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Why Has Peace Not Come To Colombia? Between Total Peace And Armed Peace, César Niño Jul 2024

Why Has Peace Not Come To Colombia? Between Total Peace And Armed Peace, César Niño

Journal of Strategic Security

This research asks why peace has not come to Colombia despite the end of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. Total Peace is an ambitious project of Gustavo Petro’s government to build the elusive peace in Colombia. However, the country's current security and violence situation shows a crisis in realizing the peace project. New criminal actors are proliferating, massacres are increasing, the confinement of marginal populations is on the rise, and ambushes against members of the security forces continue. The disconnection of the Total Peace policy with the security and defense policy has led to the strengthening of armed structures …


Fourth Transnational Criminal Wave: New Extra Regional Actors And Shifting Markets Transform Latin America’S Illicit Economies And Transnational Organized Crime Alliances, Douglas Farah Jun 2024

Fourth Transnational Criminal Wave: New Extra Regional Actors And Shifting Markets Transform Latin America’S Illicit Economies And Transnational Organized Crime Alliances, Douglas Farah

Research Publications

Transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) in Latin America are undergoing significant transformations, driven by new alliances with extra-regional actors and supported by ideologically flexible authoritarian governments. These changes pose serious threats to democratic governance, the rule of law, and U.S. strategic interests in the hemisphere. The emergence of new actors, markets, and products is causing fragmentation among traditional groups while consolidating criminal economies through alliances with entities such as the Italian 'Ndrangheta, Albanian trafficking clans, and Turkish crime syndicates. This paper examines the evolving transnational criminal ecosystem in Latin America, highlighting the creation of new markets and convergence centers for extra-regional …


The 2024 “Electoral Super-Cycle” In Latin America, Brett J. Kyle Jun 2024

The 2024 “Electoral Super-Cycle” In Latin America, Brett J. Kyle

Latino/Latin American Studies Other Publications

The year 2024 has been dubbed by The Economist, “the biggest election year in history,” with millions of people headed to the polls in dozens of countries across the globe, including Latin America’s own “electoral super-cycle” of contests in six countries.


Impacting Queer Trans-Migrations In Mexico: A Case Study Of Civil Society Organization Casa Frida Refugio Lgbt+, Leticia Morales May 2024

Impacting Queer Trans-Migrations In Mexico: A Case Study Of Civil Society Organization Casa Frida Refugio Lgbt+, Leticia Morales

Master's Theses

Mexico has historically been known as an emigration or transit country. In this context, civil society organizations have played pivotal roles in addressing the voids in support for migrants. Among these organizations, Casa Frida Refugio LGBT stands out as a significant service provider, specifically for LGBT+ migrants. This study engages in a qualitative case study analysis of the organization Casa Frida, drawing from interviews conducted with nine LGBTQ+ migrants and refugees, personal observations, and Casa Frida’s website and social media accounts. The research seeks to answer two central questions: Firstly, what role does an LGBT+ specific service provider like Casa …


Taking The Bang Out Of The Gang: The Impact Of Catholic Schools On Gang Homicides In El Salvador, Ann Jillian Villanueva Adona May 2024

Taking The Bang Out Of The Gang: The Impact Of Catholic Schools On Gang Homicides In El Salvador, Ann Jillian Villanueva Adona

Master's Theses

This study explores the impact of Catholic presence on homicide rates in El Salvador, specifically focusing on the role of Catholic schools in reducing violence in gang-afflicted municipalities. Analyzing municipality-level data from various years, I used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Instrumental Variable (IV) regressions to study the association between school enrollment and homicide rates. Results show that higher enrollment in Catholic schools is linked to a reduction in homicide rates in gang-affected areas, contrasting with an increase in homicides for non-religious schools. This research sheds light on the importance of investing in Catholic education as a strategy for violence …


Deforestation In Brazil’S Amazon And The Effects On Its Position In International Politics, Jeb Hinkle May 2024

Deforestation In Brazil’S Amazon And The Effects On Its Position In International Politics, Jeb Hinkle

Helm's School of Government Conference - American Revival: Citizenship & Virtue

Latin America is a land of potential for economic growth, the expansion of democracy, and international political influence. The United States has historically had political and economic influence in the region; however, Latin American nations have long seen the United States as imperialists, only serving their own interest at the expense of smaller Latin nations. As China’s global ambitions grow, many Latin American nations have turned towards the Chinese for investment and trade. The United States needs to combat China’s influence and the nations of Latin America wish to build a better future for themselves. The solution is strategic partnership …


A Pattern Matching Algorithm For Self-Adjusting Basal Rates In Insulin Pump Systems, Lauren Smith May 2024

A Pattern Matching Algorithm For Self-Adjusting Basal Rates In Insulin Pump Systems, Lauren Smith

Doctoral Dissertations

In a Type 1 Diabetic, Insulin can be administered in a pump system. There are two types of insulin that must be given: basal and bolus. Basal insulin is a long-acting form of insulin that works in the background while fasting, while Bolus insulin is rapid/short acting given in response to food to immediately begin working to lower blood sugar.

Modeling in Diabetes can be represented by algorithmic approaches ranging from simple autoregressive models of the Continuous Glucose Monitor time series to multivariate nonlinear regression techniques of machine learning. Other examples of modeling in Diabetes include prediction models of hypoglycemia …


Democracy And Organized Crime: The Case Of Brazil, Abigail Tank Apr 2024

Democracy And Organized Crime: The Case Of Brazil, Abigail Tank

Student Research Submissions

Local-level democracy is crucial to the strength of a country’s democracy. In Brazil, informal housing settlements known as favelas have started to outpace the growth of the cities in which they exist, yet favelas often lack equal access to democratic institutions that ensure citizens’ rights. Organized crime groups have emerged in these settlements that threaten the strength and stability of local-level democracy. This yields the question, “How does organized crime impact democracy in Brazil?” Through case studies of Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, this thesis explores whether criminal organizations influence political participation in Brazilian favelas. The case studies are …


Laborers And Laundrymen: Sinophobia And The Formation Of American Masculinities, Adam Comstock Apr 2024

Laborers And Laundrymen: Sinophobia And The Formation Of American Masculinities, Adam Comstock

Proceedings of GREAT Day

This paper analyzes pre-existing scholarship and primary sources to connect 19th–20th century anti-Chinese sentiment to the notions of masculinity in the Americas. It takes a trans-national approach, examining Chinese labor migrations to both Anglo- and Latin-America and the effect they had on notions of gender. The paper argues that frontiersmen in the Americas, many of whom engaged in non-normative gender and sexuality practices, used anti-Chinese xenophobia to reinforce traditional masculinity. Connecting phenomena of race, gender, and sexuality, it takes an intersectional approach to history.


Narco Service Provisions In Tierra Caliente: La Familia Michoacana, Los Caballeros Templarios, And Los Zetas, Itzel Mendoza Apr 2024

Narco Service Provisions In Tierra Caliente: La Familia Michoacana, Los Caballeros Templarios, And Los Zetas, Itzel Mendoza

John Wesley Powell Student Research Conference

This article analyzes the mutual relationship of dependency between civil society and narco cartels in Tierra Caliente, focusing on civilian experiences in Michoacan, Guerrero and el Estado de México. This paper will examine the functions of La Familia Michoacana, Los Caballeros Templarios and Los Zetas through community service provisions and cartels’ governance. Additionally, socioeconomic factors of Tierra Caliente will be examined to determine which types of communities lend themselves to cartels to provide community provisions as I argue that socioeconomic factors drive cartels’ operations and behaviors.


Dipl 4806/6806 Political Economy Of Latin America And The Caribbean, Benjamin Goldfrank Phd. Apr 2024

Dipl 4806/6806 Political Economy Of Latin America And The Caribbean, Benjamin Goldfrank Phd.

Diplomacy Syllabi

This seminar provides an overview of major approaches to the study of political economy in Latin America and the Caribbean, past and present development trends, and recent debates over economic policy. The course begins with classic questions of the mutual reciprocal relations between politics and economics before covering the major debates between structural and institutional approaches. It proceeds by examining the switch from import-substituting industrialization to export-led growth models in the 1980s and 1990s and the effects of and reactions to the rise of neoliberal economic policies and then the commodity boom, as well as race and racism in the …


Bukele’S Formula For Terrorism, Yovani E. Chavez Rodriguez Apr 2024

Bukele’S Formula For Terrorism, Yovani E. Chavez Rodriguez

Journal of Strategic Security

The Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and the Mara Barrio 18 (18thStreet Gang) are two of the most notorious Maras. Their army-sized membership and extraordinary levels of brutality once led them to commit more murders than the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Boko Haram, and Al Qaeda. Currently, their activities have expanded to the United States, Latin America, Europe, and Africa. While they are undoubtedly terrorist organizations, Bukele’s formula has proven effective in combating them. Nonetheless, Bukele’s government needs to implement measures to effectively counteract terrorism without affecting the rule of law, transparency, and the respect of human rights.


An Introduction To The Yanomami Humanitarian Crisis And An Interview With Carlos Messiass On Contemporary Brazilian Indigenous Issues, Ethan Mccullough Apr 2024

An Introduction To The Yanomami Humanitarian Crisis And An Interview With Carlos Messiass On Contemporary Brazilian Indigenous Issues, Ethan Mccullough

Departmental Student Research

The following document covers how the rise of Jair Bolsonaro, based around a coalition of expansionist cattle ranchers and extractive industry representatives, has led to the massive explosion of illegal gold mining within the Yanomami in the Amazon. This increase in mining has led to a rapid increase of malnutrition, malaria, and mercury poisoning within the Yanomami population, as well as a significant rise in violence and human rights abuses. Other topics covered include, the previous increase of illegal mining on Yanomami land in the 1980s, Bolsonaro's anti-Indigenous rhetoric while campaigning for presidency, the role of the U.S. in Operation …


Mexico, Oliver Fernando Buenrostro Figueroa, Bárbara Ávalos García, Matías Medina Sánchez, Susan Burns, Eduardo Sánchez Madrigal, Luis Armendariz, Alan Zamarripa, Ana Sofía Villa Hernández, Enrique García Mar 2024

Mexico, Oliver Fernando Buenrostro Figueroa, Bárbara Ávalos García, Matías Medina Sánchez, Susan Burns, Eduardo Sánchez Madrigal, Luis Armendariz, Alan Zamarripa, Ana Sofía Villa Hernández, Enrique García

The Year in Review

No abstract provided.


التحديات الداخلية والخارجية لإعادة بناء الدولة, Dena Sabeeh Masoud Shqair, Amin Awwad Muhanna Almashqbeh Mar 2024

التحديات الداخلية والخارجية لإعادة بناء الدولة, Dena Sabeeh Masoud Shqair, Amin Awwad Muhanna Almashqbeh

Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Research in Higher Education (مجلة اتحاد الجامعات العربية (للبحوث في التعليم العالي

هدف المقال التعرف على التحديات الداخلية والخارجية لإعادة بناء الدولة من خلال التعرف على الظروف التاريخية التي بلورت مفهوم إعادة بناء الدولة، وتسليط الضوء على عدد من التحديات الداخلية والخارجية السياسية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية والأمنية التي تحد من إعادة البناء. وانطلقت الدراسة من فرضية رئيسة مفادها أن "هناك علاقة ارتباطية بين عدد من التحديات السياسية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية والأمنية الداخلية والخارجية وبين إعادة بناء الدولة"، وبعد توظيف المنهجية العلمية الملائمة لهذه الدراسة ممثلةً بالمنهج الوصفي التحليلي، اتضح صحة هذه الفرضية؛ إذ تبيّن أن التحديات الداخلية ممثلةً بغياب الديمقراطية، والفساد، والعنف السياسي، والبطالة، والفقر، والهجرة الخارجية، والتحديات الخارجية ممثلةً باللجوء والتدخل الخارجي، ذات …


Just Don’T Do It: Why Cannabis Regulations Are The Reason Cannabis Businesses Are Failing, Edward Adams Mar 2024

Just Don’T Do It: Why Cannabis Regulations Are The Reason Cannabis Businesses Are Failing, Edward Adams

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Migrant Children And Legislation: Integrating Knowledge About Trauma Into Policy, Yolennys E. Albornoz Feb 2024

Migrant Children And Legislation: Integrating Knowledge About Trauma Into Policy, Yolennys E. Albornoz

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study seeks to integrate some knowledge about trauma into migration policies in the U.S. regarding children. Migration is not a novel concept; it is a dynamic phenomenon that experiences continuous changes and constantly increases in numbers. Globally, the United States has been the primary destination for foreign migrants for a long time, and most of them are Latinos who cross the U.S. and Mexico border. Here, I explore how children face trauma in their home country, which forces them to migrate. Also, while they migrate and after they have migrated, exposing the three stages of trauma for migrant children. …


Image Building On European Security By France Through Military Officer Education Programme, Helmy Ariansyah, Henny Saptatia Drajati Nugrahani Jan 2024

Image Building On European Security By France Through Military Officer Education Programme, Helmy Ariansyah, Henny Saptatia Drajati Nugrahani

Journal of Strategic and Global Studies

This study aims to explore image building activities carried out by France on European security through educational programs for military officers. In this education, military officers were envoys of various friendly countries of France. This military officers education is a forum where France can disseminate its national security vision and mission. France intension is to demonstrate its strong military traditions, as well as its solid doctrine and battle strategy in anticipation of regional and global threats. The programs offered by France in the education program are considered attractive to its partners. This study used participatory observation methods conducted to reconstruct …


A Comparative Analysis Of Domestic And International Legislation On Combating International Bribery And Corruption, Jose W. Alvarez Jan 2024

A Comparative Analysis Of Domestic And International Legislation On Combating International Bribery And Corruption, Jose W. Alvarez

American University International Law Review

This composition compares and contrasts the legislation used in addressing and preventing transnational bribery and corruption at the domestic, regional, and international level. Using the history and current application of the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act as a foundation, this composition analyzes the legislation of fifteen nations, two international organizations, and three regional bodies, and their approaches in combating the growing issue of transnational bribery and corruption. This composition analyzes and interprets the common themes, historical and contemporary patterns, as well as trends at each government level, and potential future courses of action. The denouement of this work seeks …


Lessons From A Small And Troubled Country: Bosnia’S Struggling Judiciary Paints An Ominous Picture For The Future Of The Rule Of Law In The United States, David Pimentel Jan 2024

Lessons From A Small And Troubled Country: Bosnia’S Struggling Judiciary Paints An Ominous Picture For The Future Of The Rule Of Law In The United States, David Pimentel

Mitchell Hamline Law Journal of Public Policy and Practice

No abstract provided.


Just Don’T Do It: Why Cannabis Regulations Are The Reason Cannabis Businesses Are Failing, Edward Adams Jan 2024

Just Don’T Do It: Why Cannabis Regulations Are The Reason Cannabis Businesses Are Failing, Edward Adams

Articles

Part I will provide a historical overview of the cannabis plant and our country’s experience with it prior to the election of President Richard Nixon. It is at that point, the early 1970s, that the current federal cannabis scheme began to take shape. Sections I.A though I.C will discuss the inception of the War on Drugs during the Nixon Administration and examine the subsequent social movement that led President Reagan to revamp and expand the War on Drugs throughout the 1980s.

The legal framework for federal cannabis regulation has largely remained stagnant since the Reagan Administration. Nevertheless, the federal stance …


Understanding The Education Profiles Of Eight Latin American Countries, Girl Center Jan 2024

Understanding The Education Profiles Of Eight Latin American Countries, Girl Center

Adolescents and Young People

Despite significant progress in improving primary enrollment and attainment for girls in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in recent years, gender disparities in education persist and hinder opportunities for girls. Educational attainment for girls has plateaued in numerous countries, with only a few making significant strides in narrowing the gender gap. Moreover, attainment alone does not always translate to improved learning. Gender-related barriers such as school environments that are not conducive to learning and the experience of violence, early and forced marriage, and early childbearing, as well as a lack of support for girls’ education impede attainment and learning. The …


Be Careful What You Wish For: An Overreliance On Telemedicine Could Harm Health Equity, Chinelo Diké-Minor Jan 2024

Be Careful What You Wish For: An Overreliance On Telemedicine Could Harm Health Equity, Chinelo Diké-Minor

Annals of Health Law and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Social-Ecological Vulnerability To Environmental Extremes And Adaptation Pathways In Small-Scale Fisheries Of The Southern California Current, Juan Camilo Cardenas, Et. Al. Jan 2024

Social-Ecological Vulnerability To Environmental Extremes And Adaptation Pathways In Small-Scale Fisheries Of The Southern California Current, Juan Camilo Cardenas, Et. Al.

Economics Department Faculty Publications Series

Coastal ecosystems and human communities are threatened worldwide by climate change, and shocks from social, market and political change. There is an urgent global need to promote resilient food production and livelihoods in the face of these shocks. Small-scale fisheries (SSF) in rural settings can be particularly vulnerable as they frequently lack the resources, rights and infrastructure to respond to shocks originating outside the focal systems. We examined ecological and social outcomes of environmental extremes in a SSF socio-ecological system (SES) by using long-term oceanographic (between 2010-2019) and ecological (2006-2018) data tracking change in a kelp forest ecosystem of Baja …


Deadly Journeys: Climate Change, U.S. Border Enforcement, And Human Rights, Julia Neusner Jan 2024

Deadly Journeys: Climate Change, U.S. Border Enforcement, And Human Rights, Julia Neusner

Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law

Extreme weather events and slow onset disasters, exacerbated by climate change, are increasingly driving global displacement. As displaced people seek cross-border protection in unprecedented numbers, the United States has responded by tightening border controls and restricting asylum access. These policies have exposed migrants and asylum seekers in transit to greater risks of injury and death due to the impacts of climate change and climate-related disasters. Drawing on legal analysis, historical context, and firsthand interviews with people seeking U.S. asylum, this Article examines the implications of U.S. policies that limit freedom of movement and asylum access. The Article raises critical legal …


The Illicit Trafficking Of Cultural Property: Are The Existing International Legal Framework And Enforcement Mechanisms No More Than Glorified Placeholders For The Real Actors?, Ma. Andrea Nicole Gecosala Jan 2024

The Illicit Trafficking Of Cultural Property: Are The Existing International Legal Framework And Enforcement Mechanisms No More Than Glorified Placeholders For The Real Actors?, Ma. Andrea Nicole Gecosala

Student Works

No abstract provided.


“Because I Said So”: How National Leaders Use Rhetoric To Frame The Issues Of National Security And The War On Drugs, Saul Valle Jan 2024

“Because I Said So”: How National Leaders Use Rhetoric To Frame The Issues Of National Security And The War On Drugs, Saul Valle

History and Political Science | Senior Theses

In the preamble of the 2024 presidential election seasons in both the United States and Mexico, there has been an increase in aggressive outspoken expression by national leaders regarding how to best handle the issue of drugs and drug use across the Western hemisphere. These types of sweeping policies are often credited to President Richard Nixon, who on June 18th, 1971, initiated his “War on Drugs,” a global policy campaign intended to address the production, distribution, and consumption of the illicit drug trade. Existing scholarship on this topic has extensively analyzed the early years of the American war on drugs …


Narco Service Provisions In Tierra Caliente: La Familia Michoacana, Los Caballeros Templarios, And Los Zetas, Itzel Mendoza Jan 2024

Narco Service Provisions In Tierra Caliente: La Familia Michoacana, Los Caballeros Templarios, And Los Zetas, Itzel Mendoza

Res Publica - Journal of Undergraduate Research

This article analyzes the mutual relationship of dependency between civil society and narco cartels in Tierra Caliente, focusing on civilian experiences in Michoacan, Guerrero and el Estado de México. This paper will examine the functions of La Familia Michoacana, Los Caballeros Templarios and Los Zetas through community service provisions and cartels’ governance. Additionally, socioeconomic factors of Tierra Caliente will be examined to determine which types of communities lend themselves to cartels to provide community provisions as I argue that socioeconomic factors drive cartels’ operations and behaviors.


Smart Money For The People: Using Financial Innovation And Technology To Promote Esg, Frank Emmert Dec 2023

Smart Money For The People: Using Financial Innovation And Technology To Promote Esg, Frank Emmert

Duke Law & Technology Review

Traditional fiat currencies managed by governments and central banks have had negative impacts on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) goals. Central banks in mature democracies pursue policies that prioritize economic growth and high employment. However, these policies often lead to inflation, eroding the savings and pension funds of average citizens and encouraging risky behavior by banks and entrepreneurs. The pursuit of endless growth is socially and environmentally unsustainable. Leaders in developing countries and dictatorships use expansive monetary policy to maintain their positions, further exacerbating the situation. Convertible fiat currencies moving across borders in untraceable transactions evade regulation and taxation, with …


Addressing Chronic Violence From A Gendered Perspective: Fostering People-Centered Approaches At The National Level, Elena B. Stavrevska, Nattecia Nerene Bohardsingh, María Dolores Hernández Montoya, Tania Cecilia Martínez, Briana Mawby, Aliza Carns Dec 2023

Addressing Chronic Violence From A Gendered Perspective: Fostering People-Centered Approaches At The National Level, Elena B. Stavrevska, Nattecia Nerene Bohardsingh, María Dolores Hernández Montoya, Tania Cecilia Martínez, Briana Mawby, Aliza Carns

Kroc IPJ Research and Resources

Violence has traditionally been viewed through the lens of armed conflict or specific, concrete violent incidents. However, it is necessary to understand that violence may be a chronic phenomenon— a persistent, deeply ingrained aggression affecting daily lives.

The report makes the case for reconceptualizing violence in the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) and gender equality fields, building upon feminist conceptions of the continuum of violence to recognize that societal structures, systemic discrimination and even pervasive cultural norms can be sources of violence. This comprehensive view has significant implications for policy, demanding multisectoral strategies that address not just symptoms but the …