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2019

African History

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Full-Text Articles in History

Beyond Nationalism? Blank Spaces At The Documenta 1955 – The Legacy Of An Exhibition Between Old Europe And New World Order, Mirl Redmann Dec 2019

Beyond Nationalism? Blank Spaces At The Documenta 1955 – The Legacy Of An Exhibition Between Old Europe And New World Order, Mirl Redmann

Artl@s Bulletin

Was the first documenta really beyond nationalism? documenta 1955 has been widely regarded as conciliation for the fascist legacy of the exhibition “Degenerate Art” (1937), and as an attempt to reintegrate Germany into the international arts community. This article employs published and archival sources in order to understand if and how documenta was impacted by the legacy of nationalism in post-fascist Germany. A biographic sketch of Antonio Corpora (1909-2004) shows how the purportedly “universalist” selection criteria employed by documenta erased cultural specificity and solidified nationalist conceptions of center and periphery.


The Politics Of Pity Versus Piety: The Poetics And Politics Behind Different Feminist Accounts On The Muslim Woman, Wei Mei Wong Dec 2019

The Politics Of Pity Versus Piety: The Poetics And Politics Behind Different Feminist Accounts On The Muslim Woman, Wei Mei Wong

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This article analyzes two books that utilize the construct of “The Muslim Woman” as a symbol for public consumption across a global and conceptual scale: Saba Mahmood’s book, 'Politics of Piety', and Malala Yousafzai’s and Christina Lamb’s 'I am Malala'. The motivation behind the analysis is to situate the texts within debates on essentialism within accounts of Muslim women. While essentialism and the critique of it in such discussions are not a novelty, the books demonstrate a physical manifestation of essentialism and a reductionist reaction toward this brand of essentialism. Through analysis of the content, poetics, and ...


Queen Nanny, A Case Study For Cultural Heritage Tourism: The Archaeology Of Memory And Identity, Lacy Risner Dec 2019

Queen Nanny, A Case Study For Cultural Heritage Tourism: The Archaeology Of Memory And Identity, Lacy Risner

Liberal Arts Capstones

This research project is intended to provide a foundation of knowledge of the Maroon culture in Jamaica, through the legends of one of their most prominent founders, Queen Nanny, as an aid for those who want to educate themselves before approaching community leaders about tourism development. Documentation of Queen Nanny’s life is contested and shrouded in mystery. Yet, that is part of what makes her memory so powerful. The various roles that Queen Nanny is associated with feature her adamant pursuit of an independent life for herself and her Maroons. Whether she is catching bullets or teaching the Maroons ...


Implementing High Impact Practices To Address Dfw Rates: Universal Design For Learning And Multiple Means Of Expression, Tiffany Jones Dec 2019

Implementing High Impact Practices To Address Dfw Rates: Universal Design For Learning And Multiple Means Of Expression, Tiffany Jones

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

In attempting to deal with high DFW rates in history courses, it is important to be accessible for all students with various abilities, backgrounds, and learning styles. This paper examines Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in order help students engage better with the course. UDL focuses on three main interconnected principles, including offering students multiple means of representation to enable them various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, allowing them multiple means of demonstrating what they know, and different means of engagement to tap into learners’ interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn. This paper discusses ways of ...


Amjambo Africa! (December 2019), Kathreen Harrison Dec 2019

Amjambo Africa! (December 2019), Kathreen Harrison

Amjambo Africa!

In This Issue...

New American Leaders .............p. 2

Ladder to the Moon Conference p. 3

Appeal from 350 Maine .............p. 3

Asylum Seekers & Work Permits p. 4

Palaver Strings ............................ p. 9

Ikirenga Cy'Intore .................... p. 11

New Deal for New Americans Act .............p. 13

Coffee by Design Supports Arts ..........................p. 18

DACEP & ILAP in Lewiston...... p. 18

Mid Coast New Mainers Group ............................................... p. 19

Housing Scams ......................... p. 19


New Bottles, Old Wine: The Contemporary Palestinian Political Division, Abdalhadi Alijla, Aziz Al Masri Nov 2019

New Bottles, Old Wine: The Contemporary Palestinian Political Division, Abdalhadi Alijla, Aziz Al Masri

Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Multidisciplinary Studies

This study examines the prolonged Palestinian division. Its essential focus is to explore the various stages that the Palestinian political system has gone through and track its development from the British mandate up to the ongoing division between Fatah and Hamas. It aims to uncover the roles of regional and foreign actors which have destabilized the Palestinian national movement. Moreover, it demonstrates the role of the United Kingdom and Israel in inciting the divide and conquer principle during the British mandate, as well as the way the Palestine Liberation Organisation managed to maintain national unity from the 1960s. Finally, this ...


Analyzing The Moroccan Artistic Presence At The Centre Pompidou Collections, Sirine Abdelhedi Nov 2019

Analyzing The Moroccan Artistic Presence At The Centre Pompidou Collections, Sirine Abdelhedi

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

This article highlights the cultural, economic, historical, and political criteria that influence the current international policy of the Pompidou Center, particularly a new interest in non-Western art in Arabic-speaking countries. It focuses on works produced by Moroccan artists that are part of the collections of the National Museum of Modern Art - Centre Pompidou in Paris. It includes a brief introduction to some key milestones in Moroccan art history that help contextualize the research project.


Morality At The Margins: Youth, Language, And Islam In Coastal Kenya [Table Of Contents], Sarah Hillewaert Nov 2019

Morality At The Margins: Youth, Language, And Islam In Coastal Kenya [Table Of Contents], Sarah Hillewaert

Sociology

This book considers the day-to-day lives of young Muslims on Kenya’s island of Lamu, who live simultaneously on the edge and in the center. At the margins of the national and international economy and of Western notions of modernity, Lamu’s inhabitants nevertheless find themselves the focus of campaigns against Islamic radicalization and of Western touristic imaginations of the untouched and secluded.

What does it mean to be young, modern, and Muslim here? How are these denominators imagined and enacted in daily encounters? Documenting the everyday lives of Lamu youth, this ethnography explores how young people negotiate cultural, religious ...


Amjambo Africa! (November 2019), Kathreen Harrison Nov 2019

Amjambo Africa! (November 2019), Kathreen Harrison

Amjambo Africa!

In This Issue...

Palaver Strings.........................Page 2

Elections ..................................Page 3

Asylum Seeker Update..........Page 3

Mainers Prepare for Winter Page 13

Namory Keita .......................Page 19


Exhibit Review: The Apartheid And District Six Museums, South Africa, Blanca Garcia-Barron Oct 2019

Exhibit Review: The Apartheid And District Six Museums, South Africa, Blanca Garcia-Barron

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


South Africa: A Study Abroad Experience, Blanca Garcia-Barron Oct 2019

South Africa: A Study Abroad Experience, Blanca Garcia-Barron

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


Glocalized Apartheid: Global Apartheid, The Global Implications Of Local South African Resistance Movements, And The Creation Of Counter Globalization, Alexis Butts Oct 2019

Glocalized Apartheid: Global Apartheid, The Global Implications Of Local South African Resistance Movements, And The Creation Of Counter Globalization, Alexis Butts

History in the Making

This paper seeks to explore numerous local cases of resistance in South Africa and their connection to global social inequality. The paper links historical and current localized resistance movements to a greater global struggle referred to as “global apartheid.” It shows that similar struggles are ongoing all over the “developing” world, where sentiments of social justice are present, creating a “counter globalization” movement tied to the struggle against global apartheid. This paper also speculates on the overall effectiveness of the notion of global apartheid and its associated movements, and the complications associated with using this term.


Exhibition Review: Two Prisons, One Goal: Using Memories To Reconcile The Past, Bethany Burke Oct 2019

Exhibition Review: Two Prisons, One Goal: Using Memories To Reconcile The Past, Bethany Burke

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


Rhodes Fallen: Student Activism In Post-Apartheid South Africa, Amanda Castro, Angela Tate Oct 2019

Rhodes Fallen: Student Activism In Post-Apartheid South Africa, Amanda Castro, Angela Tate

History in the Making

No abstract provided.


Africa Finds Its Voice In The Halls Of Manchester, Chris Varela Oct 2019

Africa Finds Its Voice In The Halls Of Manchester, Chris Varela

History in the Making

When thinking of African independence, one will think of the wave of decolonization that swept the African continent beginning in the 1960s. Little attention is paid to what events led up to decolonization, and where the efforts for independence stemmed from, particularly a little-known meeting that took place in the fall of 1945. Pan-Africanism is central to this paper, as it was a movement which sought to unify all of Africa or African people including diaspora. Definitions differ as to the true extent, which is explained in the paper. This paper will look at the creation and history of the ...


Yemen And The Houthi Rebellion In The Context Of The Global War On Terror, Tomi Pulkkinen Oct 2019

Yemen And The Houthi Rebellion In The Context Of The Global War On Terror, Tomi Pulkkinen

History in the Making

The group Ansar Allah, commonly known as the Houthis, took over the Yemeni capital Sana’a in the Fall of 2014, and have been engaged in a conflict with the exiled government President Abdu Rabbu Mansour Hadi and a Saudi-led coalition of mostly Arab countries since March 2015. The Houthis originate from the north-western region of Saada, and represent a faction of Yemen's Zaydi minority, but neither the group nor the conflict in Yemen are primarily sectarian. The situation in Yemen is complicated by various regional, political, and tribal factions that form alliances of convenience for political purposes. The ...


Flc- Implementing High Impact Practices To Address Dfwi Rates - History 140, David Yaghoubian Oct 2019

Flc- Implementing High Impact Practices To Address Dfwi Rates - History 140, David Yaghoubian

Q2S Enhancing Pedagogy

History 140 syllabus for Fall 2019 addressing DFWI issues.


Amjambo Africa! (October 2019), Kathreen Harrison Oct 2019

Amjambo Africa! (October 2019), Kathreen Harrison

Amjambo Africa!

In This issue...

Lewiston ..................................Page 2

Mana Abdi

Lewiston High School

Lewiston Adult Education

African Gala.............................Page 9

Candidates Talk Issues ...Page 10/11


The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz Oct 2019

The Transformative Potential Of High-Level Gender Equality: The Relationship Between Gendered Laws And Perceptions In Rwanda, Elena Ortiz

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As part of its reconstruction process following the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi, Rwanda introduced several laws and policies protecting gender equality, which stood it stark contrast to traditional patriarchal norms and structures. This study focuses on the relationship between institutional gender reform and local perceptions. Specifically, it seeks to explore the extent to which perceptions around gender have caught up to legal changes and identify where the greatest gaps exist across political, social, and economic dimensions. Data collection occurred in two parts: quantitatively, a multiple-choice survey was distributed to 76 Rwandan adults investigating their perceptions of gender in political ...


Foreign Direct Investment In Kigali’S Special Economic Zone And Its Impact On Rwanda’S Economic Reconstruction, Sabrina Roberts Oct 2019

Foreign Direct Investment In Kigali’S Special Economic Zone And Its Impact On Rwanda’S Economic Reconstruction, Sabrina Roberts

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Vision 2020 is a development strategy implemented by the Rwandan government. It aims to make Rwanda a middle-income country with a per capita income of $1240 USD. One pillar of this strategy is increasing regional and international integration. The Kigali Special Economic Zone (KSEZ) was created in direct response to this pillar.

The paper begins with an introduction to Rwanda’s post-conflict economic situation and goes on to describe and explain the role that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the KSEZ has played in reconstructing the Rwandan economy. The study focuses on the impacts of the KSEZ and the significance ...


Kasbah 3, Kais Saied, And The Construction Of A Post-Revolutionary Political Paradigm In Tunisia, Aj Braverman Oct 2019

Kasbah 3, Kais Saied, And The Construction Of A Post-Revolutionary Political Paradigm In Tunisia, Aj Braverman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Kasbah 1 and Kasbah 2 – sit-ins resulting in the expulsion of old-regime ministers, the installation of a technocratic government, and the promise of elections – are generally regarded as two of the most important popular actions in the Tunisian Revolution. Left as a footnote to this history is Kasbah 3, a third sit-in widely considered to be a failed, radical movement corrosive to the successes of the Revolution. Eight years later, with the election of Kais Saied and the failure of the pre-revolutionary establishment Bourguibist movement, the spirit of Kasbah 3 appears to have returned. This paper seeks to demonstrate the ...


Amjambo Africa! (September 2019), Kathreen Harrison Sep 2019

Amjambo Africa! (September 2019), Kathreen Harrison

Amjambo Africa!

In This Issue... Maine’s Way of Life................Page 9

ILAP Statement ....................Page 16


Amjambo Africa! (August 2019), Kathreen Harrison Aug 2019

Amjambo Africa! (August 2019), Kathreen Harrison

Amjambo Africa!

In This Issue...

Welcome Feast........................Page 8

My Life as a Refugee ............Page 11 by Veronica Kaluta

Wedding of Irene Yao & Romeo Adji....................Page 13


The South African Women's Movement: The Roles Of Feminism And Multiracial Cooperation In The Struggle For Women's Rights, Amber Michelle Lenser Aug 2019

The South African Women's Movement: The Roles Of Feminism And Multiracial Cooperation In The Struggle For Women's Rights, Amber Michelle Lenser

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the historiography of South Africa’s recent past, focus has been most heavily placed on apartheid and the anti-apartheid movement, with much emphasis placed on male involvement and men as the primary agents of change in the country. Women are largely viewed as playing a supportive role to male activists throughout the movement, and far less has been written on female involvement or women’s activism in its own right. Running parallel to the anti-apartheid movement, however, was a women’s movement characterized by women across the racial and socioeconomic spectrum struggling to secure their own rights in a ...


The Life And Political Career Of Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Dylan Mcnutt Aug 2019

The Life And Political Career Of Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Dylan Mcnutt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hubert Horatio Humphrey never reached the Oval Office, but his accomplishments during his tenure as mayor, senator, and Vice President are just as noteworthy. During Humphrey’s political career he played a pivotal role in the most influential period of liberal American politics. During his youth and college years Humphrey became learned how to remain loyal to the people around him, and about the racial divisions of the South. Most research on Vice President Humphrey analyzes his time as a Senator, Vice President, and the 1968 Presidential election. The Life and Political Career of Hubert Humphrey, examines Humphrey’s life ...


Amjambo Africa! (July 2019), Kathreen Harrison Jul 2019

Amjambo Africa! (July 2019), Kathreen Harrison

Amjambo Africa!

In This Issue...

Racial Inequality.....................Page 7

Welcome Table ......................Page 9

Art in Exodus ..........................Page 9

Alliance Française.................Page 13


Retelling The Classics: The Harlem Renaissance, Biblical Stories, And Black Peoplehood, Mina Magalhaes Jun 2019

Retelling The Classics: The Harlem Renaissance, Biblical Stories, And Black Peoplehood, Mina Magalhaes

Celebration of Learning

Applying social identity theory to the process of creating peoplehood can illustrate the positive power that literature has in uplifting marginalized communities by showing their worth. James Weldon Johnson’s “The Creation” and Zora Neale Hurston’s Moses, Man of the Mountain, both composed during the Harlem Renaissance, offer one way to create Black peoplehood by creating depictions of God’s love for His Black people through the repurposing of biblical stories. Through the implementation of social identity theory to Hurston’s Moses, Man of the Mountain and Johnson’s “The Creation,” I argue that these two authors addressed the ...


You Say You Want A Revolution: Slavery In Haiti And The United States In The Early 1800s, Owen Reutlinger Jun 2019

You Say You Want A Revolution: Slavery In Haiti And The United States In The Early 1800s, Owen Reutlinger

Student Theses, Papers and Projects (History)

This thesis will explore the remarkable success of the Haitian Revolution and its impact on slavery in the United States. The Haitian Revolution has been covered numerous times by historians and has sparked different themes, theories, and conclusions. One interesting angle is the white French plantation owners' overall role in the event. Their greed, cruelty, poor workforce management, and moral shortcomings contributed to the slave revolt, and the successful revolution shaped how the United States reacted and adapted its version of slavery. This paper examines what went wrong for the plantation owners while also considering what helped the slaves succeed ...


Amjambo Africa! (June 2019), Kathreen Harrison Jun 2019

Amjambo Africa! (June 2019), Kathreen Harrison

Amjambo Africa!

In This Issue...

Furniture Friends....................Page 2

ProsperityME..........................Page 2


L'Évolution De La Présence Et La Reconnaissance Des Afro-Allemand(E)S En Allemagne, De La Colonisation Jusqu’À Nos Jours, Oumou-Hani Zakaria Jun 2019

L'Évolution De La Présence Et La Reconnaissance Des Afro-Allemand(E)S En Allemagne, De La Colonisation Jusqu’À Nos Jours, Oumou-Hani Zakaria

Honors Theses

The history of the presence of Afro-Germans in Germany is a complex path that goes back thousands of years ago. Nevertheless, the fight to be recognized as real Germans was only taken serious in 1980, with the arrival of Audre Lorde, an American writer, feminist, womanist, librarian, and civil rights activist, to Germany. Audre Lorde initiated the Afro-German movement with Afro-German women including May Ayim, Dagmar Schultz, Katharina Oguntoye, Ika Hügel-Marshall, and many others. Before her arrival, Afro-Germans were alienated from society and were only referred to as “war babies,” “occupation babies,” and many other racist names. So this movement ...