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History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

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Full-Text Articles in History

No Witness, No Case: An Assessment Of The Conduct And Quality Of Icc Investigations, Dermot Groome Apr 2019

No Witness, No Case: An Assessment Of The Conduct And Quality Of Icc Investigations, Dermot Groome

Dermot M Groome

The conduct and quality of investigations pursued by the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court have come under increasing scrutiny and criticism from judges on the Court. Criticism is directed at the time and length of investigations; the quality of the evidence advanced in court; the inappropriate delegation of investigative functions, and the failure to interview witnesses in a way that is consistent with the Prosecution’s obligation to conduct investigations fairly under Article 54 of the Rome Statute. This essay explores these criticisms and concludes that the judges are justified in their concerns regarding the Prosecution ...


In The Beginning... A Legacy Of Computing At Marshall University, Jack L. Dickinson, Arnold R. Miller Ed.E Mar 2019

In The Beginning... A Legacy Of Computing At Marshall University, Jack L. Dickinson, Arnold R. Miller Ed.E

Arnold R. Miller

This book provides a brief history of the early computing technology at Marshall University, Huntington, W.Va., in the forty years: 1959-1999. This was before the move to Intel and Windows based servers. After installation of an IBM Accounting Machine in 1959, which arguably does not fit the modern definition of a computer, the first true computer arrived in 1963 and was installed in a room below the Registrar’s office. For the next twenty years several departments ordered their own midrange standalone systems to fit their individual departmental requirements. These represented different platforms from different vendors, and were not ...


Translating Scholarship Into Policy, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Amy C. Gaudion Jan 2019

Translating Scholarship Into Policy, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Amy C. Gaudion

Amy C. Gaudion

There is an ever widening gap between conflict resolution policy makers and scholars—a tragedy given practitioners’ dire need for new ideas to help resolve deadly conflicts and the growing knowledge researchers have to share. Research tends to swing like a pendulum between analytic and rigorous methods and accessible and relevant approaches. We reject this tradeoff. We believe that research can be simultaneously rigorous and relevant, and analytic and accessible. Given the devastating loss of life associated with armed conflict, the need for translating research results into policy prescriptions is especially strong in peacemaking. The goal of this issue of ...


Historical Notes: Modern Dynamics Dec 2018

Historical Notes: Modern Dynamics

David D Nolte

Historical notes and historical biographies in the history of physics and the history of modern dynamics.


Shining A Light On The Past: History In Your Ir, Jennifer Deal Aug 2018

Shining A Light On The Past: History In Your Ir, Jennifer Deal

Jennifer Deal, MA, MLIS

See how one health care system digitized and uploaded historical photographs and printed materials for their IR.


Baby Bliss: World's Heaviest Cyclist, Christopher A. Sweet Apr 2018

Baby Bliss: World's Heaviest Cyclist, Christopher A. Sweet

Christopher A. Sweet

No abstract provided.


Early Massachusetts Spinners – Part Iii. Edward A. Grout: Maker Of The “Electric Bait” And Other Fine Spinners, William B. Krohn Feb 2018

Early Massachusetts Spinners – Part Iii. Edward A. Grout: Maker Of The “Electric Bait” And Other Fine Spinners, William B. Krohn

William B. Krohn

An expanded version of this article, reproduced with the publisher's permission, is presented below in "e-Books and e-Manuscripts" under the title of “EARLY SPINNER MAKERS OF MASSACHUSETTS, Chapter 3.”
 


The Disappointment Of Smallpox Eradication And Economic Development, Bob H. Reinhardt Dec 2017

The Disappointment Of Smallpox Eradication And Economic Development, Bob H. Reinhardt

Bob H. Reinhardt

No abstract provided.


Early Massachusetts Spinners – Part Ii. George H. Burtis And His Highly-Touted “Irresistible Trolling Bait.”, William B. Krohn Nov 2017

Early Massachusetts Spinners – Part Ii. George H. Burtis And His Highly-Touted “Irresistible Trolling Bait.”, William B. Krohn

William B. Krohn

An expanded version of this article, reproduced with the publisher's permission, is presented below in "e-Books and e-Manuscripts" under the title of “EARLY SPINNER MAKERS OF MASSACHUSETTS, Chapter 2.”
 
 
 


Charles R. Foy Review Of Michael J. Jarvis, “In The Eye Of All Trade: Bermuda, Bermudians, And The Maritime Atlantic World,” In Common-Place 10:4 (July 2010) (Www.Common-Place.Org)., Charles R. Foy Nov 2017

Charles R. Foy Review Of Michael J. Jarvis, “In The Eye Of All Trade: Bermuda, Bermudians, And The Maritime Atlantic World,” In Common-Place 10:4 (July 2010) (Www.Common-Place.Org)., Charles R. Foy

Charles Foy

In his comprehensive study of colonial Bermuda Jarvis places Bermuda in "the eye of trade," i.e., the center of the Anglo-American Atlantic. He proceeds to use this new perspective to explore six key characteristics of Bermudian life: its transition from a tobacco society to a maritime society; the island’s unique system of slavery; the emphasis placed on kinship connections and communal activities; Bermudian exploitation of the Atlantic’s natural resources; the effect of Bermuda’s maritime economy on its residents; and the impact of the American Revolution on Bermudian society. With their maritime skills, unique slave system and ...


History Of Computing, George K. Thiruvathukal, David B. Dennis Sep 2017

History Of Computing, George K. Thiruvathukal, David B. Dennis

David B. Dennis

The social and organizational history of humanity is intricately entangled with the history of technology in general and the technology of information in particular. Advances in this area have often been closely involved in social and political transformations. While the contemporary period is often referred to by such names as the Computing and Information Age, this is the culmination of a series of historical transformations that have been centuries in the making. This course will provide a venue for students to learn about history through the evolution of number systems and arithmetic, calculating and computing machines, and advanced communication technology ...


History Of Computing, George K. Thiruvathukal, David B. Dennis Sep 2017

History Of Computing, George K. Thiruvathukal, David B. Dennis

George K. Thiruvathukal

The social and organizational history of humanity is intricately entangled with the history of technology in general and the technology of information in particular. Advances in this area have often been closely involved in social and political transformations. While the contemporary period is often referred to by such names as the Computing and Information Age, this is the culmination of a series of historical transformations that have been centuries in the making. This course will provide a venue for students to learn about history through the evolution of number systems and arithmetic, calculating and computing machines, and advanced communication technology ...


Early Massachusetts Spinners – Part I: Tackle Maker To Downtown Banker: The Story Of John W. Shields, William B. Krohn Aug 2017

Early Massachusetts Spinners – Part I: Tackle Maker To Downtown Banker: The Story Of John W. Shields, William B. Krohn

William B. Krohn

An expanded version of this article, reproduced with the publisher's permission, is presented below in "e-Books and e-Manuscripts" under "EARLY SPINNER MAKERS OF MASSACHUSETTS, Chapter 1."


Galileo Probe, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee Apr 2017

Galileo Probe, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

Monish R. Chatterjee

The Galileo mission to Jupiter was formally approved by the United States Congress in 1977, several years before the space shuttle Columbia made its maiden flight into Earth orbit. The mission was a cooperative project involving scientists and engineers from the United States, Germany, Canada, Great Britain, France, Sweden, Spain, and Australia. Even though the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft had performed flybys of planet Jupiter and its sixteen moons in 1979, the Galileo mission was envisioned to initiate several novel observations of Jupiter, the most massive gas planet of the solar system, and its principal moons, and conduct ...


"Excuse Us, While We Fix The Sky: Weird Supermen And Climate Engineering", James R. Fleming Dec 2016

"Excuse Us, While We Fix The Sky: Weird Supermen And Climate Engineering", James R. Fleming

James R. Fleming

No abstract provided.


"The Church Or The Wheel?" Religious Institutions Respond To The American Bicycle Boom, Christopher A. Sweet Dec 2016

"The Church Or The Wheel?" Religious Institutions Respond To The American Bicycle Boom, Christopher A. Sweet

Christopher A. Sweet

“These bladder-wheel bicycles are diabolical devices of the demon of darkness.” Thus railed a Baltimore preacher against the massive wave of popularity for the safety bicycle in the mid-1890s. From a 21st century perspective it seems quaint that American religious institutions felt threatened by something so mundane as bicycles. At the time though, easy-to-ride and relatively cheap safety bicycles presented a direct challenge to many established cultural and social norms. Women cyclists gained independent mobility and were able to press for dress reform. Physical health became a priority for city-dwellers. Christian churches and pastors primarily criticized the bicycle for encouraging ...


Excuse Us, While We Fix The Sky: Weird Supermen And Climate Engineering, James R. Fleming Dec 2016

Excuse Us, While We Fix The Sky: Weird Supermen And Climate Engineering, James R. Fleming

James R. Fleming

No abstract provided.


A Mini-History Of Computing, George K. Thiruvathukal Oct 2016

A Mini-History Of Computing, George K. Thiruvathukal

George K. Thiruvathukal

This book was produced by George K. Thiruvathukal for the American Institute of Physics to promote interest in the interdisciplinary publication, Computing in Science and Engineering. It accompanied a limited edition set of playing cards that is no longer available (except in PDF). This book features a set of 54 significant computers by era/category, including ancient calculating instruments, pre-electronic mechanical calculators and computers, electronic era computers, and modern computing (minicomputers, maniframes, personal computers, devices, and gaming consoles).


Session B-2: Why World War I? Being Intelligent About The Causes, Lee Eysturlid Jul 2016

Session B-2: Why World War I? Being Intelligent About The Causes, Lee Eysturlid

Lee W. Eysturlid

This presentation will guide attendees through the complicated and often misrepresented ideas that have formed around understanding why it is that World War I started the way that it did. The focus will be mostly on the military and technological elements. Participants will be ready to teach the topic when they leave, and it suits US and World History teachers (and middle school).


From Paper To Electronic Order: The Digitalization Of The Check In The Usa*, Benjamin Geva Jul 2016

From Paper To Electronic Order: The Digitalization Of The Check In The Usa*, Benjamin Geva

Benjamin Geva

No abstract provided.


The Idle Woman In Therapy And Fiction: S. Weir Mitchell’S Literary Career And The Gilded Age Fear Of Malingering, Brent Ruswick Jun 2016

The Idle Woman In Therapy And Fiction: S. Weir Mitchell’S Literary Career And The Gilded Age Fear Of Malingering, Brent Ruswick

Brent Ruswick

As one of America’s most prominent physicians in the Gilded Age and a successful novelist, S. Weir Mitchell sought to secure the professional reputation and authority of scientific, clinical medicine. Historians have given great attention to the ways that his treatment of women suffering from exhaustion or nervousness reinforced and created highly restrictive, gendered norms; more recently, historians have explored how Mitchell’s literary career augmented and echoed his approach to medicine. This article extends the historical analysis of Mitchell’s literary career by examining one of his lesser novels, Circumstance. Through the novel’s protagonist, an archetypically virtuous ...


International Activity And Domestic Law, Adam I. Muchmore Aug 2015

International Activity And Domestic Law, Adam I. Muchmore

Adam I. Muchmore

This essay explores the ways States use their domestic laws to regulate activities that cross national borders. Domestic-law enforcement decisions play an underappreciated role in the development of international regulatory policy, particularly in situations where the enforcing State's power to apply its law extraterritorially is not contested. Collective action problems suggest there will be an undersupply of enforcement decisions that promote global welfare and an oversupply of enforcement decisions that promote national welfare. These collective action problems may be mitigated in part by government networks and other forms of regulatory cooperation.


“Kabbalistic Pharmacopeia: Wellbeing In The Atlantic Jewish World”, Aviva Ben-Ur May 2015

“Kabbalistic Pharmacopeia: Wellbeing In The Atlantic Jewish World”, Aviva Ben-Ur

Aviva Ben-Ur

This article describes and analyzes a rare manuscript bearing the lead title Ta‘alumot Hokhmah and purchased at auction in 2013. The document was composed by many hands and in many lands, largely in Portuguese and Dutch, with significant portions in French and Italian, and a smattering of Spanish, English, German, and Yiddish. Most manifestly, it is a receipt book, a compendium of medical, culinary, and housekeeping recipes, sometimes mingled with kabbalistic directives; it also incorporates memoirs and biographical annotations. The multiple layers of text collectively represent the transmission of knowledge within a single family and mark the major transitions ...


Story Of Metals, Fathi Habashi May 2015

Story Of Metals, Fathi Habashi

Fathi Habashi

Metals are not arranged according the Periodic Table or alphabetically but are arranged according to their discovery. There are two introductory chapters on metals and their history: Part 1. Metals Part 2. History of Metals and Metallurgy Part 3. Ancient Metals Part 4. Metalloids of the Alchemists Part 5. Metals from South America Part 6. Metals from the East Part 7. Eighteenth Century Metals Part 8. Metals of the Nineteenth Century Part 9. Twenty century metals The book is illustrated by many Figures mostly in color, biographies of many chemists and metallurgists, and many flowsheets of processes.


Building The Modern World: Morrison-Knudsen Construction Company, James David Duran May 2015

Building The Modern World: Morrison-Knudsen Construction Company, James David Duran

Jim D. Duran

After working on construction projects in Boise, Idaho, Morris Hans Knudsen and Harry Morrison combined their resources and skills to form Morrison-Knudsen Company (M-K) in 1912. The two of them built a world-class construction and engineering company that, at one time, was the industry leader in their field. Their success relied upon fast, cost-effective, construction and an uncanny ability to match their company’s mission to the goals of U.S. foreign and domestic policy. When Harry Morrison moved to the position of president in 1939, he took M-K international by presenting his company as the deliverer of modernization to ...


Grave Robbing In Lexington And Elsewhere, Charles T. Ambrose May 2015

Grave Robbing In Lexington And Elsewhere, Charles T. Ambrose

Charles T. Ambrose

No abstract provided.


Transylvania Medical Alumni Served Both Sides During The Civil War, Charles T. Ambrose May 2015

Transylvania Medical Alumni Served Both Sides During The Civil War, Charles T. Ambrose

Charles T. Ambrose

No abstract provided.


Osler And The Infected Letter: A History Of Disinfecting Mail With Special Reference To Smallpox, Charles T. Ambrose Apr 2015

Osler And The Infected Letter: A History Of Disinfecting Mail With Special Reference To Smallpox, Charles T. Ambrose

Charles T. Ambrose

In January 1876 William Osler, a young Canadian physician, was recovering from a mild case of smallpox contracted while attending patients at the Montreal General Hospital (Figure 1). In a letter written that same month to an old schoolmate (ArthurJarvis), Osier described his illness and noted in closing, "You need not be afraid of this letter. I will disinfect it before sending." Concern about disseminating smallpox via the letter was well founded. In his medical textbook of 1892, Osler would later write that smallpox can be conveyed by fomites: "the dried scales [of variola scabs] ... as a dust-like powder ... become ...


Plagiarism Of Ideas. Benjamin Rush And Charles Caldwell--A Student-Mentor Dispute, Charles T. Ambrose Apr 2015

Plagiarism Of Ideas. Benjamin Rush And Charles Caldwell--A Student-Mentor Dispute, Charles T. Ambrose

Charles T. Ambrose

No abstract provided.


From Aristotle’S Teleology To Darwin’S Genealogy: The Stamp Of Inutility, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (Pdf: Introduction)., Marco Solinas Apr 2015

From Aristotle’S Teleology To Darwin’S Genealogy: The Stamp Of Inutility, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015 (Pdf: Introduction)., Marco Solinas

Marco Solinas

Starting with Aristotle and moving on to Darwin, Marco Solinas outlines the basic steps from the birth, establishment and later rebirth of the traditional view of living beings, and its overturning by evolutionary revolution. The classic framework devised by Aristotle was still dominant in the 17th Century world of Galileo, Harvey and Ray, and remained hegemonic until the time of Lamarck and Cuvier in the 19th Century. Darwin's breakthrough thus takes on the dimensions of an abandonment of the traditional finalistic theory. It was a transition exemplified in the morphological analysis of useless parts, such as the sightless eyes ...