The hypothesis development draws on stakeholder theory and the literature on mission and revenue drifts, while the empirical analysis is based on two waves of original survey data on Finnish manufacturing SMEs. We find that sustainability orientation is positively associated with performance only when the willingness to make sustainability trade-offs is low, whereas the relationship becomes negative when the willingness to make such trade-offs is high. Our findings thus suggest that the popular adage …


The Resilience Of Family Controlled Business Groups: Survival Of The Unfit, Nirmalya Kumar, Phanish Puranam Jul 2020

The Resilience Of Family Controlled Business Groups: Survival Of The Unfit, Nirmalya Kumar, Phanish Puranam

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

The COVID crisis has demonstrated that family controlled business groups, usually criticized as being inefficient and diverse, have higher survival rates for precisely these reasons.


Does Intergeneration Succession Influence Stock Prices Of Family Businesses?, Kunlun Zou, Rong Wu, Pu Chen May 2020

Does Intergeneration Succession Influence Stock Prices Of Family Businesses?, Kunlun Zou, Rong Wu, Pu Chen

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

China’s A-shares family listed companies are facing a period of high intergenerational succession. This has attracted the attention and research of many scholars. The existing studies mainly focus on the motives, methods, and influencing factors of family business’ intergenerational succession, and there are few studies involving the reaction of the capital markets. This article takes 45 listed family businesses as samples and uses the synthetic control method to examine the impact and the degree of influence that intergenerational succession has on stock price movements. Thereafter, a difference-in-differences estimation is conducted to test for robustness. At the conclusion of our research, …


A Dynamic Account Of Self-Efficacy In Entrepreneurship, Michael M. Gielnik, Ronald Bledow, Miriam S. Stark May 2020

A Dynamic Account Of Self-Efficacy In Entrepreneurship, Michael M. Gielnik, Ronald Bledow, Miriam S. Stark

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We present a dynamic account of self-efficacy in entrepreneurship that integrates social–cognitive and control theory. According to our dynamic account, variability in self-efficacy energizes action because it involves self-motivation and discrepancy perception as competing motivational processes. We argue that variability and the average level in self-efficacy nascent entrepreneurs display over time support the enactment of entrepreneurial intentions and predict business ownership. The proposed positive effect of variability further implies an inverted u-shaped relationship between self-efficacy at a single point in time and business ownership. To test these hypotheses, we repeatedly assessed entrepreneurial self-efficacy of nascent African entrepreneurs during a 12-week …


How Inheritance Law Affects Family Firm Performance: Evidence From A Natural Experiment, Yong Kyu Gam, Min Jung Kang, Junho Park, Hojong Shin Feb 2020

How Inheritance Law Affects Family Firm Performance: Evidence From A Natural Experiment, Yong Kyu Gam, Min Jung Kang, Junho Park, Hojong Shin

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We argue that changes in the inheritance system affect incentives leading to sibling rivalry among descendants and therefore have a material impact on family firm performance. Using South Korea's 1991 inheritance law reform that stipulates the equal distribution of a deceased person's property to descendants, we find that the performance and operating growth rate in family firms show significant enhancement compared with those of nonfamily firms. Moreover, the positive effects are greater for family firms that undergo a business succession with multiple sons and married daughters. Overall, our results suggest that changing to equal bequests of inheritance has a positive …


Crowdfunding: Sharing The Entrepreneurial Journey, Anirban Mukherjee, Hannah H. Chang, Amitava Chattopadhyay Jul 2019

Crowdfunding: Sharing The Entrepreneurial Journey, Anirban Mukherjee, Hannah H. Chang, Amitava Chattopadhyay

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

No abstract provided.


How Does Energy Matter? Rural Electrification, Entrepreneurship, And Community Development In Kenya, Antoine Vernet, Jane N. O. Khayesi, Vivian George, Gerard George, Abubakar S. Bahaj Mar 2019

How Does Energy Matter? Rural Electrification, Entrepreneurship, And Community Development In Kenya, Antoine Vernet, Jane N. O. Khayesi, Vivian George, Gerard George, Abubakar S. Bahaj

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We examine the impact of rural electrification on individuals and businesses within a community in order to test a resource-based theory of entrepreneurship. We show that access to electricity increases average households’ income and entrepreneurial activities. The impact of electricity on entrepreneurial activity has wide-ranging implications for development policy in countries where access to electricity is sparse. Results show a significant difference in entrepreneurial opportunities with respect to firm formation, with the electrified site reporting more new micro-enterprises than the control site after implementation. Electrification affects both households’ income, individuals’ perceptions of their social position, and opportunities for business development. …


Taking Leaps Of Faith: Evaluation Criteria And Resource Commitments For Early-Stage Inventions, Phillip H. Kim, Reddi Kotha, Sebastian P. L. Fourné, Kristof Coussement Feb 2019

Taking Leaps Of Faith: Evaluation Criteria And Resource Commitments For Early-Stage Inventions, Phillip H. Kim, Reddi Kotha, Sebastian P. L. Fourné, Kristof Coussement

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Successfully developed academic inventions have the potential to spawn new technological domains, form the basis of thriving business ventures, and improve the well-being of society. However, evaluating whether an early-stage scientific invention truly has such potential is extremely difficult, and financially backing such inventions is highly risky. And yet, organizations and their evaluators still back some of these inventions with resources for further development. We investigate this puzzle to pinpoint how and why evaluators decide to offer resource commitments at early stages, despite the red flags raised using standard evaluation criteria. Many academic inventions need these initial resources to dispel …


Flipping A Course On Entrepreneurial Leadership In Ethnic Chinese Business: A Mobile Learning Perspective, Thomas Menkhoff Dec 2018

Flipping A Course On Entrepreneurial Leadership In Ethnic Chinese Business: A Mobile Learning Perspective, Thomas Menkhoff

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This exploratory article reflects on the teaching experiences for a course on “Entrepreneurial Leadership in Ethnic Chinese Business” at the Singapore Management University (SMU). It was categorised as a mobile learning course with reference to the flipped classroom model, learner mobility, and user-generated content outside the classroom. We examine three examples of mobile learning projects which were assigned to students so that they would be able to internalise key course objectives such as gaining an appreciation of the structure, functions, and cultural uniqueness of traditional small Chinese business organisations in Singapore. The paper also addresses some of the challenges faced …


Innovation And Small Business Success, Anirban Mukherjee, Hannah H. Chang Jun 2018

Innovation And Small Business Success, Anirban Mukherjee, Hannah H. Chang

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This article seeks to discuss three fundamental questions relating to innovation: What is innovation? What makes it important for small businesses? How can small businesses innovate?


Reward-Based Crowdfunding Success: Decomposition Of The Project, Product Category, Entrepreneur, And Location Effects, C. S. Richard Chan, Haemin Dennis Park, Pamkaj Patel, David Gomulya Jun 2018

Reward-Based Crowdfunding Success: Decomposition Of The Project, Product Category, Entrepreneur, And Location Effects, C. S. Richard Chan, Haemin Dennis Park, Pamkaj Patel, David Gomulya

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We assess the relative importance of project, product category, entrepreneur, and location effects on reward-based crowdfunding success. Applying variance decomposition analysis to a sample of 98,336 crowdfunding projects launched between May 2009 and May 2014 on the Kickstarter platform, we find that agency factors, specifically the project and entrepreneur effects, explain the highest relative variance (over 80% of total variance) across three crowdfunding success outcomes – pledge amount, number of backers, and funding success. Structural factors, specifically product category and location effects, have lower but still significant effects. Our study extends prior variance decomposition studies in strategy and entrepreneurship research …


Demystifying The Genius Of Entrepreneurship: How Design Cognition Can Help Create The Next Generation Of Entrepreneurs, Massimo Garbuio, Andy Dong, Nidthida Lin, Ted Tschang, Dan Lovallo Mar 2018

Demystifying The Genius Of Entrepreneurship: How Design Cognition Can Help Create The Next Generation Of Entrepreneurs, Massimo Garbuio, Andy Dong, Nidthida Lin, Ted Tschang, Dan Lovallo

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Entrepreneurship education is a key beneficiary of design thinking’s recent momentum. Both designers and entrepreneurs create opportunities for innovation in products, services, processes, and business models. More specifically, both design thinking and entrepreneurship education encourage individuals to look at the world with fresh eyes, create hypotheses to explain their surroundings and desired futures, and adopt cognitive acts to reduce the psychological uncertainty associated with ambiguous situations. In this article, we illustrate how we train students to apply four well-established cognitive acts from the design cognition research paradigm—framing, analogical reasoning, abductive reasoning, and mental simulation—to opportunity creation. Our pedagogical approach is …


Does The Crowd Support Innovation? Innovation Claims And Success On Kickstarter, Anirban Mukherjee, Cathy L. Yang, Ping Xiao, Amitava Chattopadhyay Jul 2017

Does The Crowd Support Innovation? Innovation Claims And Success On Kickstarter, Anirban Mukherjee, Cathy L. Yang, Ping Xiao, Amitava Chattopadhyay

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Online crowdfunding is a popular new tool for raising capital to commercialize product innovation. Product innovation must be both novel and useful (1-4). Therefore, we study the role of novelty and usefulness claims on Kickstarter. Startlingly, we find that a single claim of novelty increases project funding by about 200%, a single claim of usefulness increases project funding by about 1200%, and the co-occurrence of novelty andusefulness claims lowers funding by about 26%. Our findings are encouraging because they suggest the crowd strongly supports novelty and usefulness. However, our findings are disappointing because the premise of crowdfunding is to support …


Informal Institutions And The Geography Of Innovation: An Integrative Perspective, Xuesong Geng, Kenneth G. Huang Nov 2016

Informal Institutions And The Geography Of Innovation: An Integrative Perspective, Xuesong Geng, Kenneth G. Huang

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Integrating the insights from both institutional theory and economic geography, we develop a new conceptual framework to explain how formal and informal institutions in developing countries influence knowledge exchanges within and across geographical locations, thus affecting entrepreneurs’ and firms’ innovative behaviors and outputs. We suggest that the prevalence of informal institutions in developing countries increases the importance of geographic proximity for knowledge exchanges. At the same time, informal institutions provide alternative channels for maintaining non-local social interactions that facilitate knowledge exchanges among geographically distant firms. Using China as the context, we provide theoretical propositions that illustrate these mechanisms in terms …


The Mediating Effect Of Absorptive Capacity And Relational Capital In Alliance Learning Of Smes, So-Jin Yoo, Olukemi Sawyerr, Wee Liang Tan Oct 2016

The Mediating Effect Of Absorptive Capacity And Relational Capital In Alliance Learning Of Smes, So-Jin Yoo, Olukemi Sawyerr, Wee Liang Tan

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

No business can create all the resources needed to prosper and grow. Collaboration among businesses that possess complementary resources is often necessary for survival and growth. Despite their importance and implications for alliance learning, no empirical study has to date attempted to investigate how the determinants of learning interact with each other, and are linked to the outcomes of alliance learning. This study contributes to the role of learning intent, absorptive capacity, and relational capital in enhancing learning activities and outcomes by empirically examining the relationships among these learning determinants and how they affect innovative SMEs’ technological and nontechnological learning …


Inter-Generational Transitions Of Family Businesses Using Private Equity: Lessons For China And Australia From Chinese Family-Owned Enterprises In Singapore, Pi Shen Seet, Christopher Graves, Wee Liang Tan May 2016

Inter-Generational Transitions Of Family Businesses Using Private Equity: Lessons For China And Australia From Chinese Family-Owned Enterprises In Singapore, Pi Shen Seet, Christopher Graves, Wee Liang Tan

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

This chapter aims to address some of these research gaps by looking at family-owned SMEs (SMFEs). In particular, it examines the considerations of Chinese SMFES in Singapore when they engage with the private equity (PE) sector as part of the overall capital-raising and harvest strategy.


Social Capital, Informal Governance, And Post-Ipo Firm Performance: A Study Of Chinese Entrepreneurial Firms, Jerry X. Cao, Yuan Ding, Hua Zhang Apr 2016

Social Capital, Informal Governance, And Post-Ipo Firm Performance: A Study Of Chinese Entrepreneurial Firms, Jerry X. Cao, Yuan Ding, Hua Zhang

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Social capital can serve as informal governance in weak investor-protection regimes. Using hand-collected data on entrepreneurs' political connections and firm ownership, we construct several original measures of social capital and examine their effect on the performance of entrepreneurial firms in China after their initial public offerings. Political connections or a high percentage of external investors tend to enhance firm performance, but intragroup related-party transactions commonly lead to performance decline. These forms of social capital have a strong influence on the performance of Chinese firms, whereas formal governance variables such as board size or board independence have little effect. Although social …