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Documentation, Documentary, And The Law: What Should Be Made Of Victim Impact Videos?, Regina Austin 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Documentation, Documentary, And The Law: What Should Be Made Of Victim Impact Videos?, Regina Austin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Since the Supreme Court sanctioned the introduction of victim impact evidence in the sentencing phase of capital cases in Payne v. Tennessee, 501 U.S. 808 (1991), there have been a number of reported decisions in which that evidence has taken the form of videos composed of home-produced still photographs and moving images of the victim. Most of these videos were first shown at funerals or memorial services and contain music appropriate for such occasions. This article considers the probative value of victim impact videos and responds to the call of Justice John Paul Stevens, made in a statement regarding ...


Electronic Supervision And The Importance Of Evidence Based Practices, Matthew De Michele, Brian Payne 2010 Old Dominion University

Electronic Supervision And The Importance Of Evidence Based Practices, Matthew De Michele, Brian Payne

Sociology & Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

This article proves readers with a brief introduction to evidence-based practices and the integrated model developed by NIC and CJI. Evidence-based principles provide some direction for agencies considering using electronic monitoring or other electronic supervision tools in their jurisdictions. Deciding to place any offender on electronic supervision requires an adequate risk assessment to determine the individual's risk and criminogenic need factors. The assessment is a foundation for the rest of the supervision period. Forgoing adequate assessment would be like building a building on a faulty foundation. The building will ultimately collapse and fail to provide safety.


The Role Of Probation And Parole Officers In The Collaborative Response To Sex Offenders, Brian K. Payne, Matthew DeMichele 2010 Old Dominion University

The Role Of Probation And Parole Officers In The Collaborative Response To Sex Offenders, Brian K. Payne, Matthew Demichele

Sociology & Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

The article presents the curriculum for training community corrections professionals on how to deal with low-level/low-risk sex offenders, with emphasis on the role of various agencies in the collaborative response system. The role of probation and parole officers as the sex offender's external conscience is explained as well as the duties of law enforcement officers in responding to sex offenses. Jail staff may become involved by being court staff, prison staff and treatment staff.


New Perspectives On Brady And Other Disclosure Obligations: Report Of The Working Groups On Best Practices, Stephanos Bibas, Jennifer Blasser, Keith A. Findley, Ronald F. Wright, Jennifer E. Laurin, Cookie Ridolfi 2010 University of Pennsylvania

New Perspectives On Brady And Other Disclosure Obligations: Report Of The Working Groups On Best Practices, Stephanos Bibas, Jennifer Blasser, Keith A. Findley, Ronald F. Wright, Jennifer E. Laurin, Cookie Ridolfi

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


Contemporary Immigration Detention Practices In The United States: A Study In Sociology And Human Rights, Robert D. Goodis 2010 Bard College

Contemporary Immigration Detention Practices In The United States: A Study In Sociology And Human Rights, Robert D. Goodis

Selected Senior Projects Fall 2010

“Contemporary Immigration Detention Practices in the United States: A Study in Sociology and Human Rights” is a study on the detention and incarceration of immigrants, with particular focus on the effects and implications of detaining refugees and asylum-seekers, in the United States. The study reports on two specific detention facilities—the Northwest Detention Center in Tacoma, Washington, and the T. Don Hutto Family Residential Facility (a.k.a. T. Don Hutto Residential Center) in Taylor, Texas—as sociological case-studies, primarily presented as legal briefs, to explore how contemporary detention practices relate to the legal structure and ideals established by domestic ...


Competing Theories Of Blackmail: An Empirical Research Critique Of Criminal Law Theory, Paul H. Robinson, Michael T, Cahill, Daniel M. Bartels 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Competing Theories Of Blackmail: An Empirical Research Critique Of Criminal Law Theory, Paul H. Robinson, Michael T, Cahill, Daniel M. Bartels

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Blackmail, a wonderfully curious offense, is the favorite of clever criminal law theorists. It criminalizes the threat to do something that would not be criminal if one did it. There exists a rich literature on the issue, with many prominent legal scholars offering their accounts. Each theorist has his own explanation as to why the blackmail offense exists. Most theories seek to justify the position that blackmail is a moral wrong and claim to offer an account that reflects widely shared moral intuitions. But the theories make widely varying assertions about what those shared intuitions are, while also lacking any ...


A Meta-Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Sex Offender Residential Restrictions To Recidivism, Cheryl Kack 2010 Minnesota State University - Mankato

A Meta-Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Sex Offender Residential Restrictions To Recidivism, Cheryl Kack

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to review the empirical research studies pertaining to the enactment of sex offender residency restrictions and its impact on recidivism. The intended purpose for residency restrictions is to limit the distance an offender can reside in proximity to schools, parks, playgrounds and daycare facilities. These residency restrictions were implemented as a safe guard to prevent sex offenders from residing in close proximity to where children typically gather (Chajewski & Mercado, 2009; During, 2006; Melroy, Miller & Curtis, 2008; Mercado, Alvarez & Levenson, 2008; Zgoba, Levenson & McKee, 2009). There has been a limited number of evidence-based research on if sex offender residency restrictions are an extenuating factor in deterring recidivism. In addition, do these restrictions create a negative residual effect, therefore increasing recidivism? Do these restrictions create additional consequences for the offenders and their families?

When individuals exit the prison system, they may have difficulty finding housing due to felony records and landlord reluctance. The obtainment of housing can become even more difficult when citizens are classified as sex offenders. These residency restrictions can limit the options for housing especially in the rural context (During, 2006; Yung, 2007). Lester (2010) states that the residency restrictions limiting proximity “seems like a quick and simple fix ...


Preventing Security Breaches In Business, Pearl Jacobs, Linda Schain 2010 Sacred Heart University

Preventing Security Breaches In Business, Pearl Jacobs, Linda Schain

CJ Faculty Publications

Technological advancements are constantly changing the world we live in. These advancements are not only changing how we work but also the security of our workplace. High level white collar crime is rapidly becoming a fact of corporate life. Businesses want to avoid becoming victims of these white collar criminals so they attempt to institute controls on all aspects of their operations. These controls are far from 100% effective. Businesses need to take a different approach to the prevention of white collar crime. Perhaps more effective prevention programs can be developed by exploring the various theories of crime causation and ...


Conversations With A Crime Boss: Doing Asian Criminal Business, Nafis HANIF, Mark FINDLAY 2010 Singapore Management University

Conversations With A Crime Boss: Doing Asian Criminal Business, Nafis Hanif, Mark Findlay

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Media piracy, in Malaysia, is organised through illicit negotiations between a dominant crime syndicate and consumers, street-corner gang leaders, the Malaysian police, custom officers and directors of the Malaysian Film Censorship Board. These key social actors who crossover class, race, religion, gang membership, and bridge porous legitimate and illegitimate commercial and political sectors of society establish a mutually collaborative relationship by negotiating their asymmetrical social capital, according to a conventional cost-benefit analysis. Contextual analyses of these illicit interactions identify criminal enterprise opportunities and plot the interactive progress of enterprise as it unfolds, against models of organisational and functional inter-connection. The ...


Exiting Prostitution: An Integrated Model, Lynda M. Baker, Rochelle L. Dalla, Celia Williamson 2010 Wayne State University, Detroit, MI

Exiting Prostitution: An Integrated Model, Lynda M. Baker, Rochelle L. Dalla, Celia Williamson

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Exiting street-level prostitution is a complex, convoluted process. Few studies have described this process within any formal conceptual framework. This article reviews two general models and two prostitution-specific models and their applicability to the exiting process. Barriers encountered as women attempt to leave the streets are identified. Based on the four models, the barriers, the prostitution literature, and the authors’ experience with prostituted women, a new integrated six-stage model that is comprehensive in scope and sensitive to women’s attempts to exit prostitution is offered as a foundation for continued research on the process of women leaving the streets.


“All The Men Here Have The Peter Pan Syndrome— They Don’T Want To Grow Up”: Navajo Adolescent Mothers’ Intimate Partner Relationships—A 15-Year Perspective, Rochelle L. Dalla, Alexandria M. Marchetti, Elizabeth (Beth) A. Sechrest, Jennifer L. White 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

“All The Men Here Have The Peter Pan Syndrome— They Don’T Want To Grow Up”: Navajo Adolescent Mothers’ Intimate Partner Relationships—A 15-Year Perspective, Rochelle L. Dalla, Alexandria M. Marchetti, Elizabeth (Beth) A. Sechrest, Jennifer L. White

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

In 1992 and 1995, data were collected from 29 Navajo Native American adolescent mothers. In 2007 and 2008, data were collected from 21 of the original 29 (72%). Guided by feminist family theory, this investigation sought to (a) examine Navajo adolescent mothers’ intimate partner relationships during the transition to parenthood, (b) identify themes in the young mothers’ intimate partnerships across time, and (c) assess participants’ psychosocial well-being in adulthood. Four themes emerged in the women’s long-term intimate relationships: limited support, substance abuse, infidelity, and intimate partner violence. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Differing Attitudes Towards The Cannabis Infringement Notice Scheme As A Function Of Career Aspirations And Dispositional Variables, Mark Thomas Wallace 2010 Edith Cowan University

Differing Attitudes Towards The Cannabis Infringement Notice Scheme As A Function Of Career Aspirations And Dispositional Variables, Mark Thomas Wallace

Theses : Honours

This paper investigated the predictive relationship between individuals' career aspirations, dispositional variables such as temperance mentality and need for closure, and recent cannabis use, and attitudes towards the Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme in Western Australia; and also examined if differences in attitudes towards CIN scheme existed between different career aspiration groups. The CIN scheme, a harm reduction strategy, came into effect on 22 March 2004 (Lenton, 2004). Harm reduction is one of three strategies encompassed by the policy of harm minimisation, which underpins Australia's approach to drugs and drug related harm (Ryder, Walker, & Salmon, 2006). Studies investigating attitudes towards harm minimisation have been conducted in Australia and internationally (e.g. Goddard and colleagues, 2002, 2003; Quick, 2007) and found that ...


Segregation And Violence: Comparing The Effects Of Residential Segregation On Latino And Black Violence, Ben Feldmeyer 2009 University of Tennessee

Segregation And Violence: Comparing The Effects Of Residential Segregation On Latino And Black Violence, Ben Feldmeyer

Ben Feldmeyer

Racial/ethnic residential segregation has been shown to contribute to violence and have harmful consequences for minority groups. However, research examining the segregation–crime relationship has focused almost exclusively on blacks and whites while largely ignoring Latinos and other race/ethnic groups and has rarely considered potential mediators (e.g., concentrated disadvantage) in segregation–violence relationships. This study uses year 2000 arrest data for California and New York census places to extend segregation–crime research by comparing the effects of racial/ethnic residential segregation from whites on black and Latino homicide. Results indicate that (1) racial/ethnic segregation contributes to ...


Exploring Parental Aggression Toward Teachers In A Public School Setting, David May, Yanfen Chen, Jerry Johnson, Lisa Hutchinson, Melissa Ricketts 2009 Eastern Kentucky University

Exploring Parental Aggression Toward Teachers In A Public School Setting, David May, Yanfen Chen, Jerry Johnson, Lisa Hutchinson, Melissa Ricketts

David May

Almost all of the extant research examining aggressive activity uses data from student populations. In this study, we extend that literature by examining teacher perceptions of parental aggression in public schools in Kentucky. Using data from a sample of 5,971 public school teachers, we determine that parental aggression directed at public school teachers is a rare event, and when it occurs, it is far more likely to be verbal than physical in nature. The multivariate results presented here further indicate that younger teachers, teachers with advanced degrees, and teachers from more heavily populated areas as more likely to have ...


Scope And Conceptual Issues In Testing The Race-Crime Invariance Thesis: Black, White, And Hispanic Comparisons, Darrell Steffensmeier, Jeffery Ulmer, Ben Feldmeyer, Casey Harris 2009 Pennsylvania State University

Scope And Conceptual Issues In Testing The Race-Crime Invariance Thesis: Black, White, And Hispanic Comparisons, Darrell Steffensmeier, Jeffery Ulmer, Ben Feldmeyer, Casey Harris

Ben Feldmeyer

Our goal in this article is to contribute conceptually and empirically to assessments of the racial invariance hypothesis, which posits that structural disadvantage predicts violent crime in the same way for all racial and ethnic groups. Conceptually, we elucidate the scope of the racial invariance hypothesis and clarify the criteria used for evaluating it. Empirically, we use 1999–2001 averaged arrest data from California and New York to extend analyses of the invariance hypothesis within the context of the scope and definitional issues raised in our conceptual framing—most notably by including Hispanic comparisons with Blacks and Whites, by examining ...


A Gendered Assessment Of The "Threat Of Victimization", David May, Nicole Rader, Sarah Goodrum 2009 Eastern Kentucky University

A Gendered Assessment Of The "Threat Of Victimization", David May, Nicole Rader, Sarah Goodrum

David May

Rader has called for a change in how researchers study fear of crime, suggesting that fear of crime, perceptions of risk, and experiences with victimization are interrelated dimensions of the larger ‘‘threat of victimization’’ concept. In this study, the authors examine how each independent dimension affects additional theoretical dimensions of the ‘‘threat of victimization’’ and how these relationships vary by gender. Using data from residents of Kentucky, the authors estimate a series of multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The findings presented here suggest that gender differences do exist in the components of the threat of victimization and that many ...


Crime And Punishment In Vietnam, Hoan Bui 2009 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Crime And Punishment In Vietnam, Hoan Bui

Hoan N. Bui

No abstract provided.


Increases In School Shootings: Reality Or Myth?, David May, Erin Kelley 2009 Eastern Kentucky University

Increases In School Shootings: Reality Or Myth?, David May, Erin Kelley

David May

No abstract provided.


Reinventing Controlling State Crime And Varieties Of State Crime And Its Control: What I Would Have Done Differntly, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D. 2009 University of Baltimore

Reinventing Controlling State Crime And Varieties Of State Crime And Its Control: What I Would Have Done Differntly, Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

Jeffrey Ian Ross Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


More Than Visiting Hours: Maintaining Ties Between Incarcerated Mothers And Their Children, Venezia Michalsen, Jeanne M. Flavin, Tanya Krupat 2009 Montclair State University

More Than Visiting Hours: Maintaining Ties Between Incarcerated Mothers And Their Children, Venezia Michalsen, Jeanne M. Flavin, Tanya Krupat

Jeanne M Flavin

The majority of people in America’s prisons are the parents of minor children. Incarcerated moth- ers, in particular, were likely to have been a part of their children’s lives before their imprison- ment, and most will soon be returning to the community and to their children. Research has shown that it is in the best interests of the mothers and the children to maintain a relationship across the prison bars. In this article, we use the example of New York State to show how institu- tional policies and structures can impede or encourage efforts to maintain ties between ...


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