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History of Religions of Eastern Origins

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Articles 1 - 30 of 124

Full-Text Articles in History

Religious Mega-Events And Their Assemblages In Devotional Pilgrimages: The Case Of Círio De Nazaré In Belém, Pará State, Brazil, José Rogério Lopes, André Luiz Da Silva May 2021

Religious Mega-Events And Their Assemblages In Devotional Pilgrimages: The Case Of Círio De Nazaré In Belém, Pará State, Brazil, José Rogério Lopes, André Luiz Da Silva

Journal of Global Catholicism

The article presents a typological categorization of contemporary mega-events and their characteristics, in order to interpret the assemblages mobilized by sectors of the Catholic Church in traditional devotional pilgrimages in the northern region of Brazil. It uses ethnographic accounts of the Círio de Nazaré feast, in Belém, Pará state, Brazil, considered the largest Catholic procession in the West, in order to analyze how the promotion of this event is organized through institutional and market logics that overlap with the religious phenomenon, evincing a contemporary trend. These assemblages open a field of possibilities for institutional religious reproduction and generate concentric flows ...


The Impact Of Religion On Chinese Government, Society, And Civilians, Liyan Tang May 2021

The Impact Of Religion On Chinese Government, Society, And Civilians, Liyan Tang

Master's Projects and Capstones

This research project analyzes the importance of religion in Chinese society from ancient to contemporary times and how the role of religion has changed throughout history. The Cultural Revolution had a major impact on the perception and use of religion in Chinese society, and the effects still exist in the present day. In order to explore how religion functions in these specific time periods, this research examines various secondary sources, which include scholarly articles and interpretations. Moreover, primary sources, which include official documents of the government and news articles, show how the Chinese government and the citizens have diverse points ...


Placing God: Defining “Post-Christianity” For Contemporary Japanese Christians, Leryan Anthony Burrey May 2021

Placing God: Defining “Post-Christianity” For Contemporary Japanese Christians, Leryan Anthony Burrey

Master's Projects and Capstones

This work suggests that we consider a new, working definition of post-Christianity. This new paradigm is in response to Western Christian thought being too dominant a force that fails to take into enough account other global experiences— like those of Japanese Christians. These reflections are based on scholarly opinions claiming that Christianity is a “global culture,” and ultimately argues for more international inclusivity in Western Christian thought and institutions, especially regarding the Asia-Pacific. Moreover, this paper illuminates how iitoko dori allows Christian thought to peacefully coexist in Japan’s greater society. The research also explores specific Japanese cultural practices that ...


The Significance Of Oomoto: Why Imperialization Of Japan Led To An Alternative Religion, Chancellor T. Jenniges Apr 2021

The Significance Of Oomoto: Why Imperialization Of Japan Led To An Alternative Religion, Chancellor T. Jenniges

Phi Alpha Theta Pacific Northwest Regional Conference

Abstract: In 1852 Admiral Matthew Perry led an American fleet to Japan and persuaded the Japanese to modernize. Fearful of being colonized by the West, like the Chinese, the Japanese moved to westernize their own economy and society. As a result, they outlawed many historic customs. Japan began to westernize their customs and define religion. Three categories were established, religion, non-religion, and superstition. Any ideology or practice that no longer benefited their goals of westernization was deemed superstitious and removed from the narrative. However, these developments met opposition. One such opponent, Ueda Kisaburō, created an alternative religion called Oomoto in ...


Yunini Copy Of Sahih Al-Bukhari, Feruz Kholmuminov, Oybek Sotvoldiev Dec 2020

Yunini Copy Of Sahih Al-Bukhari, Feruz Kholmuminov, Oybek Sotvoldiev

The Light of Islam

Among the collections of hadiths, the work of Imam al-Bukhari “Sahih al-Bukhari” is recognized as the most reliable book of hadiths. From the history of the creation of the work, it is known that Imam al-Bukhari created this work with great patience and perseverance for 16 years. It should be noted that the ideal and perfect state in which it has come down to our days is the result of the enormous work put into it. This process consisted of several stages. At the frst stage, several storytellers listened to “Sahih” from Imam Bukhari himself and wrote the book directly ...


The Mischaracterization Of The Pakhtun-Islamic Peace Culture Created By Abdul Ghaffar Khan And The Khudai Khidmatgars, Shelini Harris Aug 2020

The Mischaracterization Of The Pakhtun-Islamic Peace Culture Created By Abdul Ghaffar Khan And The Khudai Khidmatgars, Shelini Harris

The Journal of Social Encounters

Abdul Ghaffar Khan and his Khudai Khidmatgar Movement, whose peace activities included nonviolent resistance to British rule in India, have remained relatively unknown despite the magnitude of their achievement and significance (100,000 strong peace army). Even among appreciative peace scholars their nonviolence has been mischaracterized as an adoption of Gandhi’s teachings; Khan is referred to as the Muslim Gandhi. I argue that this is due to a reliance on biased colonial sources, concomitant racist characterization of the Pakhtuns and Islam, and an insufficient understanding of violence. I illustrate how this movement’s motivation and inspiration were deeply rooted ...


Investigation Of The "Cultural Appropriation" Of Yoga, Olivia Bartholomew May 2020

Investigation Of The "Cultural Appropriation" Of Yoga, Olivia Bartholomew

Honors Projects

With our world becoming increasingly globalized and cosmopolitan, practices that were once very traditional and spiritual are much different when they confront Western societies. Many yoga instructors and practitioners around the world are concerned about the issue of cultural appropriation within their practice. The researcher defines cultural appropriation to mean the process of a dominant culture manipulating aspects of a marginalized culture for its benefit. Traditionally, yoga comes from India, but it has become popularized throughout the world in our recent human history. Through interviews with nine yoga instructors, each from different yogic traditions, who teach in a variety of ...


Manuscript Variations Of Dabistān-I Mazāhib And Writing Histories Of Religion In Mughal India, Sudev Sheth Apr 2020

Manuscript Variations Of Dabistān-I Mazāhib And Writing Histories Of Religion In Mughal India, Sudev Sheth

Manuscript Studies

A text that has found renewed interest among scholars of early modern India is the Persian compendium of religion called Dabistān-i Maẕāhib. Written between 1645 and 1658, the Dabistān presents a lively ethnographic and historical account of customs and habits of various major and minor religious communities in northern India during the heyday of the Mughal Empire (1526-1707). Written like a travelogue, it moves between various modes of description including mythical revelations, storytelling, ethnographic notes, and authorial commentary. The Dabistān-i Maẕāhib is also valuable because it is the earliest work outside of the Sikh literary tradition that contains first-hand accounts ...


Islamic Revivalism And Democracy In Malaysia, Ashton Word, Ahmed Abd Rabou Apr 2020

Islamic Revivalism And Democracy In Malaysia, Ashton Word, Ahmed Abd Rabou

DU Undergraduate Research Journal Archive

The paper examines democracy and secularism in Malaysia, a state rooted in Islam, and how it has been implemented in a country with a majority Muslim population. It briefly outlines how Islam was brought to the region and how British colonialism was able to implement secularism and democratic practices in such a way that religion was not wholeheartedly erased. Indeed, peaceful decolonization combined with a history of accommodating elites served to promote a newly independent Malaysia, to create a constitutional democracy which declares Islam as the religion of the Federation, and simultaneously religious freedom. Despite the constitution, the United Malays ...


Mysticism And Syncretism On The Island Of Java, Ryan Smith Apr 2020

Mysticism And Syncretism On The Island Of Java, Ryan Smith

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

On the Indonesian island of Java, there is a religious tradition referred to as Kebatinan, which can be seen as the mystical branch of the indigenous religion of Java called Kejawen. However, unlike the mystical traditions of other religions, mysticism is critical to the entire popular practice of Kejawen and is not simply reserved for a select few. There are, on the other hand, a select number of people who fully understand the philosophical notions associated with Kebatinan and so can still be considered the “mystics” of the Kejawen faith. What these principles of mysticism have ultimately manifested as in ...


(Re-) Staging Translation: Meaningful Interaction With Hindu Devotional Objects In The Western Museum, Emma Efkeman Apr 2019

(Re-) Staging Translation: Meaningful Interaction With Hindu Devotional Objects In The Western Museum, Emma Efkeman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this thesis, the Hindu devotional object will be tracked through many contexts and its role will change based on its geographic and cultural location. First, the original ritual context will be established, paying specific attention to ceremonial processes and actions that activate the objects. Next, I will sketch the approaches to interpretation used in the two museum spaces. In this movement between spaces, the Hindu object is de- and then re-contextualized. Museums can discover from this narrative the many ways that meaning is constructed, within and outside of a Western framework. It is this pivotal period of re-contextualization that ...


Augustine On Rhetoric And Flourishing, Jon P. Radwan Mar 2019

Augustine On Rhetoric And Flourishing, Jon P. Radwan

Jon P. Radwan

"Lust and Love at Work: Rhetoric and Human Flourishing according to Augustine" - presented to LCC International University, Klaipeda Lithuania, 3/5/19.


An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Prince ShōToku’S ShōMangyō-Gisho And Two Dunhuang Buddhist Manuscripts: A Debate Over Originality And Canonical Value, Mark Dennis Jan 2019

An Investigation Of The Relationship Between Prince ShōToku’S ShōMangyō-Gisho And Two Dunhuang Buddhist Manuscripts: A Debate Over Originality And Canonical Value, Mark Dennis

Manuscript Studies

This article investigates the relationship between two manuscript fragments discovered in Dunhuang, China referred to as Nai 93 and Tama 24, and the Shōmangyō-gisho, a Buddhist text written in classical Chinese attributed to Japan’s Prince Shōtoku (574-622). Shōtoku is remembered in Japanese history as the country’s first patriarch of Buddhism, revered for his patronage of the nascent faith and his great erudition. His studies under a Korean Buddhist monk led, according to early historical texts, to his composing the Shōmangyō-gisho and two other Buddhist commentaries that have been greatly valued throughout Japanese Buddhist history.

But the discovery of ...


Buddhist Law In Burma: A History Of Dhammasattha Texts And Jurisprudence, 1250–1850, D. Christian Lammerts Aug 2018

Buddhist Law In Burma: A History Of Dhammasattha Texts And Jurisprudence, 1250–1850, D. Christian Lammerts

UH Press Book Previews

Burma and neighboring areas of Southeast Asia comprise the only region of the world to have developed a written corpus of Buddhist law claiming jurisdiction over all members of society. Yet in contrast with the extensive scholarship on Islamic and Hindu law, this tradition of Buddhist law has been largely overlooked. In fact, it is commonplace to read that Buddhism gave rise to no law aside from the vinaya, or monastic law. In Buddhist Law in Burma, D. Christian Lammerts upends this misperception and provides an intellectual and literary history of the dynamic jurisprudence of the dhammasattha legal genre between ...


Li Zehou And Confucian Philosophy, Roger T. Ames, Jinhua Jia Jul 2018

Li Zehou And Confucian Philosophy, Roger T. Ames, Jinhua Jia

UH Press Book Previews

For more than a century scholars both inside and outside of China have undertaken the project of modernizing Confucianism, but few have been as successful or influential as Li Zehou (b. 1930). Since the 1950s, Li’s extensive efforts in this regard have in turn exerted a profound influence on Chinese modernization and resulted in his becoming one of China’s most prominent social critics. To transform Confucianism into a contemporary resource for positive change in China and elsewhere, Li has reinterpreted major ideas and concepts of classical Confucianism, including a rereading of the entire Analects, replete with his own ...


Old Belief And The Balance Of Red And Blue: How Old Believers Managed Cultural Infringement, Joseph K. Van Den Berg Jun 2018

Old Belief And The Balance Of Red And Blue: How Old Believers Managed Cultural Infringement, Joseph K. Van Den Berg

History

This paper covers the spread of the Old Believers into Western society, studying how they changed and evolved during the Cold War. The paper focuses on two communities, using them to compare the different attitudes Old Believers had towards differing host cultures. Using a litany of newspapers and the work of a few dedicated anthropologists, "Old Belief and the Balance of Red and Blue: How Old Believers Managed Cultural Infringement" shows the vast array of responses to a small group of Russian sectarians establishing themselves within Western Cultures of differing size and values.


Bes: The Ancient Egyptian Way Of Initiation, Orlando Julius Rawls May 2018

Bes: The Ancient Egyptian Way Of Initiation, Orlando Julius Rawls

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The purpose of this thesis is to explore Osiris’s role in the Book of the Dead[1] to unearth the ancient Egyptian connotation for the term death. This study contends that western scholars have debased the arcane expression of death to literal interpretation. The basic function of ancient Egyptian scripture was to instruct man’s soul into deity—in the earthly realm. This investigation suggests the ancient Egyptian priesthood instituted this esoteric philosophy in scripture to adumbrate this grand idea death, which was Bes—to be initiated. The third century A.D. witnessed the development of Christianity in northeast ...


Nationalist Transformations: Music, Ritual, And The Work Of Memory In Cambodia And Thailand, Jeffrey M. Dyer Sep 2017

Nationalist Transformations: Music, Ritual, And The Work Of Memory In Cambodia And Thailand, Jeffrey M. Dyer

Yale Journal of Music & Religion

Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Cambodia and its diaspora since 2004, this article explores tensions that arise when individuals and institutions impose nation-state ideologies on music and ritual that predate the nation-state concept and transcend official state boundaries. In numerous contexts, musicians and dancers in Cambodia and Thailand perform offerings and blessings that honor their teachers and initiate artistic lineages. Due to broad influence from India and centuries of conflict and borrowing, these rituals—though not necessarily their musical content—have proliferated in these two countries. I describe these nearly identical rituals—called thvāy grū in Khmer and wai khruu ...


Immanent Frames: Meiji New Buddhism And The 'Religious Secular', James Shields Jun 2017

Immanent Frames: Meiji New Buddhism And The 'Religious Secular', James Shields

Faculty Journal Articles

The secularization thesis, rooted in the idea that “modernity” brings with it the destruction—or, at least, the ruthless privatization—of religion, is clearly grounded in specific, often oversimplified, interpretations of Western historical developments since the eighteenth century. In this article, I use the case of the New Buddhist Fellowship (Shin Bukkyō Dōshikai 新仏教同志会) of the Meiji period (1868–1911) to query the category of the secular in the context of Japanese modernity. I argue that the New Buddhists, drawing on elements of classical and East Asian Buddhism as well as modern Western thought, promoted a resolutely social and this-worldly ...


Confucianism: How Analects Promoted Patriarchy And Influenced The Subordination Of Women In East Asia, Lauren J. Littlejohn Apr 2017

Confucianism: How Analects Promoted Patriarchy And Influenced The Subordination Of Women In East Asia, Lauren J. Littlejohn

Young Historians Conference

Analects, compiled by Confucius’ disciples, helps historians understand the origin of Chinese philosophy and women’s role in society. Analects created a separation of gender that assigned women the domestic role and granted men the authority to handle public affairs. Furthermore, Analects influenced the work of other philosophers who published similarly patriarchal works. Additionally, the subordination of women in Analects, resulted in the practice of female-infanticide, concubinage, and ghost marriages. Analects and the application of Confucianism offers historians an opportunity to study how women in East Asia were treated in the past and helps explain why women continue to be ...


53 People In The [Hebrew] Bible Confirmed Archaeologically, Lawrence J. Mykytiuk Apr 2017

53 People In The [Hebrew] Bible Confirmed Archaeologically, Lawrence J. Mykytiuk

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

This is a list, with end-note documentation, of 53 people in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament who are strongly identified in published inscriptions of known authenticity, in most instances from during or quite close to their lifetimes. It includes people from ancient Egypt, Moab, Aram-Damascus, the northern kingdom of Israel, the southern kingdom of Judah, Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia.

The intent is to include only well-grounded, strong identifications that can be trusted.

Mykytiuk's publications firmly reject the haphazard, "flying by the seat of the pants" approach of numerous online lists which are created without explicit criteria or by suspect ...


Religion And The State: The Influence Of The Tokugawa On Religious Life, Thought, And Institutions, Savannah A. Labbe Apr 2017

Religion And The State: The Influence Of The Tokugawa On Religious Life, Thought, And Institutions, Savannah A. Labbe

Student Publications

This paper describes the influence of the Tokugawa government on religious life in Japan. It focuses on the religious traditions of Buddhism, Shintoism, and Neo-Confucianism and how the state used these religions to their advantage. The Tokugawa had strict control over all aspects of Japanese life including religion and this paper explores that.


The Origins And Identity Of Roman Mithraism, Charles R. Hill Apr 2017

The Origins And Identity Of Roman Mithraism, Charles R. Hill

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Creative Activity, School of Art, Art History and Design

This thesis is a reassessment of scholarship concerning the origins of the cult mysteries of Mithraism in its Roman form during the Imperial Period. While much has been published in the debate over the cult’s true origins, we are still left without a satisfactory answer. The present work is an attempt to reconcile some of the arguments posed in the 19th and early 20th centuries with those of the later 20th and 21st centuries, focusing mostly on the cult’s art and iconography in Mithraea, the central spaces of Mithraic worship. First will be a ...


The Sacred Times Prescribed In The Pentateuch : Old Testament Indicators Of The Extent Of Their Applicability, H. Ross Cole Jan 2017

The Sacred Times Prescribed In The Pentateuch : Old Testament Indicators Of The Extent Of Their Applicability, H. Ross Cole

Ross Cole

The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the sacred times prescribed in the Pentateuch and to determine if the Old Testament itself contains indicators of the extent of their applicability. "Applicability" refers primarily to ongoing applicability throughout time. However, whether a sacred time will be universally applicable in the future may be directly related to whether it was ever meant to be universally applicable in the first place. Accordingly, this study entails a close examination of many different features of the Pentateuchal sacred times and their applicability. Chapter 1 reviews relevant literature and describes the present investigator's methodology ...


Theories Of The Self, Race, And Essentialization In Buddhism In The United States During The “Yellow Peril,” 1899-1957, Ryan Anningson Jan 2017

Theories Of The Self, Race, And Essentialization In Buddhism In The United States During The “Yellow Peril,” 1899-1957, Ryan Anningson

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This dissertation is an intellectual history tracing developing notions of the Self in Buddhism through Buddhist publications during the years from 1899-1957. I define this time period as the Era of the Yellow Peril, due to common views in the United States of an Asian “other” which formed a larger clash of civilizations globally. 1899-1957 was marked by pessimism and dread due to two World Wars and the Great Depression, while popular and academic cultures argued for the validity of race sciences, and the application of these “sciences” through eugenics. Buddhism in the United States was created through a global ...


The Grace Of God And The Travails Of Contemporary Indian Catholicism, Kerry P. C. San Chirico Sep 2016

The Grace Of God And The Travails Of Contemporary Indian Catholicism, Kerry P. C. San Chirico

Journal of Global Catholicism

This essay discusses the challenges faced by Indian Catholicism, particularly as it seeks to adapt to and in contemporary, post-colonial India through the process or program of what is called inculturation, a self-conscious program of adaptation to Indian religion and culture. Since Indian Catholicism is constituted by so many irreducible persons-in-relation, the article focuses on the life of the Catholic priest, Swami Ishwar Prasad in whose life we may chart something of the inculturation movement and the Catholic tradition as it is found in North India region, in one rather long and rich lifetime connecting two centuries. The article seeks ...


In Continuity With The Past: Indigenous Environmentalism And Indian Christian Visions Of Flora, James Ponniah Sep 2016

In Continuity With The Past: Indigenous Environmentalism And Indian Christian Visions Of Flora, James Ponniah

Journal of Global Catholicism

This article considers whether Indian Christianity can be said to have a distinctive ecological vision. The first two parts of the article examine Christian environmentalism in two native forms of Indian Christianity: Tamil Christianity and Tribal Christianity. Continuing with the theme of conformity to the local culture—though of the elite—the third part of the article investigates how Christian Ashrams function as dynamic centers for ecological praxis. The last part of the article considers how contemporary Indian Christian communities can respond to the ecological challenges confronting them.


Antoniyar Kōvil: Hindu-Catholic Identity At The St. Anthony Shrine In St. Mary’S Co-Cathedral, Chennai, Pj Johnston Sep 2016

Antoniyar Kōvil: Hindu-Catholic Identity At The St. Anthony Shrine In St. Mary’S Co-Cathedral, Chennai, Pj Johnston

Journal of Global Catholicism

This article combines ethnographic description of the practices of Hindu and Christian visitors of the St. Antony Shrine in Chennai with the observation that this material cannot be understood using the standard world religions paradigm that essentializes Christianity as exclusivistic. Drawing upon the visual and material culture of the shrine in light of premodern and Vatican II templates for inculturation and the negotiation of religious difference, the article highlights overlap between Tamil Hinduism and the Tamil Popular Catholicism of the site to argue that the beliefs and practices documented should inform descriptive and normative accounts of Catholic Christianity. Because Tamil ...


Eleven Non-Royal Jeremianic Figures Strongly Identified In Authentic, Contemporaneous Inscriptions, Lawrence J. Mykytiuk Jul 2016

Eleven Non-Royal Jeremianic Figures Strongly Identified In Authentic, Contemporaneous Inscriptions, Lawrence J. Mykytiuk

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Using established criteria, this article identifies nine persons mentioned in the book of Jeremiah and two high priests in 1 Chronicles, all of whom were contemporaries of Jeremiah. These persons are identified with virtual certainty in inscriptions of known authenticity contemporaneous with that prophet. Some these inscriptions came to light as recently as 2005 and 2008.

Authentic bullae from excavations in the City of David refer to several Hebrew people named in the Bible. These are: Gemaryahu the king’s minister and his father Shaphan the scribe, Yehukal the king’s minister and his father Shelemyahu, Gedalyahu the king’s ...


Peasant Revolts As Anti-Authoritarian Archetypes For Radical Buddhism In Modern Japan, James Shields Jun 2016

Peasant Revolts As Anti-Authoritarian Archetypes For Radical Buddhism In Modern Japan, James Shields

Faculty Journal Articles

The late Meiji period (1868-1912) witnessed the birth of various forms of “progressive” and “radical” Buddhism both within and beyond traditional Japanese Buddhist institutions. This paper examines several historical precedents for “Buddhist revolution” in East Asian—and particularly Japanese—peasant rebellions of the early modern period. I argue that these rebellions, or at least the received narratives of such, provided significant “root paradigms” for the thought and practice of early Buddhist socialists and radical Buddhists of early twentieth century Japan. Even if these narratives ended in “failure”—as, indeed, they often did—they can be understood as examples of what ...