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Articles 1 - 30 of 1959

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El Salvador: Root Causes And Just Asylum Policy Responses, Karen Musalo Jul 2021

El Salvador: Root Causes And Just Asylum Policy Responses, Karen Musalo

Hastings Race and Poverty Law Journal

Throughout the course of United States history, there has often been a chasm between our ideals as a country, and our actions. Our foreign policy and immigration policy have been no exception – frequently betraying our stated commitment to democracy, respect for human rights, and protection of the persecuted. This article takes a close look at El Salvador, whose nationals make up a significant number of asylum seekers at our border. Our foreign and immigration policies towards El Salvador are illustrative of that gap between ideals and reality. We supported a brutal military during that country’s civil war, and adopted ...


Strategic Notes On Third Generation Gangs: A Small Wars Journal-El Centro Anthology. By John P. Sullivan, Robert J. Bunker, Editors. Bloomington: Xlibris, 2020. $26.99., Jonathan D. Rosen Apr 2021

Strategic Notes On Third Generation Gangs: A Small Wars Journal-El Centro Anthology. By John P. Sullivan, Robert J. Bunker, Editors. Bloomington: Xlibris, 2020. $26.99., Jonathan D. Rosen

Journal of Strategic Security

No abstract provided.


An Ember Of The Shining Path: A Content And Text Analysis Of The Peru People's Movement's "Sol Rojo" Magazine, Matthew A. Hughes Mar 2021

An Ember Of The Shining Path: A Content And Text Analysis Of The Peru People's Movement's "Sol Rojo" Magazine, Matthew A. Hughes

International Journal of Security Studies

Far-left terrorism rocked Latin America during the 1980s and 1990s, making that region the epicenter of global terrorism for fourteen years. Now, nearly three decades after the Shining Path collapsed under the Peruvian Government’s counter-insurgency efforts, remnants of the group continue to operate. While the brutality and carnage for which the Shining Path is known have subsided, factions disseminate propaganda calling for the “People’s War” and revolution. One such faction, the Peruvian People’s Movement, has published the magazine Sol Rojo [Red Sun] at a rate of about two editions since around 1994. This study examines content from ...


Populism And Transparency: The Political Core Of An Administrative Norm, Mark Fenster Feb 2021

Populism And Transparency: The Political Core Of An Administrative Norm, Mark Fenster

University of Cincinnati Law Review

Transparency has become a preeminent administrative norm with unimpeachable status as a pillar of democracy. But the rise of right-wing populism, reminiscent of older forms of militaristic authoritarianism, threatens transparency’s standing. Recently elected governments in Europe, Latin America, and North America represent a counter-movement away from liberal-democratic institutions that promote the visibility and popular accountability that transparency promises. Contemporary populist movements have not, however, entirely rejected it as an ideal. The populist rebuke of power inequities and its advocacy for popular sovereignty implicitly and sometimes explicitly include a demand for a more visible, accessible state. Populists’ seemingly hypocritical embrace ...


Populism And Transparency: The Political Core Of An Administrative Norm, Mark Fenster Feb 2021

Populism And Transparency: The Political Core Of An Administrative Norm, Mark Fenster

UF Law Faculty Publications

Transparency has become a preeminent administrative norm with unimpeachable status as a pillar of democracy. But the rise of right-wing populism, reminiscent of older forms of militaristic authoritarianism, threatens transparency’s standing. Recently elected governments in Europe, Latin America, and North America represent a counter-movement away from liberal-democratic institutions that promote the visibility and popular accountability that transparency promises. Contemporary populist movements have not, however, entirely rejected it as an ideal. The populist rebuke of power inequities and its advocacy for popular sovereignty implicitly and sometimes explicitly include a demand for a more visible, accessible state. Populists’ seemingly hypocritical embrace ...


Beyond Green Cars And Goddesses: Gender, The Global Environment, And Sustainability, Kiran Asher Jan 2021

Beyond Green Cars And Goddesses: Gender, The Global Environment, And Sustainability, Kiran Asher

Sustainability Education Resources

Gender, the environment and sustainability are key terms in debates about economic globalization and social justice. While not new, they are reemerging as part of the post-2015 sustainable development agenda. This course will introduce students to the perceived and existing links between women, gender, and the global environment as they appear in 21st century discussions about sustainable development. Through readings, lectures and discussions will explore the following questions:  When did the environment and sustainability emerge as key biological and social issues on global agendas?  What are their connections to economic globalization? To colonialism and capitalism?  How did women and gender ...


Gangmastering Passata: Multi-Territoriality Of The Food System And The Legal Construction Of Cheap Labor Behind The Globalized Italian Tomato, Dr. Tomaso Ferrando Jan 2021

Gangmastering Passata: Multi-Territoriality Of The Food System And The Legal Construction Of Cheap Labor Behind The Globalized Italian Tomato, Dr. Tomaso Ferrando

FIU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Crossing The Border In Search Of Christian Hospitality, Harold Recinos Phd Jan 2021

Crossing The Border In Search Of Christian Hospitality, Harold Recinos Phd

Apuntes: Reflexiones teológicas desde el margen hispano

No abstract provided.


Latin American And Caribbean Forests In The2020s: Trends, Challenges, And Opportunities, Dan Nepstad, Carlos A. Nobre, Brent Sohngen, Simone Carolina Bauch, Juan Robalino, Raoni Rajão, Nathália Nascimento, Bryan Finegan, Allen Blackman, Julia Arieira Jan 2021

Latin American And Caribbean Forests In The2020s: Trends, Challenges, And Opportunities, Dan Nepstad, Carlos A. Nobre, Brent Sohngen, Simone Carolina Bauch, Juan Robalino, Raoni Rajão, Nathália Nascimento, Bryan Finegan, Allen Blackman, Julia Arieira

Security Research Hub Reports

This monograph presents expert assessments of four different facets of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) forests at the start of the 2020s. In Chapter 1, Dan Nepstad and coauthors distill lessons from case studies of the application of various approaches to forest conservation and restoration in four countries: Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Peru. In Chapter 2, Carlos Nobre and coauthors examine the two-way links between forests and climate change. They summarize what we know about the effects of climate change on forests and human migration in LAC, and the effects of forest loss and degradation on global and regional ...


The Gold Standard: Addressing Illicit Financial Flows In The Colombian Gold Sector Through Greater Transparency, Global Financial Integrity Jan 2021

The Gold Standard: Addressing Illicit Financial Flows In The Colombian Gold Sector Through Greater Transparency, Global Financial Integrity

Security Research Hub Reports

"This report is divided in two large chapters. The first looks at the country context in Colombia and why gold mining, with its long history, has recently been targeted by criminal groups. It then presents an analysis with environmental data that maps mining sites in relation to ecosystems and endangered species. Next, it presents an analysis by the Alliance for Responsible Mining regarding the challenges facing local mining communities. The second chapter delves into trade issues. It begins with an analysis by the Centro de Estudios de Trabajo (Cedetrabajo) on trade misinvoicing within Colombia’s gold exports. Next, it presents ...


From Hopscotch To Border Hopping: Assessing The Role Of Education As A Catalyst For Child Migration From The Northern Triangle, Taylor A. Close Jan 2021

From Hopscotch To Border Hopping: Assessing The Role Of Education As A Catalyst For Child Migration From The Northern Triangle, Taylor A. Close

Honors College Theses

This paper will evaluate forced child migration from Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, more commonly known as Central America’s Northern Triangle. More specifically, the research questions how the denial of primary education may constitute a human rights violation that catalyzes forced child migration from the region. If the denial of education constitutes a human rights abuse, then current classifications and management of child migrants at the border can no longer be deemed sufficient or legal. Ultimately, if the denial of primary education represents a significant human rights abuse and cause of forced child migration, United States immigration policy must ...


From Community Policing To Political Police In Nicaragua, Lucia Dammert, Mary Fran T. Malone Dec 2020

From Community Policing To Political Police In Nicaragua, Lucia Dammert, Mary Fran T. Malone

Faculty Publications

In a region plagued by high rates of violent crime and repressive policing practices, Nicaragua has earned a reputation as exceptional. Despite poverty, inequality, and a historical legacy of political violence and repression, Nicaragua has defied regional trends. It has registered low rates of violent crime while deploying policing practices that emphasized prevention over repression. April 2018 marked an end to this exceptionalism. Police attacked anti-government protestors, and launched a sustained campaign against dissidents that continues to the present day. While the Nicaraguan police had long cultivated a reputation as community-oriented and non-repressive, they appeared to quickly change into a ...


Migration And Inequalities In The Face Of Covid-19: Vulnerable Populations And Support Networks In Mexico And The United States, Claudia Masferrer Nov 2020

Migration And Inequalities In The Face Of Covid-19: Vulnerable Populations And Support Networks In Mexico And The United States, Claudia Masferrer

Mission Foods Texas-Mexico Center Research

Our world changed drastically on February 11th 2020 when the World Health Organization announced the name of the new coronavirus disease as COVID-19, and the pandemic was later considered the greatest challenge we have faced since World War II. Although we have started to experience social life in various new ways, the impacts that it will bring are still unknown. In recent years, migration had already undergone different transformations globally, and more changes are expected. How will populations on the move and migrant populations live in the following years post-COVID, and how different actors will respond to these changes, is ...


An Assessment Of The Impact Of Maritime (In)Security In The Gulf Of Guinea: Special Emphasis On Sao Tome And Principe, Paulo De Araújo Ribeiro De Ceita Nov 2020

An Assessment Of The Impact Of Maritime (In)Security In The Gulf Of Guinea: Special Emphasis On Sao Tome And Principe, Paulo De Araújo Ribeiro De Ceita

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Changing Birth In The Andes: Culture, Policy And Safe Motherhood In Peru. Guerra‐Reyes, Lucia. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2019., Rosalynn A. Vega Oct 2020

Changing Birth In The Andes: Culture, Policy And Safe Motherhood In Peru. Guerra‐Reyes, Lucia. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2019., Rosalynn A. Vega

Anthropology Faculty Publications and Presentations

No abstract provided.


Unparalleled Opportunities Or Unmitigated Risk? Economic Globalization And Its Impact On State Capacity In The Developing World, John M. Zak Oct 2020

Unparalleled Opportunities Or Unmitigated Risk? Economic Globalization And Its Impact On State Capacity In The Developing World, John M. Zak

Student Publications

Economic globalization is a phenomenon driving major developments in the international system. With the force of this phenomenon shaping events within states and interactions among them, the question of economic globalization’s impact on state capacity is worthy of an in-depth analysis. In this work I use economic globalization as the central explanatory variable and state capacity as the dependent variable and seek to establish an empirical relationship between the two that will offer the social science community a better understanding of how this phenomenon is shaping state capacity in developing countries. Based on available scholarship, I argue that economic ...


The Sentimental Constitution: Prostitution, Sex Work, And Human Trafficking In Colombia, Esteban Restrepo-Saldarriaga Aug 2020

The Sentimental Constitution: Prostitution, Sex Work, And Human Trafficking In Colombia, Esteban Restrepo-Saldarriaga

Yale Journal of Law & Feminism

Nothing generates as much discord and emotion as sex. No wonder Virginia Woolf once said, "when a subject is highly controversial-and any question about sex is that-one cannot hope to tell the truth."' This warning seems particularly poignant where the subject is one of the sexes selling sex particularly when those selling it are women. Nevertheless, the debate that has taken place in Europe and the United States in the last century over women's prostitution/sex work seems not to have heeded Woolf's call for argumentative caution when discussing the sexes (and sex). Those who talk about prostitution ...


Being In Transit: Life, Death, And The Politics Of Migrant Journeys From Central America To The United States, Jared Patrick Van Ramshorst Aug 2020

Being In Transit: Life, Death, And The Politics Of Migrant Journeys From Central America To The United States, Jared Patrick Van Ramshorst

Dissertations - ALL

Every year, hundreds of thousands of migrants from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua risk their lives traveling to and toward the U.S. Long before reaching the U.S.-Mexico border, however, they travel thousands of miles across Central America and Mexico, often stopping off in migrant shelters scattered along the way. Whether travelling by foot or riding atop large freight trains known as “the Beast,” migrants spend weeks, months, and even years in transit, navigating a dense landscape of hardening borders and immigration enforcement in Mexico and the U.S. while encountering incredible dangers along the way, such ...


Keeping The Barbarians At The Gates: The Promise Of The Unesco And Unidroit Conventions For Developing Countries, Michael P. Goodyear Aug 2020

Keeping The Barbarians At The Gates: The Promise Of The Unesco And Unidroit Conventions For Developing Countries, Michael P. Goodyear

Michigan Journal of International Law

The illicit trade in cultural property is a global phenomenon, powered by criminal networks and smuggling trains that sacrifice local culture for the black market of the art world. Headlines featuring the Islamic State’s lucrative exchange in stolen cultural property, among other incidents, have raised the profile of the illicit cultural property trade on the global stage. Developing countries, as the most prominent source countries of cultural property, are particularly at risk. Existing scholarship has searched for a solution to this crisis, suggesting a new international treaty to protect cultural property or recommending the utilization of adjacent legal fields ...


Not Necessarily Unlawful: Asylum Seekers’ Ability To Raise The Necessity Defense To Charges Of Unlawful Entry, Daniel A. Hatoum Esq. Jul 2020

Not Necessarily Unlawful: Asylum Seekers’ Ability To Raise The Necessity Defense To Charges Of Unlawful Entry, Daniel A. Hatoum Esq.

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Problem Of Organized Crime In The South American Tri-Border Area: Paraguay, Brazil And Argentina, Stanisław Kosmynka Jun 2020

The Problem Of Organized Crime In The South American Tri-Border Area: Paraguay, Brazil And Argentina, Stanisław Kosmynka

International Studies: Interdisciplinary Cultural and Political Journal

The paper shows mechanisms and manifestations of the challenges for the security in the South American Tri-Border Area (Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina). It analyses the background of the activity of chosen organized crime and terrorist groups in this region. The article refers to some social and economic conditions for the spread of violence and illegal business in the area. It is focused on the most important dimensions of these problems and on the strategy implemented by South American governments to fight and prevent organized crime. The paper shows how the security forces deal with the threat and evaluate the impact ...


The Lasting Effects Of U.S. Intervention In Guatemala, Katherine A. Gaffey May 2020

The Lasting Effects Of U.S. Intervention In Guatemala, Katherine A. Gaffey

University Honors Theses

Guatemala today faces a national femicide, exceedingly high rates of human trafficking and drug trafficking, as well an increase in migration to the U.S. This paper attempts to understand the current situation in Guatemala through a historical analysis of Guatemala’s tumultuous relationship with the U.S. Specifically, it looks at the role of the 1954 CIA backed coup and the United Fruit Company as key causal factors in fostering the Guatemalan Civil War and the implications of that war for ongoing crime and instability in Guatemala today.


A Colombian Peace: Impartial Ceasefires And Protected Reintegration Processes, Isiah Godoy May 2020

A Colombian Peace: Impartial Ceasefires And Protected Reintegration Processes, Isiah Godoy

Student Honors Theses By Year

For over 70 years the Colombian government has struggled with legitimizing its rule over the entirety of its dominions. Whether enveloped in a civil war (1948-1958) or battling transnational organizations like insurgency groups or drug-trafficking organizations, the South American nation has been riddled with instability. As such, Colombia has spent the last 50 years battling and negotiating peace with various insurgencies such as the FARC, ELN, M-19, and EPL, among others. Having attempted numerous peace agreements for 36 years, the Colombian government has either succeeded in or failed to achieve peace with guerilla organizations.

This monograph will use three consequential ...


All Hail The Market: Immigration And Economics In A Post-Cold War Western Hemisphere, Jorge Ambriz May 2020

All Hail The Market: Immigration And Economics In A Post-Cold War Western Hemisphere, Jorge Ambriz

Master's Theses

The end of the Cold War lifted the United States to the role of the sole economic superpower, and an opportune moment to address hemispheric issues was presented to Washington policymakers. By the end of the 1980s, hemispheric forced migration was on the rise, with a large portion of those forced to flee from Central America. This moment coincided with the decade characterized by an increasingly connected world, where globalization in the form of economic linkages were being proposed in the Summit of the Americas, hemispheric meetings that began in the 1990s in hopes of addressing hemispheric issues. While the ...


A Migration System In The Making: Institutional And Experiential Dynamics Of Refugees And Asylum-Seekers In Mexico, Melissa Balliet May 2020

A Migration System In The Making: Institutional And Experiential Dynamics Of Refugees And Asylum-Seekers In Mexico, Melissa Balliet

Master's Theses

This thesis argues that Mexico’s refugee regime - its institutions, its legal instruments and its norms - are under serious pressure and, as a result of that pressure, a new refugee regime is emerging in the country. This new refugee regime is based on the notion that the movement of refugees, asylum-seekers and irregular migrants should be effectively managed and strictly controlled. Such pressure, resulting in an aggressive border enforcement strategy implemented by the Mexican state, has come directly from the United States government. New policies and contractual agreements emerging from the United States and Mexico (2018-2019) have made it nearly ...


The Mexican Voter Transformed: Morena Success In The Wake Of Party System Failure, Madeline Gegg May 2020

The Mexican Voter Transformed: Morena Success In The Wake Of Party System Failure, Madeline Gegg

Honors Theses

Over the last two decades Mexican politics have been in constant change and instability after the fall of the PRI. In 2014, MORENA was founded and began to make its presence known with the legislative elections in 2015, winning 35 seats in the legislature. Despite only winning less than 10% of seats in their first national election, MORENA built off these victories to win the national general election and the presidency with former PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO). While easy to attribute this historic victory to the global rise of populism, this project argues that the Mexican case ...


Nicolás Maduro’S Impunity Is A Foregone Conclusion: A Case For Replacing The Treaty-Based Rule Of Law Model With Universal Jurisdiction, Alec Waid May 2020

Nicolás Maduro’S Impunity Is A Foregone Conclusion: A Case For Replacing The Treaty-Based Rule Of Law Model With Universal Jurisdiction, Alec Waid

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cuba’S Use Of Political Imagery In Creating Societal Gender Norms: 1940-1980, Matthew Wingfield May 2020

Cuba’S Use Of Political Imagery In Creating Societal Gender Norms: 1940-1980, Matthew Wingfield

Masters Theses, 2020-current

The gendering of Cuba began during the power imbalance during the colonial era. Gender is an important way in which the relationship of Cuba to Spain, to the United States, and of 1959 Cuban revolution has been expressed. However, the practice of the United States gendering Cuba became commonplace after the end of the Spanish-American War. During this period Cuba was often portrayed in US popular culture as a gendered Orientalized other in ways that reflect what scholar Edward Said defined as Orientalism elsewhere. This will be defined later in the introduction. Gender intersected with racial ideologies in many of ...


The United Nations And Democratic Intervention: Is Swords Into Ballot Boxes Enough, Karl J. Irving May 2020

The United Nations And Democratic Intervention: Is Swords Into Ballot Boxes Enough, Karl J. Irving

Denver Journal of International Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Vol. 27, No. 3: Full Issue, Denver Journal International Law & Policy May 2020

Vol. 27, No. 3: Full Issue, Denver Journal International Law & Policy

Denver Journal of International Law & Policy

No abstract provided.