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Full-Text Articles in Business

Making (Applied) Sport Management Accessible, Adam William Love Mar 2024

Making (Applied) Sport Management Accessible, Adam William Love

Journal of Applied Sport Management

The Applied Sport Management Association’s Distinguished Service and Mentorship Award was initiated in 2022 as a renaming and repurposing of the ASMA Scholar Lifetime Achievement Award presented from 2009 to 2020. This service and mentorship award recognizes an ASMA member who has exhibited continued, exemplary service to ASMA, who connects sport management research with practitioners in an applied manner, and who demonstrates dedication to students and mentorship within the ASMA. Recipients of this award provide a keynote address to the ASMA membership at the annual conference. The content of this address is published in the Journal of Applied Sport Management …


Examining Reported Versus Actual Attendance In College Basketball Non-Conference Games: Do Scheduling Elements Make A Difference?, Nels Popp, Stephen Shapiro, Jason Simmons, Ryan Dastrup Mar 2024

Examining Reported Versus Actual Attendance In College Basketball Non-Conference Games: Do Scheduling Elements Make A Difference?, Nels Popp, Stephen Shapiro, Jason Simmons, Ryan Dastrup

Journal of Applied Sport Management

This study examines factors impacting sport attendance at non-conference NCAA Division I men’s college basketball games. Non-conference college basketball games are relatively unique because athletic department personnel control many of the scheduling variables related to event popularity, including opponent, game day, and start time. As such, it is valuable for administrators to know which elements might maximize event revenue. The current study is also unique because it examines both reported attendance (tickets disseminated) and actual attendance (tickets scanned at the venue). A total of 48 schools provided ticket scan rate data for their non-conference home basketball games over three seasons …


Co-Creating The Pitch: An Exploration Of The Role Of Traditions On Co-Creation In European Soccer, Eric Hungenberg, Mark Slavich, Ricardo Cayolla Mar 2024

Co-Creating The Pitch: An Exploration Of The Role Of Traditions On Co-Creation In European Soccer, Eric Hungenberg, Mark Slavich, Ricardo Cayolla

Journal of Applied Sport Management

As the sport of soccer continues to grow throughout the world – and particularly into North America – the current study assessed the causal effect fans’ sensory traditions have on co-creation. Data were collected by intercepting Portugese and Spanish soccer attendees outside of the stadium prior to the match’s start. A total of 282 useable surveys were retrieved from fans during the 2022-23 seasons. Path modeling results indicate that traditions relating to aesthetics, sound, and beverage provided the greatest means to co-create experiences for attendees. The study’s results align with previous research within retail and sport exhibiting the positive impact …


“Together We Go Far”: Exploring The Motivational Dispositions Within Connected Fitness, Melissa Davies, Thomas Aicher, Brianna Newland, Eric Hungenberg Mar 2024

“Together We Go Far”: Exploring The Motivational Dispositions Within Connected Fitness, Melissa Davies, Thomas Aicher, Brianna Newland, Eric Hungenberg

Journal of Applied Sport Management

This study examined the motivational profiles of connected fitness users to better position brands as they compete with the reopening of physical gyms and in-person classes. Using survey responses from 663 Peloton users, a K-cluster analysis was performed to identify three clusters of Peloton users (Wellness, Physique, and Social Performance), based on their motives for using the brand’s app. Findings suggest that connected fitness brands should leverage their ability to create social engagement and challenging opportunities to better their own past performance to differentiate themselves and retain users in a very cluttered and competitive marketplace.


The Journey Continues: Highlights From The 2024 Asma Conference, Marshall Magnusen Mar 2024

The Journey Continues: Highlights From The 2024 Asma Conference, Marshall Magnusen

Journal of Applied Sport Management

The Journal of Applied Sport Management (JASM) is the official publication of the Applied Sport Management Association (ASMA), which is a scholarly organization that builds research partnerships between faculty and students. ASMA also facilitates connections between sport management faculty and students studying sport and practitioners working in the sport industry. In 2023, the annual conference was hosted by Samford University under the direction of Dr. Patrick Marsh. With 300 registrants, the 2024 conference was the most attended in ASMA history. It took place in Knoxville, Tennessee. Hosted by the University of Tennessee, the conference was spearheaded by Drs. Adam Love …


Sport Facilities Planning, Design, Operation, And Management Trends: An Introduction To The Special Issue, Jeffrey Petersen, Lawrence W. Judge Dec 2023

Sport Facilities Planning, Design, Operation, And Management Trends: An Introduction To The Special Issue, Jeffrey Petersen, Lawrence W. Judge

Journal of Applied Sport Management

The focus of this special issue is to grow the existing academic literature on sport facilities. This is done by presenting a variety of perspectives from established and emerging scholars in the field. The aim of this special issues aligns with the mission of the Journal of Applied Sport Management, which is to publish research and conceptual contributions that bridge the gap between scholarly work and professional practice in sport business. In all, the special issue includes five thought-provoking pieces contributed by 12 authors as well as a practitioner interview with Earl Santee, one of the most acclaimed sport …


Innovation Diffusion In The Sustainable Design Of Sport Venues, Timothy Kellison, Sungil Hong Dec 2023

Innovation Diffusion In The Sustainable Design Of Sport Venues, Timothy Kellison, Sungil Hong

Journal of Applied Sport Management

Herein, the authors contribute to the sport facilities literatures by discussing the current state of innovation diffusion in sustainable design among sport’s professional arenas, ballparks, and stadiums. Diffusion of innovation theory is reviewed before the authors explore how this theory can be applied to sport facility design and operation.


Modernization And The Contemporary Sport Stadium, Benjamin Downs, Chad Seifried Dec 2023

Modernization And The Contemporary Sport Stadium, Benjamin Downs, Chad Seifried

Journal of Applied Sport Management

The authors add to the conversation about sport facility construction by discussing the U.S. political economy that led to the contemporary standing of sport facilities. They use modernization theory as a lens or sample guide for sport facility managers to consider when attempting to position their facilities to maximize profits while satisfying consumers and partners.


A New Secret Of The Youth Olympic Games: A Model For Olympic Facilities Reform, Jeffrey Petersen, Lawrence W. Judge Dec 2023

A New Secret Of The Youth Olympic Games: A Model For Olympic Facilities Reform, Jeffrey Petersen, Lawrence W. Judge

Journal of Applied Sport Management

The authors center their attention on Olympic venues and the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), arguing that a new reform model for Olympic venues should be based on the model of the YOG. Although the focus of the proposed reform model remains on venue reform, the authors also considers all four elements from Müller’s (2015) mega-events definitional model. These elements include visitor attractiveness (tickets sold), mediated reach (broadcast rights fees), cost (total cost), and transformation (capital investment). The reform model is argued to improve the overall cost and long-term impact of Olympic Games infrastructure, making it more manageable and sustainable.


The Past Informing The Future: An Interview With Earl Santee, Populous, Rachel Hickey Dec 2023

The Past Informing The Future: An Interview With Earl Santee, Populous, Rachel Hickey

Journal of Applied Sport Management

The facility expert in focus is Earl Santee, a senior principal, global chair, and founder at Populous. Populous is the leading architectural and design firm in the sport facility sector. Santee, having been has been recognized for numerous awards, including the Sports Business Journal’s 2019 Class of the Champions: Pioneers & Innovators in Sports Business, is excellently positioned to offer an expert perspective on the past, present, and future of sport facility design


Environmental Sustainability Research And Future Directions For Events And Facilities: An Assessment Of The Field, Brian Mccullough, Anne Dietrich, Rafael Rocha, Yongjoon Bae Dec 2023

Environmental Sustainability Research And Future Directions For Events And Facilities: An Assessment Of The Field, Brian Mccullough, Anne Dietrich, Rafael Rocha, Yongjoon Bae

Journal of Applied Sport Management

Environmental sustainability among sport facilities and events is the focus of this piece. The authors focus on three areas: (1) the environmental impacts of sport facilities and events, (2) the progress that can be made through strategic initiatives, and (3) how these entities engage fans and the surrounding communities to be more environmentally sustainable. The authors stress how these three aspects must be considered in tandem rather than in isolation as ways to advance the environmental sustainability movement among sport facilities and events.


Venue Safety Strategies: Guardrails And The Line-Of-Sight Exemption, Gil Fried, Aneurin Grant Dec 2023

Venue Safety Strategies: Guardrails And The Line-Of-Sight Exemption, Gil Fried, Aneurin Grant

Journal of Applied Sport Management

This piece represents a focused article on safety issues connected to railings at sporting events and why there needs to be considerable action taken to protect fans. Specifically, the authors believe the current line-of-sight exception (minimum 26") allows for railings that are dangerously inadequate to protect fans. It is argued that if sport facility managers and or venues do not proactively address this railing height issue, then architects, building inspectors, and others should seek to change the building code to eliminate the fans continued exposure to unnecessary hazards.


Risky Business: Reopening Recreational Sport Facilities During Covid-19, Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Annemarie Farrell, Alina Cioletti, Ali Talcott, Mackenzie Rector, Shea M. Brgoch, Robert J. Barcelona Oct 2023

Risky Business: Reopening Recreational Sport Facilities During Covid-19, Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Annemarie Farrell, Alina Cioletti, Ali Talcott, Mackenzie Rector, Shea M. Brgoch, Robert J. Barcelona

Journal of Applied Sport Management

At the onset of COVID-19, sport and fitness administrators shut down facilities to mitigate viral spread. To reopen facilities, safety protocols and policies reflecting risk mitigation strategies were established. This case study adopted the International Standards Organization’s risk management framework to explore strategies for reopening collegiate recreational sport facilities during the pandemic. Document analysis was employed to analyze the reopening plans of four collegiate recreation departments across North America. The reopening plans focused on the risk assessment and treatment process and used a phased approach, with strategies moving from risk avoidance to risk reduction and transfer. Common risk management strategies …


Pledging Engagement: Motivations And Intentions For College Sport Attendance Among Greek-Letter Organizations, Stacey A. Forsythe, Alison Fridley, Chris Corr, Sarah Stokowski, Nnamdi Ezike Oct 2023

Pledging Engagement: Motivations And Intentions For College Sport Attendance Among Greek-Letter Organizations, Stacey A. Forsythe, Alison Fridley, Chris Corr, Sarah Stokowski, Nnamdi Ezike

Journal of Applied Sport Management

While ticket sales and revenue have remained relatively constant in collegiate athletics over the past decade, attendance has steadily declined. Given the range of entertainment options available, student attendance at collegiate athletic events has, specifically, declined. While athletic administrators are often revenue oriented, decreasing attendance has effects that span campus communities and cultures. As Greek-letter organizations are nearly ubiquitous within the higher education setting, fraternity and sorority members serve a unique opportunity area for engagement with fan attendance initiatives and future alumni giving. Accordingly, this study examined the motivations for attending collegiate athletic events as a member of a Greek-letter …


Concluding Athletic Careers: Post-Athletic Transitions In The Atlantic Coast Conference, Eric Sabin, Sarah Stokowski, Chris Corr, Brennan K. Berg, Michael Hutchinson Oct 2023

Concluding Athletic Careers: Post-Athletic Transitions In The Atlantic Coast Conference, Eric Sabin, Sarah Stokowski, Chris Corr, Brennan K. Berg, Michael Hutchinson

Journal of Applied Sport Management

Due to the pervasiveness of athletic role engulfment and a salient athletic identity, collegiate athletes often experience difficulties upon conclusion of their competitive athletic career. Such engulfment and fixed athletic identity are detrimental to an athlete’s post-athletic transition. Given the role of athletic department institutional members (e.g., administrators, coaches, staff) in the formative development of collegiate athletes’ lives, athletic departments occupy an integral position to assist athletes in their post-athletic transition. To examine the practices currently implemented among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletic departments relative to holistic athlete development, semi-structured interviews were conducted with institutional members at nine ( …


Exploring The Managerial Perspective On Developing A New Sport Team Brand, Melissa Davies, Matt Blaszka, Cole Armstrong Oct 2023

Exploring The Managerial Perspective On Developing A New Sport Team Brand, Melissa Davies, Matt Blaszka, Cole Armstrong

Journal of Applied Sport Management

In recent years, research examining new sport teams has emerged. A total of ten senior sales and market executives were interviewed from recent expansion teams from Major League Soccer (MLS) to analyze team brand development for this study due to its continued expansion efforts across North America and the fact that the MLS continues to compete for market share against other “Big Four” sport teams in their respective cities. Utilizing content analysis, findings from this study identified four themes when developing a new team brand. These themes were Market Research, Soccer Culture, Brand Associations, and Supporter-Led Initiatives. Practical implications are …


Examining The Impact Of Sports Influencer Advertising On Consumer Behavior In The Us And Saudi Arabia On Instagram., Mohammed Samer Alassaf Aug 2023

Examining The Impact Of Sports Influencer Advertising On Consumer Behavior In The Us And Saudi Arabia On Instagram., Mohammed Samer Alassaf

Masters Theses

This paper discusses the influence of sports influencers on the buying pattern of fans in the United States and Saudi Arabia. Sports are a crucial part of life in both countries, with numerous athletes being considered celebrities. Sports influencers have a tremendous impact on the audience, who often imitate their behavior and buy the products they advertise. The sports market is huge in both countries, with businesses utilizing sports influencers to promote their brands. Instagram is a popular platform for businesses to gain young fans and customers. The research and development of the sports industry have enabled considerable growth of …


Turning Insight Into Action: A Case Study Assessing The Use Of Consumer Behavior Data In Minor League Baseball Marketing And Communication Strategies, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove, Ari Kim Jul 2023

Turning Insight Into Action: A Case Study Assessing The Use Of Consumer Behavior Data In Minor League Baseball Marketing And Communication Strategies, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove, Ari Kim

Journal of Applied Sport Management

As the usage of data-driven decision-making (DDDM) has increased in sport business operations, organizations must refine the ways in which they both obtain and use data to understand and, ideally, meet the needs of their consumers. A qualitative analysis, including eight in-depth interviews with a Minor League Baseball’s (MiLB) front office staff, was conducted. This was done in order to better understand the organization’s decision-making process and how they use various types of data, including the results of quantitative results from an academic study, when determining how best to reach their consumers. After a thematic analysis, three primary and six …


Perceived Service Quality And Overall Satisfaction: From A Segmentation Perspective Unique To Golf Spectators, Tomo Tokuyama, Chris Greenwell, Junko Deguchi, Masashi Shinjo Jul 2023

Perceived Service Quality And Overall Satisfaction: From A Segmentation Perspective Unique To Golf Spectators, Tomo Tokuyama, Chris Greenwell, Junko Deguchi, Masashi Shinjo

Journal of Applied Sport Management

The purpose of the current study is to examine differences in the relationships between specific aspects of the service encounter and customer satisfaction attributable to consumers’ viewing situation and frequency of attendance. Questionnaires were distributed to spectators attending a major women’s golf tournament in Japan, and study participants were asked to rate various service elements and their level of attendance satisfaction. Respondents were grouped by viewing situations (one location, following a specific pairing, or moving the course randomly) and past attendance frequency (new spectators, light spectators, or frequent spectators). Shuttle bus service predicted satisfaction regardless of segment. Merchandise predicted satisfaction …


Brand Extension Evaluation In Esports: A Case Study Of The Nba And Nba2k League, Glynn M. Mcgehee, Beth A. Cianfrone, Jackson Sears Jul 2023

Brand Extension Evaluation In Esports: A Case Study Of The Nba And Nba2k League, Glynn M. Mcgehee, Beth A. Cianfrone, Jackson Sears

Journal of Applied Sport Management

Professional sport leagues have created esport leagues and teams, which serve as brand extensions (e.g., NBA and NBA 2K League). These brand extensions can benefit the professional sports team brand by reaching various audiences in a different product category. The purpose of this study was to examine a traditional sport entity’s (NBA franchise) esport brand extension (NBA 2K League team). In partnership with an NBA team and the affiliated NBA 2K esports team, a survey of 195 individuals assessed the brand extension on several variables, including extension awareness, perceived quality, image fit, categorical fit, innovativeness, and authenticity of the extension. …


Revisiting The Impact Of Divisional Affiliation On Secondary Market Ticket Prices In The National Football League, Yohan Lee, Moonsup Hyun, Stephen Shapiro, Alan Morse Jul 2023

Revisiting The Impact Of Divisional Affiliation On Secondary Market Ticket Prices In The National Football League, Yohan Lee, Moonsup Hyun, Stephen Shapiro, Alan Morse

Journal of Applied Sport Management

With the emergence of demand-based ticket pricing, professional sport organizations and marketers will benefit from a thorough understanding of pricing in the demand-driven secondary market. Ticket pricing studies often take divisional affiliation as a control variable; little research has focused on and examined the importance of divisional affiliation for secondary market ticket prices. Different from work indicating consumers’ preference for divisional games, this study revealed that higher ticket prices (i.e., consumer demand) accompanied non-divisional games. Additionally, the number of years between the away team’s visit to the home team’s stadium and the away team’s current winning percentage each played a …


Purpose Advertising And The Credibility Gap, Tyler Milfeld, Eric Haley Jun 2023

Purpose Advertising And The Credibility Gap, Tyler Milfeld, Eric Haley

Purpose Project

One approach to purpose advertising is brand activism—taking a stand on a sociopolitical issue. This research compares divergent perspectives on whether and how brand activism influences brand attitudes and purchase intentions. Results from three studies, in which real-world brands and messages were used, identify a credibility gap between brands with a reputation for activism (established activist brands) and those without a reputation (emergent activist brands). Findings also reveal how personal issue knowledge moderates the credibility gap. Among other contributions, this research creates a new brand typology in the brand activism arena and empirically demonstrates a more favorable effect for established …


The Disparate Effects Of Non-Reliance Restatements On Retail And Institutional Investor Trading, Jason T. Bangert May 2023

The Disparate Effects Of Non-Reliance Restatements On Retail And Institutional Investor Trading, Jason T. Bangert

Doctoral Dissertations

The SEC seeks to mandate disclosures that effectively inform retail investor decision making. To evaluate these efforts, I investigate how retail investors, relative to institutional investors, process non-reliance restatements. I find that both retail and institutional investors revise expectations about firm value and modify investment decisions following these disclosures. However, in contrast to regulator efforts, the results suggest that the costs to process non-reliance restatements are disproportionately high for retail investors. Specifically, individuals tend to disagree regarding the implications of these disclosures for firm value, whereas institutions tend to draw similar inferences. Moreover, individuals take significantly longer than institutions to …


Firm Transparency Of Risk Oversight: An Examination Of Cybersecurity Governance Disclosures, Laurie E. Ereddia May 2023

Firm Transparency Of Risk Oversight: An Examination Of Cybersecurity Governance Disclosures, Laurie E. Ereddia

Doctoral Dissertations

In this study, I examine factors associated with firm transparency of board oversight using the setting of cybersecurity risk. The SEC requires that, to the extent cybersecurity risks are material, firms must disclose the nature of the board’s role in overseeing the management of that risk, allowing investors to assess how the board is fulfilling its risk oversight duties. Using textual analysis, I identify 2,921 firms that report material cybersecurity risk factors in their annual reports. From these firms’ 2021 proxy statement filings, I hand collect data relating to 12 different elements of cybersecurity board oversight and create an overall …


Broker Conflict Of Interest Mitigation Efforts And Mutual Funds: Evidence From The 2016 Department Of Labor Fiduciary Rule, Connor Kasten May 2023

Broker Conflict Of Interest Mitigation Efforts And Mutual Funds: Evidence From The 2016 Department Of Labor Fiduciary Rule, Connor Kasten

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation utilizes the 2016 Department of Labor (DOL) Fiduciary Rule to analyze the impact of efforts to mitigate broker conflicts of interest on mutual funds. The first chapter examines the effect of the Fiduciary Rule on mutual fund investment. Specifically, I look at changes in the composition of funds available for investment and fund flows during and after the implementation of the Fiduciary Rule. I find that investment companies shifted away from offering investments with broker compensation by eliminating commissioned loads on existing funds, removing funds with broker compensation, and adding funds without broker compensation. This change in investment …


Improving Customer Experience Throughout The Customer Journey In The Big Data Era, Mohammad Saljoughian May 2023

Improving Customer Experience Throughout The Customer Journey In The Big Data Era, Mohammad Saljoughian

Doctoral Dissertations

My PhD dissertation focuses on how firms should adapt their strategies to improve customer engagement throughout customer journey. My first paper examines firm-customer conversations on social media. Many firms struggle with how to craft their messages in conversations with customers on social media, and the lack of guidance for interacting with customers is among the top social media challenges reported by firms. The problem is compounded by the fact that these conversations take place in different, simultaneous threads, each of which potentially requiring a different approach. This paper studies how firms can adapt their responses in individual social media conversations …


Competing For Innovation: A Case Study Of Knoxville And Similar Metropolitan Areas, Lucille G. Marret May 2023

Competing For Innovation: A Case Study Of Knoxville And Similar Metropolitan Areas, Lucille G. Marret

Baker Scholar Projects

Knoxville competes with other mid-sized metropolitan areas for economic development and business attraction at the national level. Cities such as Greenville, SC, Huntsville, AL, and Ann Arbor, MI have similar resources and attributes to Knoxville, yet they are consistently surpassing Knoxville in business attraction and expansion. It is necessary for policy makers to understand what factors are contributing to underperformance in order to better support Knoxville’s efforts to create an innovation fund. Comparing available assets and access to funding for each MSA reveals that Knoxville has the necessary resources through the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to …


The Impact Of Guilt And Empathy Appeals On Green Advertisement Purchase Intent Among Green Consumers, Jasmine C. Fehr May 2023

The Impact Of Guilt And Empathy Appeals On Green Advertisement Purchase Intent Among Green Consumers, Jasmine C. Fehr

Masters Theses

The purpose of the study was to examine whether guilt appeals or empathy appeals were more effective at promoting purchase intention among green consumers for green products. This purpose was achieved through studying the effect of using an empathy appeal versus a guilt appeal in a hypothetical green advertisement. To test this objective, participants completed a survey that assessed the relationship between the message condition they were exposed to—either guilt, empathy, or neutral—and their subsequent purchase intent of the advertised product. It was hypothesized that the empathy appeal would lead to higher purchase intention than the guilt appeal, but the …


The Financial Impact Of The American Rescue Plan Act (Arpa) On The Population Health Of Knox County, Zachary Christopher Coover May 2023

The Financial Impact Of The American Rescue Plan Act (Arpa) On The Population Health Of Knox County, Zachary Christopher Coover

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Work Experience With Voytechnology Partners, Jackson O. Ferguson May 2023

Work Experience With Voytechnology Partners, Jackson O. Ferguson

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.