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History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 81

Full-Text Articles in History

From Burma To Berlin: The Development Of U.S. Air Transport 1938-1949, Benjamin J. Johnson Dec 2014

From Burma To Berlin: The Development Of U.S. Air Transport 1938-1949, Benjamin J. Johnson

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research, Department of History

This work examines the development of U.S. military airlift from unproven curiosity to a transformative system of technologies, tactics and logistical support which enabled the United States to engage diplomatic and military scenarios around the world. Through an examination of contemporary reports, technological advances and statistical analyses of airlift practices it is shown that the period of 1938-1949 witnessed a great leap in tactical and technological innovation within the U.S. air transport community. The capabilities utilized during air supply missions to China during World War II and the Berlin Airlift foreshadowed a transformative capability providing military and diplomatic ...


Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)–An Unfinished Life, Charles T. Ambrose Dec 2014

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)–An Unfinished Life, Charles T. Ambrose

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The fame of Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) rests on his anatomy text, De humani corporis fabrica, regarded as a seminal book in modern medicine. It was compiled while he taught anatomy at Padua, 1537-1543. Some of his findings challenged Galen’s writings of the 2c AD, and caused De fabrica to be rejected immediately by classically trained anatomists. At age 29, Vesalius abandoned his studies and over the next two decades served as physician to Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) and later to King Philip II of Spain in Madrid. In 1564, he sought to resume teaching ...


Robert Edward Gross (1905-1988): Ligation Of A Patent Ductus Arteriosus And The Birth Of A Specialty., Alexander V. Chalphin, Bs, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Stacey Milan, Md Nov 2014

Robert Edward Gross (1905-1988): Ligation Of A Patent Ductus Arteriosus And The Birth Of A Specialty., Alexander V. Chalphin, Bs, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Stacey Milan, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

The early 20th century saw an explosion in surgical expertise. Specialties dedicated to delicate organs such as the heart and vulnerable populations, like children, were in their infancy. Dr. William E. Ladd, the father of pediatric surgery, founded the first dedicated department of pediatric surgery at Boston Children’s Hospital in 1910. At the time, attempts at cardiac surgery almost universally ended in death of the patient. The first successful surgical treatment of the cardiac valves would not occur for another 15 years, and the great vessels would remain out of reach for decades more. Dr. Robert E. Gross, the ...


Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 1: (1865-1965), Randy Lackovic Nov 2014

Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 1: (1865-1965), Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This is a history of the marine and freshwater sciences activity at the University of Maine from 1865 - 1965.


Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 2: (1939), Um Marine Biological Lab At Lamoine, Randy Lackovic Nov 2014

Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 2: (1939), Um Marine Biological Lab At Lamoine, Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This is picture album of the University of Maine Marine Biological Laboratory at Lamoine, Maine during the summer session in 1939.


Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Come To Wentworth Point (1960s), Randy Lackovic Nov 2014

Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Come To Wentworth Point (1960s), Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This history recounts the formation of the Darling Marine Center from 1963 - 1966.


The Early History Of Chance In Evolution, Charles H. Pence Oct 2014

The Early History Of Chance In Evolution, Charles H. Pence

Faculty Publications

Work throughout the history and philosophy of biology frequently employs ‘chance’, ‘unpredictability’, ‘probability’, and many similar terms. One common way of understanding how these concepts were introduced in evolution focuses on two central issues: the first use of statistical methods in evolution (Galton), and the first use of the concept of “objective chance” in evolution (Wright). I argue that while this approach has merit, it fails to fully capture interesting philosophical reflections on the role of chance expounded by two of Galton's students, Karl Pearson and W.F.R. Weldon. Considering a question more familiar from contemporary philosophy of ...


A Surgeon’S Duty, Andrew P. Carlino Oct 2014

A Surgeon’S Duty, Andrew P. Carlino

Student Publications

Dr. Albert Gaillard Hall described a scenario in where he was tricked by his soldiers; “At our rendezvous, on three successive mornings, men reported sick, complaining of backache and headache, and with a very heavily coated tongue, but without other symptoms. Thinking it might prove an oncoming fever, I excused the first and second lots, and then saw that they were ‘old-soldiering the surgeon.’ Long afterwards one of the men explained the trick. The camp was surrounded by rose-bushes in bloom, and a liberal chewing of rose-leaves a little before sick call produced the effect I saw on the tongue ...


Infectious Diseases, Bert Chapman Jul 2014

Infectious Diseases, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides information about the role of infectious diseases in the early years of U.S. History, with particular emphasis on how they impacted injuries sustained in military conflict.


Coastal Defenses, U.S., Bert Chapman Jul 2014

Coastal Defenses, U.S., Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Provides an overview of U.S. military coastal defenses during the period up to and including the War 1812.


Transcribing And Digitizing Eighteenth And Nineteenth Century Letters For A Historical Digital Repository, Emily Dunster, Ms, Daniel G. Kipnis, Msi, F. Michael Angelo, Ma Jul 2014

Transcribing And Digitizing Eighteenth And Nineteenth Century Letters For A Historical Digital Repository, Emily Dunster, Ms, Daniel G. Kipnis, Msi, F. Michael Angelo, Ma

Academic Commons and Scott Memorial Library Staff Papers and Presentations

In the fall of 2011 the Scott Memorial Library purchased 53 letters belonging to an 1841 graduate of Jefferson Medical College, John Plimpton Green. The library staff transcribed and digitized the letters creating an online collection in the University institutional repository, Jefferson Digital Commons. This article will detail the process of transcribing and digitizing the collection along with sharing statistics and benefits of this project to global researchers.


Images Of Library Holding Related To Early American Printing, Don Armel Jul 2014

Images Of Library Holding Related To Early American Printing, Don Armel

American Print History Data Spreadsheets

This spreadsheet is first organized by Library of Congress number and second by year.

The file includes links to the catalog reference at the Henderson Library and also to the reference image in Digital Commons.


Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson Jul 2014

Review Of Healthy Living In Late Renaissance Italy, Brian Maxson

ETSU Faculty Works

This work offers an interdisciplinary study of preventative health in 16th and 17th century Italy. Previous studies on the practice and prescription of early modern preventative health are few, and scholars have tended to assume that medical understanding of the body's humors remained relatively static during this period.


When Harvard Said No To Eugenics: The J. Ewing Mears Bequest, 1927, Paul A. Lombardo Jul 2014

When Harvard Said No To Eugenics: The J. Ewing Mears Bequest, 1927, Paul A. Lombardo

Faculty Publications By Year

James Ewing Mears (1838-1919) was a founding member of the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery. His 1910 book, The Problem of Race Betterment, laid the groundwork for later authors to explore the uses of surgical sterilization as a eugenic measure. Mears left $60,000 in his will to Harvard University to support the teaching of eugenics. Although numerous eugenic activists were on the Harvard faculty, and who of its Presidents were also associated with the eugenics movement, Harvard refused the Mears gift. The bequest was eventually awarded to Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. This article explains why Harvard turned its back ...


Neither “Headache” Nor “Illness:” The False Narrative Of Syphilis And Its Origin In Europe, Michael W. Horton Jun 2014

Neither “Headache” Nor “Illness:” The False Narrative Of Syphilis And Its Origin In Europe, Michael W. Horton

HIST 4800 Early America in the Atlantic World (Herndon)

In this paper I argue that the master narrative of the origin of syphilis in Europe, known as the Columbian Theory does not hold up to historical review since it does not contain enough concrete evidence for we as historians to be comfortable with as the master narrative. To form my argument I use the writings of Girolamo Fracastoro, an Italian physician known for coining the term “syphilis,” as the basis when I review the journal of Christopher Columbus. I review his journal, which chronicles the first voyage to the Americas, to see if there is any connection between the ...


Francis F. Maury, M.D. (1840 To 1879): An Often Forgotten Pioneer In Early American Surgery., Guillaume S. Chevrollier, B.S., Scott W. Cowan, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, John C. Kairys, Md Jun 2014

Francis F. Maury, M.D. (1840 To 1879): An Often Forgotten Pioneer In Early American Surgery., Guillaume S. Chevrollier, B.S., Scott W. Cowan, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, John C. Kairys, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

Francis F. Maury (Fig. 1) was born on August 9, 1840, in Danville, Kentucky, where he was raised on a farm by his mother and father. His father was an Episcopal clergyman of Huguenot descent, whose forefathers had fled from France to escape religious persecution. After receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree from Center College in the summer of 1860, he entered medical school at the University of Virginia. After one full term, he matriculated to Philadelphia’s Jefferson Medical College and completed his medical education as a private student under the direction of Dr. Samuel D. Gross.1, 2 ...


Ambroise Paré (1510 To 1590): A Surgeon Centuries Ahead Of His Time., James T. Shen, B.S., Michael Weinstein, Md, Alec C. Beekley, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md Jun 2014

Ambroise Paré (1510 To 1590): A Surgeon Centuries Ahead Of His Time., James T. Shen, B.S., Michael Weinstein, Md, Alec C. Beekley, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

In their extensive writings, Hippocrates and Celsus counseled physicians to be knowledgeable in both the medical and surgical management of patient recovery. However, their words fell by the wayside because cutting of the body was forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church. Furthermore, the contemporaneous Arabic medical teachings emphasized tradition and authority over observation and personal experience. This created an ever-growing rift between the schools of surgical and pharmacologic medicine with both groups denying their involvement in the other domain. Surgeons had been plagued by postoperative complications including infection, malnutrition, and muscular wasting for centuries. Surgeons were forced to re-examine how ...


2014 Commencement For Jefferson Medical College, Jefferson Graduate School Of Biomedical Sciences, And Jefferson School Of Population Health May 2014

2014 Commencement For Jefferson Medical College, Jefferson Graduate School Of Biomedical Sciences, And Jefferson School Of Population Health

Sidney Kimmel Medical College Commencements

No abstract provided.


Measuring "Problems Of Human Behavior": The Eugenic Origins Of Yale's Institute Of Psychology, 1921-1929, John Doyle May 2014

Measuring "Problems Of Human Behavior": The Eugenic Origins Of Yale's Institute Of Psychology, 1921-1929, John Doyle

Kaplan Senior Essay Prize for Use of Library Special Collections

The Institute of Psychology at Yale was established in 1924 to study what its founders perceived as “problems of human behavior.” The Institute was Yale President James Angell’s first major step towards making the University a pre-eminent center for psychological research in the 1920s and 1930s. Endowed for a five-year term by the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Fund, the Institute brought three distinguished faculty to Yale: comparative psychologist Robert M. Yerkes, anthropologist Clark D. Wissler, and psychologist Raymond Dodge. While the Institute has been briefly cited in the historical literature as a precursor to the larger Institute of Human ...


Realignment: Highways And Livability Policy In The Post-Interstate Era, 1978–2013, Michael R. Fein May 2014

Realignment: Highways And Livability Policy In The Post-Interstate Era, 1978–2013, Michael R. Fein

Humanities Department Faculty Publications & Research

While federal policy makers have pursued “livable” communities since the late 1970s, they have rarely agreed on precisely what “livability” entailed and how best to achieve it. When U.S. Secretary of the Department of Transportation Ray LaHood promised in 2009 to make livability the hallmark of an ambitious interagency partnership with the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Environmental Protection Agency—and, in the process, to undo long-standing patterns of auto-dependency—it appeared that LaHood was poised to shift American transportation policy in a bold new direction. And yet other policies, such as those that govern the ...


Collaborative Connection To The Past And Future: Introducing An Archival Program And Creating A History And Image Web Exhibit, Martha E. Meacham May 2014

Collaborative Connection To The Past And Future: Introducing An Archival Program And Creating A History And Image Web Exhibit, Martha E. Meacham

Library Publications

Objectives: Establishing an archival program and creating a digital exhibit highlighting the history of an institution provides invaluable outreach and support. There are opportunities for significant collaboration between affiliated organizations by building relationships and sharing expertise. This paper provides a project description and product evaluation of the collaboration between a large academic medical library and archives and an affiliated vaccine manufacturer. The planning, implementation, and outcomes are discussed, with generally applicable components of this project detailed. Finally, recommendations for similar project implementations are given.

Methods and Results: In collaboration with a medical library and archives, an affiliated, historic vaccine manufacturer ...


Scientism, Satire, And Sacrificial Ceremony In Dostoevsky's "Notes From Underground" And C.S. Lewis's "That Hideous Strength", Jonathan Smalt May 2014

Scientism, Satire, And Sacrificial Ceremony In Dostoevsky's "Notes From Underground" And C.S. Lewis's "That Hideous Strength", Jonathan Smalt

Masters Theses

Though the nineteenth-century Victorian belief that science alone could provide utopia for man weakened in the epistemological uncertainty of the postmodern era, this belief still continues today. In order to understand our current scientific milieu--and the dangers of propagating scientism--we must first trace the rise of scientism in the nineteenth-century. Though removed, Fyodor Dostoevsky, in Notes From Underground (1864), and C.S. Lewis, in That Hideous Strength (1965), are united in their critiques of scientism as a conceptual framework for human residency. For Dostoevsky, the Crystal Palace of London's Great Exhibition (1862) embodied the nineteenth-century goal to found utopia ...


Roscoe Reid Graham (1890 To 1948): A Canadian Pioneer In General Surgery., Christine C. Piper, Ba, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md May 2014

Roscoe Reid Graham (1890 To 1948): A Canadian Pioneer In General Surgery., Christine C. Piper, Ba, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

Roscoe Reid Graham, a Canadian surgeon trained at the University of Toronto, was a true pioneer in the field of general surgery. Although he may be best known for his omental patch repair of perforated duodenal ulcers-often referred to as the "Graham patch"-he had a number of other significant accomplishments that decorated his surgical career. Dr. Graham is credited with being the first surgeon to successfully enucleate an insulinoma. He ventured to do an essentially brand new operation based solely on his patient's symptoms and physical findings, a courageous move that even some of the most talented surgeons ...


Roosevelt, Boy Scouts, And The Formation Of Muscular Christian Character, Gordon J. Christen Apr 2014

Roosevelt, Boy Scouts, And The Formation Of Muscular Christian Character, Gordon J. Christen

Religious Studies Honors Projects

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, many prominent Christians and political leaders saw a degenerative influence in industrializing America. For them, urban culture had eroded gender roles, personal strength, and moral fiber. So-called “Muscular Christians” prescribed physical exertion and wilderness experience to cure these ills. I argue that these values were embodied in idealized characters such as Theodore Roosevelt, Jesus, and the Boy Scout to give a form to cultural remedies. In the process, they became the terms upon which proper Americanism, and proper Christianity, were constructed.


Facing The Apocalypse: Bomb Shelters And National Policy In Eisenhower’S Second Term, Angela A. Badore Apr 2014

Facing The Apocalypse: Bomb Shelters And National Policy In Eisenhower’S Second Term, Angela A. Badore

Student Publications

This paper explores the issues of civilian defense from a federal perspective during Eisenhower’s second term, particularly focusing on the issue of bomb shelters during the period from 1956-1958. Despite widespread efforts to promote bomb shelters, or fallout shelters, during this period, no significant progress was made toward a federal program. By examining federal efforts such as the Holifield Committee, the Gaither Committee, Operation Alert, and the National Shelter Policy, this paper shows that efforts to set up shelter programs actually made the public and the Eisenhower administration less likely to trust such programs at all.


Competing Stories: The Gardner Saga Continues, Brianna E. Kirk Mar 2014

Competing Stories: The Gardner Saga Continues, Brianna E. Kirk

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

In 1893, two Philadelphia doctors from the Mütter Museum sent surveys to Civil War amputee veterans in order to compile records on their war amputations circa thirty years after seeing combat. One of those surveys found its way into the hands of Clark Gardner, a fifty-four year old double amputee vet who served in the 10th New York Heavy Artillery. (An introduction to Garnder can be found here.) Gardner’s responses to the survey are quite compelling and provided vivid details about his war amputations, the healing processes, difficulties he encountered, and artificial limb usage. [excerpt]


Working With Data In Archival Settings, Joanne M. Riley Mar 2014

Working With Data In Archival Settings, Joanne M. Riley

Joseph P. Healey Library Publications

Structured data plays a vital role in archival administration, preservation and access activities. Three case studies are presented that demonstrate different applications of metadata: Medici Archive Project: Documentary Sources for the Arts and Humanities 1537 – 1743 (Relational database); The History of the Accademia di San Luca, c. 1590 – 1635: Documents from the Archivio di Stato di Roma (Text markup – TEI); Healey Library’s OpenArchives (Dublin Core Schema in a proprietary data system).


Mary H. Gibbon: Teamwork Of The Heart., Alexandra Columbus, Ba, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Stacey A. Milan, Md Mar 2014

Mary H. Gibbon: Teamwork Of The Heart., Alexandra Columbus, Ba, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Stacey A. Milan, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

Mary "Maly" Hopkinson Gibbon was born on September 25, 1903, to an affluent New England family who encouraged her to embrace her intelligence and to follow that by which she was intrigued. In doing this, Maly pursued work in scientific research, where she ultimately met her first husband, Dr. John ‘‘Jack’’ H. Gibbon. Jack and Maly were partners in every sense of the word. Their collaboration, both within and beyond the walls of the research laboratory, made it possible for the Gibbon dream of the heart–lung machine to be realized.


Tales From A Boston Customs House: “Worthy” Suffering, S. Marianne Johnson Feb 2014

Tales From A Boston Customs House: “Worthy” Suffering, S. Marianne Johnson

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

Despite Francis Clarke’s argument that men who suffered in exceptional ways, such as amputees, were regarded as national martyrs and held up as the emblem of sacrifice to the nation, this argument cannot be applied wholesale to all exceptional sufferers in the post-war North. Although men who lost limbs in battle were often remembered in terms of glory and treated as national heroes, those who suffered in non-heroic ways, such as prisoners of war and the victims of non-combat related accidents, were often treated as less deserving of honor. [excerpt]


Tales From A Boston Customs House: “Living Monuments”, S. Marianne Johnson Feb 2014

Tales From A Boston Customs House: “Living Monuments”, S. Marianne Johnson

The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History

The image of the amputee is a classic one in the memory of the American Civil War. Francis Clarke has argued that the long-suffering and sacrificial Union amputee became a national martyr to the righteousness of their cause. While this view was manifested in various ways throughout the postwar North, the case of double-arm amputee Lewis Horton serves to give depth insight into–and possibly push back against–this argument. [excerpt]