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History of Science, Technology, and Medicine

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 170

Full-Text Articles in History

Merle Gross Salerno Edelstein, Merle Edelstein, Kelsey Duinkerken Dec 2014

Merle Gross Salerno Edelstein, Merle Edelstein, Kelsey Duinkerken

First Women at Jefferson Oral Histories

Dr. Edelstein is a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who works with children, adolescents, and adults. After graduating from Jefferson Medical College in 1965 with the first class of women, she completed her internship at Bryn Mawr and did her residency training in Psychiatry at Hahneman University Hospital and Albert Einstein Medical Center. She did her analytic training at the Philadelphia Association for Psychoanalysis.


Review Of Nicandro Di Colofone Nei Secoli Xvi-Xviii; Edizioni, Traduzioni, Commenti, By Livia Radici, Fred W. Jenkins Dec 2014

Review Of Nicandro Di Colofone Nei Secoli Xvi-Xviii; Edizioni, Traduzioni, Commenti, By Livia Radici, Fred W. Jenkins

Fred W Jenkins

No abstract provided.


Cutting Out Worry: Popularizing Psychosurgery In America, Antonietta Louise Iannaccone Dec 2014

Cutting Out Worry: Popularizing Psychosurgery In America, Antonietta Louise Iannaccone

Antonietta Louise Iannaccone

Contemporary Americans think of the lobotomy as an utterly primitive and brutal form of psychosurgery. The film One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, especially, popularized the image of it as a violent form of suppression and mind control. But when it was first introduced, the procedure was considered compassionate, effective, and so delicate it was compared to “cutting through butter.” The therapeutic effect was described as “cutting out worry.” Between 1936 and 1978 it is estimated that 40,000 psychiatric patients received lobotomies in the United States; the procedure was not only tolerated, it was popular. How did it ...


Argument Map: Loewi's Argument That Neuro-Transmission Works With Chemical Signals Instead Of Eletrical (Short Version), Michael Hoffmann Dec 2014

Argument Map: Loewi's Argument That Neuro-Transmission Works With Chemical Signals Instead Of Eletrical (Short Version), Michael Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This argument shows how the hypothesis that muscles are probably stimulated exclusively by chemical signals and not by electrical ones can be justified by Loewi's experimentum crucis.


Architecture On Trial: The Porters And The Pest House, Lynn E. Niedermeier Dec 2014

Architecture On Trial: The Porters And The Pest House, Lynn E. Niedermeier

Lynn E. Niedermeier

When young Amelia Porter contracted smallpox in September 1902, a legal battle ensued between her parents, who wanted her cared for at home, and Bowling Green, Kentucky physician and State Board of Health secretary Dr. Joseph N. McCormack, who demanded that the family be quarantined in the local "pest house" until determined not to be contagious. The lawsuit raised issues of medical expertise, individual rights vs. public safety, the adequacy of Bowling Green's quarantine hospital, and the personality and tactics of McCormack, whose crusades for public health legislation had earned him many enemies.


From Burma To Berlin: The Development Of U.S. Air Transport 1938-1949, Benjamin J. Johnson Dec 2014

From Burma To Berlin: The Development Of U.S. Air Transport 1938-1949, Benjamin J. Johnson

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research, Department of History

This work examines the development of U.S. military airlift from unproven curiosity to a transformative system of technologies, tactics and logistical support which enabled the United States to engage diplomatic and military scenarios around the world. Through an examination of contemporary reports, technological advances and statistical analyses of airlift practices it is shown that the period of 1938-1949 witnessed a great leap in tactical and technological innovation within the U.S. air transport community. The capabilities utilized during air supply missions to China during World War II and the Berlin Airlift foreshadowed a transformative capability providing military and diplomatic ...


Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)–An Unfinished Life, Charles T. Ambrose Dec 2014

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)–An Unfinished Life, Charles T. Ambrose

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The fame of Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) rests on his anatomy text, De humani corporis fabrica, regarded as a seminal book in modern medicine. It was compiled while he taught anatomy at Padua, 1537-1543. Some of his findings challenged Galen’s writings of the 2c AD, and caused De fabrica to be rejected immediately by classically trained anatomists. At age 29, Vesalius abandoned his studies and over the next two decades served as physician to Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) and later to King Philip II of Spain in Madrid. In 1564, he sought to resume teaching ...


Argument Map: Devoloping Scientific Hypotheses And Experimental Designs In Form Of An Argumentation. Loewi's Crucial Experiment On Chemical Neurotransmission, Michael Hoffmann Nov 2014

Argument Map: Devoloping Scientific Hypotheses And Experimental Designs In Form Of An Argumentation. Loewi's Crucial Experiment On Chemical Neurotransmission, Michael Hoffmann

Michael H.G. Hoffmann

This argument map presents Paul Loewi’s crucial experiment in which he showed that neural transmissions of signals are chemical in nature, not electrical, in form of an argumentation. The map can be used in science education to show how the formulation of hypotheses should be related to a corresponding determination of experimental designs.


Rough Terrain. Review Of Dane Kennedy, The Last Blank Spaces, Tobias J. Harper Nov 2014

Rough Terrain. Review Of Dane Kennedy, The Last Blank Spaces, Tobias J. Harper

Toby Harper

No abstract provided.


A Glimpse Of C.G. Jung's Teaching Styel, Ronald W. Teague Phd, Abpp Nov 2014

A Glimpse Of C.G. Jung's Teaching Styel, Ronald W. Teague Phd, Abpp

Ronald W Teague PhD, ABPP

No abstract provided.


The Search For A Coherent Language: The Science And Politics Of Drug Testing And Approval, Jason Karlawish Nov 2014

The Search For A Coherent Language: The Science And Politics Of Drug Testing And Approval, Jason Karlawish

Jason Karlawish

No abstract provided.


Robert Edward Gross (1905-1988): Ligation Of A Patent Ductus Arteriosus And The Birth Of A Specialty., Alexander V. Chalphin, Bs, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Stacey Milan, Md Nov 2014

Robert Edward Gross (1905-1988): Ligation Of A Patent Ductus Arteriosus And The Birth Of A Specialty., Alexander V. Chalphin, Bs, Charles J. Yeo, Md, Scott W. Cowan, Md, Stacey Milan, Md

Department of Surgery Gibbon Society Historical Profiles

The early 20th century saw an explosion in surgical expertise. Specialties dedicated to delicate organs such as the heart and vulnerable populations, like children, were in their infancy. Dr. William E. Ladd, the father of pediatric surgery, founded the first dedicated department of pediatric surgery at Boston Children’s Hospital in 1910. At the time, attempts at cardiac surgery almost universally ended in death of the patient. The first successful surgical treatment of the cardiac valves would not occur for another 15 years, and the great vessels would remain out of reach for decades more. Dr. Robert E. Gross, the ...


Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 1: (1865-1965), Randy Lackovic Nov 2014

Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 1: (1865-1965), Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This is a history of the marine and freshwater sciences activity at the University of Maine from 1865 - 1965.


Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 2: (1939), Um Marine Biological Lab At Lamoine, Randy Lackovic Nov 2014

Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Before Wentworth Point, Part 2: (1939), Um Marine Biological Lab At Lamoine, Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This is picture album of the University of Maine Marine Biological Laboratory at Lamoine, Maine during the summer session in 1939.


Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Come To Wentworth Point (1960s), Randy Lackovic Nov 2014

Um Marine And Freshwater Sciences Come To Wentworth Point (1960s), Randy Lackovic

Darling Marine Center Historical Documents

This history recounts the formation of the Darling Marine Center from 1963 - 1966.


Kay Ellen Burdette Frank And Linda Lane Izquierdo, Linda Izquierdo, Ellen Frank, Kelsey Duinkerken Oct 2014

Kay Ellen Burdette Frank And Linda Lane Izquierdo, Linda Izquierdo, Ellen Frank, Kelsey Duinkerken

First Women at Jefferson Oral Histories

Kay Ellen Burdette Frank

Dr. Frank graduated from Bethany College in West Virginia before starting at Jefferson Medical College in 1965. Dr. Frank completed her residency in Ophthalmology in Cleveland and then spent nineteen years on the staff at Case Western Reserve University. From there she went to Kaiser, where she worked for eighteen years before retiring and moving to West Virginia.

Linda Lane Izquierdo

Dr. Izquierdo attended the College of William and Mary for her undergraduate degree and received her medical degree from Jefferson Medical College in 1969. She continued her training in Radiology at Temple University and Case ...


Aspects Of Newtonianism In Rameau’S Génération Harmonique, Abigail Shupe Oct 2014

Aspects Of Newtonianism In Rameau’S Génération Harmonique, Abigail Shupe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation studies the influence of Newtonianism as a cultural phenomenon on the theoretical writings of Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764). Rameau’s Génération harmonique (1737) shows a change in his thinking from his earlier work that bears witness to the debates around Newtonian science in the scientific community. Scholars have discussed possible connections between Génération harmonique and Newton’s Opticks (1704) but none has studied this issue in detail. I argue that Rameau was influenced by Newtonianism rather than by Newton’s works, and that Rameau was not always aware of this influence. In order to situate Rameau’s work within ...


Revolutionary Decade: Reflections On The 1960s, Booth Library Oct 2014

Revolutionary Decade: Reflections On The 1960s, Booth Library

Booth Library Programs

Photo galleries and supporting exhibits can be found on the REVOLUTIONARY DECADE exhibit page.

Exhibit Dates

This exhibit was displayed at Booth Library September 9 - November 20, 2014


Outbreak In Washington, Dc: The 1857 Mystery Of The National Hotel Disease, Kerry S. Walters Oct 2014

Outbreak In Washington, Dc: The 1857 Mystery Of The National Hotel Disease, Kerry S. Walters

Gettysburg College Faculty Books

The National was once the grandest hotel in the capital. In 1857, it twice hosted President-elect James Buchanan and his advisors, and on both occasions, most of the party was quickly stricken by an acute illness. Over the course of several months, hundreds fell ill, and over thirty died from what became known as the National Hotel disease. Buchanan barely recovered enough to give his inauguration speech. Rumors ran rampant across the city and the nation. Some claimed that the illness was born of a sewage “effluvia,” while others darkly speculated about an assassination attempt by either abolitionists or southern ...


Medicine And Doctoring In Ancient Mesopotamia, Emily K. Teall Oct 2014

Medicine And Doctoring In Ancient Mesopotamia, Emily K. Teall

Grand Valley Journal of History

Medicine and pharmaceuticals in Mesopotamia during the span of c. 3000-1000 BCE were more sophisticated than many ancient and modern scholars from other cultures would concede. The limited historical evidence in the form of cuneiform texts and the complementary archaeological material allow for medical practice in this long time span to be examined as a whole. There were two dichotomous traditions of healing present in ancient Mesopotamia, one more therapeutic and one more religious; they were non-competitive and both considered reputable and essential. The therapeutic tradition is given a closer examination in order to provide a picture of how pharmaceutical ...


The Early History Of Chance In Evolution, Charles H. Pence Oct 2014

The Early History Of Chance In Evolution, Charles H. Pence

Faculty Publications

Work throughout the history and philosophy of biology frequently employs ‘chance’, ‘unpredictability’, ‘probability’, and many similar terms. One common way of understanding how these concepts were introduced in evolution focuses on two central issues: the first use of statistical methods in evolution (Galton), and the first use of the concept of “objective chance” in evolution (Wright). I argue that while this approach has merit, it fails to fully capture interesting philosophical reflections on the role of chance expounded by two of Galton's students, Karl Pearson and W.F.R. Weldon. Considering a question more familiar from contemporary philosophy of ...


A Surgeon’S Duty, Andrew P. Carlino Oct 2014

A Surgeon’S Duty, Andrew P. Carlino

Student Publications

Dr. Albert Gaillard Hall described a scenario in where he was tricked by his soldiers; “At our rendezvous, on three successive mornings, men reported sick, complaining of backache and headache, and with a very heavily coated tongue, but without other symptoms. Thinking it might prove an oncoming fever, I excused the first and second lots, and then saw that they were ‘old-soldiering the surgeon.’ Long afterwards one of the men explained the trick. The camp was surrounded by rose-bushes in bloom, and a liberal chewing of rose-leaves a little before sick call produced the effect I saw on the tongue ...


The Double-Edged Sword: Smallpox Vaccination And The Politics Of Public Health In Cuba, Stephanie Haydee Gonzalez Oct 2014

The Double-Edged Sword: Smallpox Vaccination And The Politics Of Public Health In Cuba, Stephanie Haydee Gonzalez

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation tracks the introduction and development of smallpox vaccination in colonial Cuba from the early nineteenth century to the American occupation of 1898. Native (creole) medical practitioners utilized smallpox vaccination as an instrument for securing status as professionals and conceptualizing new identities in a colonial slave society. The smallpox vaccination program allowed licensed practitioners to create a medical monopoly, foster scientific standards and cultivate a medical ethic. Creole vaccinators initially identified with a colonial state that protected their professional interests as necessary for the maintenance of Cuba's slave-based, agro-industrial sugar complex. By the end of the nineteenth century ...


World War I Volunteer Nursing, Megan L. Schmedake Sep 2014

World War I Volunteer Nursing, Megan L. Schmedake

The Purdue Historian

In spite of the hardships of World War I, women volunteered as nurses out of patriotism and because of their desire to fulfill their traditional roles as caregivers. Due to the thousands of women who volunteered as nurses throughout the war, the idea that war was primarily a male experience was challenged. Many women made a conscious effort to support the war, and they pushed for equality by seeking to share the same wartime experiences as men. Women experienced the gruesome conditions of war alongside men and learned the best surgical practices of the time by assisting doctors. Because of ...


Salvaging Print: Letterhead In Post-Industrial Urban America, Nancy Sharon Collins Sep 2014

Salvaging Print: Letterhead In Post-Industrial Urban America, Nancy Sharon Collins

The Mid-America Print Council Conference

This panel will explore the link between today’s small press movement and the formal aspects of commercial printing during the American 20th century. Panelists include Christine Medley , Philip Gattuso, and Nancy Bernardo.

Using as its primary example letterhead from defunct companies in Detroit, and secondarily, specimens of business and legal letterhead from other urban centers of the industrial United States, this panel will examine and discuss: What did letterhead represent to 20th century printers in local markets such as Detroit? What is the significance of printed letterhead, and stationery, to the art of small press printing in post-industrial cities ...


Philosophical & Institutional Innovations Of Kenyon Leech Butterfield And The Rhode Island Contributions To The Development Of Land Grant And Sea Grant Extension, Michael Rice, Sarina Rodrigues, Kate Venturini Sep 2014

Philosophical & Institutional Innovations Of Kenyon Leech Butterfield And The Rhode Island Contributions To The Development Of Land Grant And Sea Grant Extension, Michael Rice, Sarina Rodrigues, Kate Venturini

Michael A Rice

Land Grant Education in Rhode Island began with the awarding of 1862 Morrill Act funds to Brown University, making it Rhode Island's first Land Grant College. Continuing controversy over the next two decades mostly through Rhode Island's Grange and other farm organizations led to the formation of the Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts (RICA&M; now the University of Rhode Island or URI). From the establishment of the Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station (RIAES) in 1888, station scientists engaged in a wide variety of Extension activities with local farmers and fishermen. The second president of ...


Clean By Nature. Lively Surfaces And The Holistic-Systemic Heritage Of Contemporary Bionik., Jan Mueggenburg Sep 2014

Clean By Nature. Lively Surfaces And The Holistic-Systemic Heritage Of Contemporary Bionik., Jan Mueggenburg

communication +1

This paper addresses questions regarding the prospering field of Bionik in Germany. Its starting point is the wide spread assumption that universal functional principles exist in nature and that these ‘solutions’ can be transferred into technological objects. Accordingly, advocates of Bionik herald the advent of a better world with more sustainable and efficient products of engineering. The so-called ‘functional surfaces’ occupy a special place within this contemporary version of biomimesis. Shark-skin-inspired swim suits, self-cleaning façade paints with lotus effect or drag reducing Dolphin-Skins for aircraft-wings are expected to improve the quality of life for everyone. It seems that skin and ...


Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken Sep 2014

Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis And Computer Simulation In The Age Of Hypotheticality, Sebastian Vehlken

communication +1

This article examines the media history of one of the hallmark civil nuclear energy programs in Western Germany – the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) technology. Promoted as a kind of perpetuum mobile of the Atomic Age, the "German Manhattan Project" not only imported big science thinking. In its context, nuclear technology was also put forth as an avantgarde of scientific inquiry, dealing with the most complex and 'critical' technological endeavors. In the face of the risks of nuclear technology, German physicist Wolf Häfele thus announced a novel epistemology of
"hypotheticality". In a context where traditional experimental engineering ...


Rewriting The Matrix Of Life. Biomedia Between Ecological Crisis And Playful Actions, Christoph Neubert, Serjoscha Wiemer Sep 2014

Rewriting The Matrix Of Life. Biomedia Between Ecological Crisis And Playful Actions, Christoph Neubert, Serjoscha Wiemer

communication +1

The paper discusses concepts of ‘nature’ and ‘life’ as subjected to historical changes. The 21st century seems to be obsessed with ‘life’ and ‘nature’, which are reconfigured as objects of simulation practices and of a multitude of technoscientific enterprises as well as of political struggle. The historical influences and epistemological shifts of systems thinking are significant within two distinctive and interwoven fields: On the one hand the discourse of environmentalism with the paradigm of ecological crises, centered around ideas of resource management, sustainability, the general idea of an ‘endangered nature’ and the interconnectedness of global politics and individual actions. On ...


Environment Between System And Nature: Alan Sonfist And The Art Of The Cybernetic Environment, Etienne Benson Sep 2014

Environment Between System And Nature: Alan Sonfist And The Art Of The Cybernetic Environment, Etienne Benson

communication +1

This paper examines the role of systems thinking in environmental(ist) art and activism through a close reading and contextualization of Army Ants: Patterns and Structures (1972), an installation by Alan Sonfist, one of the leading figures in U.S. land art and environmental art of the 1960s and 1970s. It challenges a commonly held retrospective understanding of "environmental art" as being inherently about bringing nature into art (or into the gallery) by showing how important systems thinking, which blurred the natural-cultural divide, was to Sonfist and other artists of the time. It suggests that these two understandings of the ...