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Full-Text Articles in History

A Just And True Return: A Dataset Of Pennsylvania's Surviving County Slave Registries, Cory James Young Jul 2021

A Just And True Return: A Dataset Of Pennsylvania's Surviving County Slave Registries, Cory James Young

The Magazine of Early American Datasets (MEAD)

This dataset contains information on more than 6,000 Black people and their enslavers compiled from extant registries in twelve Pennsylvania counties: Adams, Allegheny, Bedford, Bucks, Centre, Chester, Cumberland, Dauphin, Fayette, Lancaster, Washington, and Westmoreland. Pennsylvania's 1780 gradual abolition law required enslavers to register with their county clerk any people they wished to continue holding in lifetime slavery. A 1788 law required that they do the same for any children they wished to hold in twenty-eight-year term slavery. Complete registries provide the name, place of residence, and occupation of enslavers; the date they filed their registration; and the name ...


Escaped And Captured Slave Datasets From Newspapers In Jamaica, 1718-1795, Anthony Wood, Billy G. Smith Jul 2021

Escaped And Captured Slave Datasets From Newspapers In Jamaica, 1718-1795, Anthony Wood, Billy G. Smith

The Magazine of Early American Datasets (MEAD)

We created two datasets about fugitives and captives in eighteenth-century Jamaica, one of the most violent systems of racial bondage in the Atlantic World. To produce the first dataset as an Excel file, we organized and recorded information contained in hundreds of newspaper advertisements offering rewards for the return of escaped slaves in Jamaica between 1718 and 1795. While there are some gaps in the records because of missing newspapers, there are still a considerable number of advertisements included. One feature of the ads is that many identify the African ethnicity of runaway and captured slaves. The second dataset also ...


Scribes And Soldiers: A Brief Introduction To Seventeenth-Century Military Manuscripts, Lucian Staiano-Daniels Apr 2021

Scribes And Soldiers: A Brief Introduction To Seventeenth-Century Military Manuscripts, Lucian Staiano-Daniels

Manuscript Studies

The history of early-modern European manuscripts has rarely focused on the use of manuscripts in armies. Some historians have even presented early-modern armies as unconcerned with daily records of the common soldiers under their command. Others have used early-modern handwritten documents as sources of information, without examining them as artifacts. But these documents are interesting works of vernacular art, created under difficult circumstances. They also provide clues to things like the literacy rate of some common soldiers. This article introduces early-modern military manuscripts. The focus is on the army of Electoral Saxony during the Thirty Years War (1618-1648).


The Jewish Migration To Mexico During Nazi Germany, Gisela A. Argote Feb 2021

The Jewish Migration To Mexico During Nazi Germany, Gisela A. Argote

Pathways: A Journal of Humanistic and Social Inquiry

In response to antisemitic persecution from Nazi Germany and allied states, Jews from Central and Eastern Europe sought asylum, emigrated, applied for visas, and faced deportation. Mexico, under the leadership of President Lázaro Cardenas, a vocal opponent of Fascism who allowed tens of thousands of Spanish-Republican exiles to emigrate to the country, was one potential destination for Central and Eastern European Jews. In fact, the Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, received thousands of applications from asylum seekers. This paper challenges the image of Mexico as a country offering hospitality to European refugees and evaluates the state’s reluctance to accept ...


A Newly Discovered Manuscript Of The Historia De Los Reyes Moros De Granada By Hernando De Baeza, MaríA Mercedes Delgado PéRez Jan 2019

A Newly Discovered Manuscript Of The Historia De Los Reyes Moros De Granada By Hernando De Baeza, MaríA Mercedes Delgado PéRez

Manuscript Studies

The Historia de los Reyes Moros de Granada, written by the chronicler Hernando de Baeza in the first half of the XVI century, in Spain, is a valuable text that provides a very different perspective from other late medieval Spanish official chronicles. This article provides an account of the discovery of a previously unknown manuscript of this chronicle which, unlike the two others already known, is complete and includes the ending, which narrates the negotiations between the Catholic Kings of Spain and the last Nasrid sultan Boabdil for the Islamic surrender of Granada. The article describes this previously unknown manuscript ...


The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter Jan 2019

The Glossa Ordinaria Manuscripts Of The Biblioteca Capitolare Of Monza, E. Ann Matter

Manuscript Studies

The Historia de los Reyes Moros de Granada, written by the chronicler Hernando de Baeza in the first half of the XVI century, in Spain, is a valuable text that provides a very different perspective from other late medieval Spanish official chronicles. This article provides an account of the discovery of a previously unknown manuscript of this chronicle which, unlike the two others already known, is complete and includes the ending, which narrates the negotiations between the Catholic Kings of Spain and the last Nasrid sultan Boabdil for the Islamic surrender of Granada. The article describes this previously unknown manuscript ...


The Two Yoḥannǝses Of Santo Stefano Degli Abissini, Rome: Reconstructing Biography And Cross-Cultural Encounter Through Manuscript Evidence, Samantha Kelly, Denis Nosnitsin Jan 2019

The Two Yoḥannǝses Of Santo Stefano Degli Abissini, Rome: Reconstructing Biography And Cross-Cultural Encounter Through Manuscript Evidence, Samantha Kelly, Denis Nosnitsin

Manuscript Studies

The Ethiopian Orthodox monastery of Santo Stefano degli Abissini in Rome was one of four diasporic Ethiopian communities around the Mediterranean and played a central role in disseminating knowledge about Ethiopian language, culture, and religion in sixteenth-century Europe. Yet apart from its most famous member, Täsfa Ṣǝyon, very little is known about the identities and careers of its monks. This article draws on the surviving Geez manuscripts of Santo Stefano’s own library, as well as European correspondence and archival documents, to reconstruct the biographies of two influential denizens of Santo Stefano. Hitherto believed to be a single person, Yoḥannǝs ...


“My Written Books Of Surgery In The Englishe Tonge”: The London Company Of Barber-Surgeons And The Lylye Of Medicynes, Erin Connelly Jan 2019

“My Written Books Of Surgery In The Englishe Tonge”: The London Company Of Barber-Surgeons And The Lylye Of Medicynes, Erin Connelly

Manuscript Studies

The Middle English Lylye of Medicynes is an early fifteenth-century translation of Bernard of Gordon’s Latin Lilium medicinae (completed in 1305). The Lylye is contained in Oxford Bodleian Library MS. Ashmole 1505 as a sole text. Although there are many extant witnesses in Latin, there are no other known Middle English copies. The Lylye contains thousands of medicinal ingredients, including 360 individual recipes identified with Rx, with accompanying guidelines for diagnosis and prognosis. Although the text does contain some medical theory and etiology (based on thought from Arabic medicine, specifically Ibn Sīnā, and Antiquity, predominantly Galen and Hippocrates), its ...


It Takes A Union To Raise A Soviet: Children's Summer Camps As A Reflection Of Late Soviet Society, Iuliia Skubytska Jan 2018

It Takes A Union To Raise A Soviet: Children's Summer Camps As A Reflection Of Late Soviet Society, Iuliia Skubytska

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation examines the functioning of Soviet children’s summer camps throughout the period from 1953 to 1970. Researchers conceptualize these years marked by the rule of Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev as the time of transformations of Soviet state and society. The goal of my project was to closely analyze how these transformations affected Soviet children using the example of children’s summer camps. Khrushchev’s ascendance to power changed summer camps from being the institutions which combined rest and education to purely educational ones. All the summer camps’ resources had to be mobilized to fulfill the task of ...


The Bolshevik Afterlife: Posthumous Rehabilitation In The Post-Stalin Soviet Union, 1953-1970, Samuel Arthur Casper Jan 2018

The Bolshevik Afterlife: Posthumous Rehabilitation In The Post-Stalin Soviet Union, 1953-1970, Samuel Arthur Casper

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation explores how an illiberal, authoritarian state confronted and attempted to make amends for its extraordinary history of mass violence, specifically the Soviet Union’s efforts to posthumously exonerate eminent political, military, and cultural figures executed in the 1930s and early 1940s. All of Iosif Stalin’s successors were implicated, to one degree or another, in the Terror that swept the Soviet Union and consumed much of the party-state’s founding elite. Yet in the months following the dictator’s death in March 1953, a contingent within the new collective leadership began to allow cases against certain “enemies of ...


The Mystery Of The Monogram Ac At The Margins Of Early Printmaking, Brooks Howard Rich Jan 2018

The Mystery Of The Monogram Ac At The Margins Of Early Printmaking, Brooks Howard Rich

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Engravings attributed to the anonymous early sixteenth-century Netherlandish printmaker known as Monogrammist AC survive in collections worldwide, leading to their inclusion in seminal publications devoted to the history of European prints. Nevertheless, these rare prints remain understudied, due in large part to their frequently diminutive scale and relative invisibility. Extant impressions are often bound in collector’s albums or early modern manuscripts that lack adequate photography. Many are classified as ornament prints, a category of primarily decorative compositions that often lack the figurative or functional specificity that sustains extended inquiry. Other AC-monogrammed prints have been dismissed as derivative due to ...


The Organization Of Halakhic Knowledge In Early Modern Europe: The Transformation Of A Scholarly Culture, Tamara Morsel-Eisenberg Jan 2018

The Organization Of Halakhic Knowledge In Early Modern Europe: The Transformation Of A Scholarly Culture, Tamara Morsel-Eisenberg

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

THE ORGANIZATION OF HALAKHIC KNOWLEDGE IN EARLY MODERN EUROPE:

THE TRANSFORMATION OF A SCHOLARLY CULTURE

Tamara Morsel-Eisenberg

David B. Ruderman

Far from being abstract and immaterial, knowledge is impacted in myriad ways by non-intellectual factors, such as technology, organization, culture, and erudite practices. The scholarship of halakha, Jewish religious law, is a millennia-long tradition that was shaped by historical changes in its particular contexts. In sixteenth-century Europe specifically, historical circumstances — the advent of print, the dislocation of the Jewish communities of Ashkenaz (the German lands) reconstructed in Eastern Europe, and the shift to systematic organizational paradigms introduced by newly ...


Looking Backward And Forward: Rethinking Modernity In The Light Of Early Modernity, David B. Ruderman Jan 2017

Looking Backward And Forward: Rethinking Modernity In The Light Of Early Modernity, David B. Ruderman

Departmental Papers (History)

Given its composite nature, The Cambridge History of Early Modern Judaism cannot easily stake out a single authoritative position on what early modern Jewish culture and society means in its totality. Taking as a whole the variegated perspectives presented elsewhere in this volume, and despite the strong hands of the editors in organizing a coherent exposition of the period, it is virtually impossible to expect one unified viewpoint to emerge. Without some notion of what the whole representes, however, one is hard pressed to suggest in what ways this epoch is continuous or discontinuous with the period that follows it ...


Lords Of The Seven Parishes: Neighbourhood, Guild, And Revolt In Early Modern Seville, 1520-1652, Igor Knezevic Jan 2017

Lords Of The Seven Parishes: Neighbourhood, Guild, And Revolt In Early Modern Seville, 1520-1652, Igor Knezevic

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

My dissertation links two popular revolts in Seville, in 1520-1 and 1652, both of which had as their focus the artisan parish of Omnium Sanctorum, in the Feria district of the city. The first was a local echo of the great Comunero Revolt, while the second was arguably the most serious political uprising in the Crown of Castile after 1520. The symmetry between these events, alongside the fact that La Feria—as it was popularly known—was the most likely source of urban unrest throughout this period, demands a study of the specific local conditions that enabled, structured or defused ...


From Anti-Imperialism To Human Rights: The Vietnam War And Radical Internationalism In The 1960s And 1970s, Salar Mohandesi Jan 2017

From Anti-Imperialism To Human Rights: The Vietnam War And Radical Internationalism In The 1960s And 1970s, Salar Mohandesi

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation explores changing forms of internationalism among the French and U.S. radical left from the 1960s through the late 1970s. In the 1960s, Vietnamese resistance to U.S. imperialism inspired French activists to forge an international antiwar alliance with U.S. activists opposing their government’s aggression. Together, they created a form of anti-imperialist internationalism based on the right of nations to self-determination. Despite transnational protest, the United States escalated the war, leading many activists to argue that the best way to aid Vietnamese national liberation was to translate that struggle into their own domestic contexts. In so ...


From A “Strong Town Of War” To The “Very Heart Of The Country”: The English Border Town Of Berwick-Upon-Tweed, 1558-1625, Janine Maria Van Vliet Jan 2017

From A “Strong Town Of War” To The “Very Heart Of The Country”: The English Border Town Of Berwick-Upon-Tweed, 1558-1625, Janine Maria Van Vliet

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The English border town of Berwick-upon-Tweed provides the perfect case study to analyze early modern state building in the frontiers. Berwick experienced two seismic shifts of identity, instituted by two successive monarchs: Elizabeth I (1558-1603) and James I (1603-1625). Both sought to expand state power in the borders, albeit in different ways. Elizabeth needed to secure her borders, and so built up Berwick’s military might with expensive new fortifications and an enlarged garrison of soldiers, headed by a governor who administered the civilian population as well. This arrangement resulted in continual clashes with Berwick’s traditional governing guild. Then ...


Russia Eternal: Recalling The Imperial Era In Late- And Post-Soviet Literature And Culture, Pavel Khazanov Jan 2017

Russia Eternal: Recalling The Imperial Era In Late- And Post-Soviet Literature And Culture, Pavel Khazanov

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The return of Tsarist buildings, narratives and symbols has been a prominent facet of social life in post-Soviet Russia. My dissertation aims to explain this phenomenon and its meaning by tracking contemporary Russia’s cultural memory of the Imperial era. By close-reading both popular and influential cultural texts, as well as analyzing their conditions of production and reception, I show how three generations of Russian cultural elites from the 1950s until today have used Russia’s past to fight present-day political battles, and outline how the cultural memory of the Imperial epoch continues to inform post-Soviet Russian leaders and their ...


Reforming The Cold War State: Economic Thought, Internationalization, And The Politics Of Soviet Reform, 1955-1985., Yakov Feygin Feygin Jan 2017

Reforming The Cold War State: Economic Thought, Internationalization, And The Politics Of Soviet Reform, 1955-1985., Yakov Feygin Feygin

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation explains how, as the USSR’s narrative of the Cold War shifted from the military-industrial competition envisioned by Stalin to Khrushchev’s “peaceful socioeconomic competition of the two systems,” economics began to tackle the challenge of transforming the Soviet economy from one focused on mobilization and production to one that could deliver well-being and abundance. Soviet economics changed from a field that only justified the state’s actions to a “science” whose practitioners could use their “expertise” to propose and critique domestic government policy. This opening allowed Soviet theorists to engage with the emerging issues of global economic ...


The 12 Covenants Of Pinchas Hurwitz: How An 18th-Century Eastern European Kabbalist Jew Produced One Of The First Hebrew Bestsellers, David B. Ruderman Oct 2016

The 12 Covenants Of Pinchas Hurwitz: How An 18th-Century Eastern European Kabbalist Jew Produced One Of The First Hebrew Bestsellers, David B. Ruderman

Departmental Papers (History)

The Book of the Covenant (Sefer ha-Brit) was one of the most popular Hebrew books read by modern Jews, as reflected in 40 editions spanning two centuries, including three Yiddish and six Latino translations. Part scientific encyclopedia, part manual of mystical ascent, and part plea to Jews to embrace a universal ethics, the work was widely influential in an era of radical change and internal debate for Jews as well as for others. The amazing popularity of the author, the Eastern European Jew Pinchas Hurwitz (1765-1821), stemmed from his kabbalistic pedigree. He offered his readers an exciting compendium of scientific ...


Calvary Or Catastrophe? French Catholicism's First World War, Arabella Leonie Hobbs Jan 2016

Calvary Or Catastrophe? French Catholicism's First World War, Arabella Leonie Hobbs

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

CALVARY OR CATASTROPHE? FRENCH CATHOLICISM’S FIRST WORLD WAR

Arabella L. Hobbs

Professor Gerald Prince

The battlefield crucifixes that lined the Western Front powerfully connected industrialized warfare with the Christian past. This elision of the bloody corporeality of the crucifixion with the bodily suffering wrought by industrial warfare forged a connection between religious belief and modern reality that lies at the heart of my dissertation. Through the poignancy of Christ’s suffering, French Catholics found an explanatory tool for the devastation of the Great War, affirming that the blood of the French dead would soon blossom in rich harvest. This ...


Romanticism In Print: Periodicals And The Politics Of Aesthetics In Restoration Paris, 1814-1830, Elizabeth Della Zazzera Jan 2016

Romanticism In Print: Periodicals And The Politics Of Aesthetics In Restoration Paris, 1814-1830, Elizabeth Della Zazzera

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In 1814 allied forces defeated Napoleon’s armies and restored the Bourbon monarchy to the throne of France. In the wake of over two decades of revolution, empire, and upheaval, France built itself anew by calling on a past seemingly untainted by its recent sins and missteps, and by building toward a (hopefully) prosperous future. The debate over how to rebuild France took place not only in the world of high politics but also at the level of culture, and particularly through the literary debate between romantics and classicists – the bataille romantique. The literary debates between classicists and romantics, with ...


The Transformations Of Judaism, David B. Ruderman Jul 2015

The Transformations Of Judaism, David B. Ruderman

Departmental Papers (History)

This chapter addresses the primary transformations in Jewish civilization in the early modern era considering primarily the distinct histories of five large sub-communities—those of Italy, the western Sephardim (descendants of Jewish settlers from the Iberian peninsula who had primarily settled in Amsterdam, Hamburg, and Livorno beginning at the end of the sixteenth century), Germany and Central Europe, Poland-Lithuania, and the Ottoman Empire. It traces considers five markers in tracing the major political, social, and cultural transformations of early modern Jewry: mobility, migration, and social mixing; communal cohesion and laicization, a knowledge explosion, primarily the impact of print; the crisis ...


Early Modern Jewish History, David B. Ruderman Apr 2015

Early Modern Jewish History, David B. Ruderman

Departmental Papers (History)

The term "early modernity" as the name of a period roughly extending from the end of the 15th to the end of the 18th century has only recently been employed by historians of Jewish culture and society. Despite a plethora of new studies in the last several decades, there have been few attempts to define the period as a whole as a distinct epoch in Jewish history, distinguishable from both the medieval and modern periods. Some historians have remained indifferent to demarcating the period, or have simply designated it as an extension of the Middle Ages, or have labeled it ...


Opening The Book Of Marwood: English Catholics And Their Bibles In Early Modern Europe, Daniel Joseph Manuel Cheely Jan 2015

Opening The Book Of Marwood: English Catholics And Their Bibles In Early Modern Europe, Daniel Joseph Manuel Cheely

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In Reformation studies, the printed Bible has long been regarded as an agent of change. This dissertation interrogates the conditions in which it did not Reform its readers. As recent scholarship has emphasized how Protestant doctrine penetrated culture through alternative media, such as preaching and printed ephemera, the revolutionary role of the scripture-book has become more ambiguous. Historians of reading, nevertheless, continue to focus upon radical, prophetic, and otherwise eccentric modes of interaction with the vernacular Bible, reinforcing the traditional notion that the conversion of revelation to print had a single historical trajectory and that an adversarial relationship between textual ...


Lived Nationality: Policy And Practice In Soviet Georgia, 1945-1978, Claire Pogue Kaiser Jan 2015

Lived Nationality: Policy And Practice In Soviet Georgia, 1945-1978, Claire Pogue Kaiser

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation asks how nation-ness “happens” at the level of experience. Although the Soviet state was founded on principles of Marxism-Leninism, which sought ultimately to transcend national distinctions, the experience of the Soviet project constructed and consolidated rather than dissolved nationality among its multiethnic population. Existing scholarship on Soviet nationality policies has largely focused on the interwar era from Moscow’s perspective, when the state’s distinctive approach toward managing ethnic difference was conceived and initially implemented. Relying on archival materials in Georgian and Russian, this dissertation examines nationality from the viewpoint of the post-World War Two Georgian SSR, when ...


The Last 100 Kilometers: A Values Based Analysis Of What The Camino De Santiago Can Teach About How The Built Environment Can Preserve The Human Experience, Sarah Blitzer Jan 2015

The Last 100 Kilometers: A Values Based Analysis Of What The Camino De Santiago Can Teach About How The Built Environment Can Preserve The Human Experience, Sarah Blitzer

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The Camino de Santiago is a medieval pilgrimage route that dates back to the 11th century. Today, pilgrims from all over the world undertake the journey to Santiago de Compostela to share in the experience. To earn a compostela the minimum distance that a pilgrim must walk, established by the Church, is 100-kilometers. It is also the boundary of Galicia. The result is that the long-distance pilgrim is forced to contend with the short-distance pilgrim, the pilgrim that walks the minimum. The mixing of these two populations produces friction, caused by each group’s different valuations of the Camino as ...


La Belle Africaine: The Sudanese Giraffe Who Went To France, Heather J. Sharkey Jan 2015

La Belle Africaine: The Sudanese Giraffe Who Went To France, Heather J. Sharkey

Departmental Papers (NELC)

Abstract

In 1826, Mehmet Ali of Egypt sent a giraffe from somewhere in what is now the Republic of the Sudan to King Charles X of France. The first live giraffe ever to reach France, she arrived when public museums and zoos were emerging, inspiring scholarly and popular interest in science and the world beyond French borders. This article studies the career and “afterlives” of this giraffe in France and relative to giraffes at large in the Sudan, in order to trace a Franco-Sudanese history that has stretched from the early nineteenth century to the present. At the same time ...


In Defense Of Our Brothers’ Cause: Argentine Perspectives On The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, Tomas E. Piedrahita May 2014

In Defense Of Our Brothers’ Cause: Argentine Perspectives On The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, Tomas E. Piedrahita

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Long a country of two faces – European and Latin American – Argentina saw the woes of the Spanish Civil War as deeply reflective of their struggles and immensely predictive of their fate. Their preoccupation with the war’s outcome was at once an expression of the country's long-simmering identity crisis and an attempt to affirm its Hispanic otherness, particularly in the wake of the 1930 coup d’état. This article explores the subtleties of this identity crisis with an eye toward determining the motives underlying claims and references to Spain, an exploration which rests primarily on the nexus of social ...


Once And For All: The Spanish Civil War And The Nationalist Concentration Camps, Steven Jay Perez May 2014

Once And For All: The Spanish Civil War And The Nationalist Concentration Camps, Steven Jay Perez

Undergraduate Humanities Forum 2013-2014: Violence

This project examines the Nationalist concentration camps of the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). First, it outlines the ideological origins of the war. Second, it covers how the Nationalists' ideological beliefs translated into extreme violence during the early months of the war. Third, it analyzes how an increasing number of Republican prisoners of war during the campaigns of 1937 led to the creation of the Inspección de Campos de Concentración de Prisioneros (ICCP), the bureaucratic department designed to administer the expanded camp system and classify Republican prisoners. Finally, this project examines the system of "reeducation" in the camps, the psychobiological studies ...


Governance (Spain), Antonio Feros Jan 2014

Governance (Spain), Antonio Feros

Departmental Papers (History)

No abstract provided.