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Understanding The Influence Of Childhood Experiences On The Development Of Female Sexual Perpetrators Against Underage Individuals, Cassandra Marie Hershman 2021 Marshall University

Understanding The Influence Of Childhood Experiences On The Development Of Female Sexual Perpetrators Against Underage Individuals, Cassandra Marie Hershman

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Females who are perpetrators of sexual offenses are an understudied population. Due to societies’ failure to recognize that female perpetrators exist and to recognize their abuse when it occurs, sexual abuse completed by females often goes unreported. As a result, females engaging in sexual offenses, particularly pedophilia, is seen as a rare occurrence. However, research suggests that the actual rate of female pedophilic behavior is occurring at a rate three-four times higher than what is actually reported (Cortoni, Babchishin, & Rat, 2017). This study used anonymous data from 2,828 adult females in the IRB approved study [127810-11] Effects of Recalled ...


Less Than Half Of Racially-Motivated Homicides Result In Official Hate Crime Charges, Jeff Gruenewald, Katie Ratcliff 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Less Than Half Of Racially-Motivated Homicides Result In Official Hate Crime Charges, Jeff Gruenewald, Katie Ratcliff

Research Projects

Background: On February 23, 2020, Ahmaud Arbery, a 25-year-old Black man, was gunned down while jogging near his Georgia home. Portions of the physical altercation were caught on camera by one of the three men charged in the murder. The shooter reportedly uttered a racial epithet at Arbery as he lay in the street dying. Georgia is one of the four states without hate crime laws in the United states, but the FBI is currently investigating the shooting as a potential hate crime.


Law's Racism: The Perpetuation Of Settler Colonialism In Ktunaxa V. British Columbia, Christian J. Zukowski 2020 University of Alberta

Law's Racism: The Perpetuation Of Settler Colonialism In Ktunaxa V. British Columbia, Christian J. Zukowski

Gettysburg Social Sciences Review

In considering the nexus between law, religion, and settler colonialism I consider a case in which an Indigenous freedom of religion claim under section 2(a) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms was ruled by the majority of Supreme Court of Canada as not being a valid freedom of religion claim. In examining this decision, I will construct an analytical framework by which I will examine the decision in a way that considers the legal system in which it occurs, that legal system’s culture, and the relevance of land in this case. Using this analytical framework, I ...


Speaking Volumes: The Failure Of American Courts To Address The Underlying Themes Of Silence And Patriarchy Within The Civil Order Of Protection Process In Davenport, Iowa, Catherine Priebe 2020 Augustana College

Speaking Volumes: The Failure Of American Courts To Address The Underlying Themes Of Silence And Patriarchy Within The Civil Order Of Protection Process In Davenport, Iowa, Catherine Priebe

Sociology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Domestic abuse is a pervasive issue within the United States. Approximately three women will be murdered by an intimate partner every day and around half of all women will experience psychological abuse by an intimate partner in their lifetime. As such, it is important to have legal avenues that survivors can pursue in order to ensure safety for themselves and their children. There are many obstacles to obtaining a civil order of protection despite it being the most common legal option survivors choose to pursue. Survivors must take on the burden of proof and hire their own attorney if they ...


An Analysis Of The Parental Structure And Involvement On Subsequent Delinquency, Bosco Villavicencio Jr 2020 CUNY John Jay College

An Analysis Of The Parental Structure And Involvement On Subsequent Delinquency, Bosco Villavicencio Jr

Student Theses

This thesis examines how parental involvement and family structure relate to the prevalence of juvenile delinquency. To answer the research question, the current study used a large sample of 12th grade youth (n=1,272) from the Monitoring the Future project which includes measures on parental involvement, household structure, academic abilities, and risky behavior and delinquent behavior. The results of this secondary analysis showed a significant association between parental-child involvement measures and the delinquent outcomes examined; drinking, suspension, and skipping school. This study emphasizes the need to consider that the impact of household structure as well as that of ...


Evidence Based Practices At A New York City Youth Justice Services Organization, Betsy Delissa Cespedes 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Evidence Based Practices At A New York City Youth Justice Services Organization, Betsy Delissa Cespedes

Student Theses

There has been a national push to establish evidence-based juvenile criminal justice policies and practices that are focused on reducing the risk of recidivism for juvenile offenses. The reason for this push is rooted in the growing recidivism rates of juvenile offenders in the United States (Weber, Umpierre, & Bikchik, 2018). More than half of all juveniles who are on probation nationwide are rearrested, indicating that each juvenile offender faces equal likelihood of reoffending or not (Weber et al., 2018). Further, approximately 66% of juvenile offenders, or nearly seven out of 10 offenders, are rearrested within two years of their first ...


Felony Disenfranchisement: Factors Relating To Support For Restoration, Alexis K. Karpf 2020 City University of New York (CUNY)

Felony Disenfranchisement: Factors Relating To Support For Restoration, Alexis K. Karpf

Student Theses

Felony Disenfranchisement, a collateral consequence, strips justice-involved individuals of their voting rights. While this policy is enacted in 48 states and the District of Columbia, a majority of community members are unaware of its existence. The current study used three hypotheses to guide its research about how education about disenfranchisement policy impacts a community member's opinion:1) Participants exposed to information about the effects of disenfranchisement will be more supportive of enfranchisement than those in the control condition; 2) Participants who receive the vignette featuring the White justice-involved individual will indicate a higher level of support for enfranchisement compared ...


The Dark Triad And Honesty-Humility: A Preliminary Study On The Relations To Pornography Use, Peter Muris, Henry Otgaar, Cor Meesters, Eirini Papasileka, David Pineda 2020 Maastricht University, The Netherlands

The Dark Triad And Honesty-Humility: A Preliminary Study On The Relations To Pornography Use, Peter Muris, Henry Otgaar, Cor Meesters, Eirini Papasileka, David Pineda

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

The present article reports on a preliminary study exploring the relationships between Dark Triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) and honesty-humility personality traits and pornography craving and deviant pornography use in a sample of 121 participants (46 men and 75 women) who completed an online survey. Narcissism and psychopathy were positively related to pornography craving and deviant pornography consumption, while honesty-humility appeared to be negatively associated with these pornography-related variables. Furthermore, the data suggested that these relationships were only present in men and not in women. While the current results should be interpreted with caution in the light of a number of ...


Beat The Heat: Texas’S Need To Reduce Summer Temperatures In Offender Housing, Mary E. Adair 2020 St. Mary's University School of Law

Beat The Heat: Texas’S Need To Reduce Summer Temperatures In Offender Housing, Mary E. Adair

St. Mary's Law Journal

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice’s lack of air conditioning in offender housing areas is a violation of the Eighth Amendment and deprives offenders of humane living conditions. Unlike most Texans, offenders housed in the TDCJ are unable to adequately protect themselves from the higher, prolonged summer temperatures. Most Texas prisons do not provide air conditioning or other types of cooling systems in offender housing areas, so offenders are at the mercy of the elements with little protection against heat-related illnesses. Several jurisdictions, other than Texas, have recognized extreme temperatures in housing areas can lead to constitutional violations because ...


Differences In Characteristics Of Criminal Behavior Between Solo And Team Serial Killers, Matthew Woster 2020 National Louis University

Differences In Characteristics Of Criminal Behavior Between Solo And Team Serial Killers, Matthew Woster

Dissertations

Criminal Profiling and classification of serial killers has been an expanding area of research for decades. Recent research has called into question the accuracy and utility of these systems, and calls for further research and development. This study aims to use the Serial Killer Database (SKDB) to examine and classify differences in criminal behavior between serial killers who act alone versus those who act in pairs, groups, or teams. The specific aim of this study is to examine whether there are significant differences between Solo Serial Killers and Team Serial Killers in the Number of Victims, Length of Career, Method ...


Examining The Contextual Effects Of Racial Profiling, And The Long-Term Consequences Of Punitive Interventions: Testing Labeling Theory With The National Longitudinal Study Of Adolescent To Adult Health Data, Margrét Valdimarsdóttir 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Examining The Contextual Effects Of Racial Profiling, And The Long-Term Consequences Of Punitive Interventions: Testing Labeling Theory With The National Longitudinal Study Of Adolescent To Adult Health Data, Margrét Valdimarsdóttir

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The overrepresentation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system has been well documented. More research has, however, been needed on levels of discrimination, particularly on potential biases in the earliest point of contact, such as police decisions to stop and arrest young people. Further, few studies have examined individual and neighborhood characteristics simultaneously, which has limited the understanding of citizens’ experiences with the police. Focusing on potential biases in the juvenile justice system is essential as recent studies indicate that most types of interventions have different negative consequences for the lives of young people, such as increasing the probability ...


Anything Besides "Yes!" Means "No!", Alessia Giuseppina Rimicci 2020 California State University, Monterey Bay

Anything Besides "Yes!" Means "No!", Alessia Giuseppina Rimicci

Culture, Society, and Praxis

No abstract provided.


A Mathematical Model To Study The Crime Dynamics Spread Within Minority Communities, Maila Brucal-Hallare, Beatriz Cuartas, Anne Fernando, Ana Vivas-Barber 2020 Norfolk State University

A Mathematical Model To Study The Crime Dynamics Spread Within Minority Communities, Maila Brucal-Hallare, Beatriz Cuartas, Anne Fernando, Ana Vivas-Barber

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Indoctrination And Social Influence As A Defense To Crime: Are We Responsible For Who We Are?, Paul H. Robinson, Lindsay Holcomb

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

A patriotic POW is brainwashed by his North Korean captors into refusing repatriation and undertaking treasonous anti-American propaganda for the communist regime. Despite the general abhorrence of treason in time of war, the American public opposes criminal liability for such indoctrinated soldiers, yet existing criminal law provides no defense or mitigation because, at the time of the offense, the indoctrinated offender suffers no cognitive or control dysfunction, no mental or emotional impairment, and no external or internal compulsion. Rather, he was acting purely in the exercise of free of will, albeit based upon beliefs and values that he had not ...


Keep Kids Out Of Prison: Community-Based Alternatives For Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders, Anessa L. Pennington 2020 Brigham Young University

Keep Kids Out Of Prison: Community-Based Alternatives For Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders, Anessa L. Pennington

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Abstract

While juvenile crime has dropped over the past 20 years, tens of thousands of juvenile offenders are still incarcerated around the country, many of whom are nonviolent offenders. Researchers have found that detention centers, sometimes indistinguishable from adult prisons, do little to reduce recidivism and rehabilitate the offender. Rather, detention brings about more adverse effects than it does benefits. If incarceration isn’t working, how are the United States and other countries to deal with and deter juvenile crime? Community-based programs are a promising alternative to incarceration; instead of jumpsuits and cramped cells, community-based programs rely on community resources ...


Al-Shabaab And Boko Haram: Recruitment Strategies, J. Tochukwu Omenma, Cheryl Hendricks, Nnamdi C. Ajaebili 2020 Department of Politics & International Relations, University of Johannesburg; Institute of African Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Al-Shabaab And Boko Haram: Recruitment Strategies, J. Tochukwu Omenma, Cheryl Hendricks, Nnamdi C. Ajaebili

Peace and Conflict Studies

This paper is an examination of the membership recruitment strategies of two violent extremist organizations (VEOs), namely al-Shabaab and Boko Haram. The majority of the literature on VEOs concentrates on the conceptualization of terrorism, motivations for terrorism and counter-terrorism strategies, as well as a focus on the frequency of VEO attacks, number of fatalities and funding sources. The literature tends to portray poverty as the main driver of recruitment. The focus on recruitment strategies has been relatively recent. There is therefore still a lack of in-depth analyses on the processes of recruitment of specific extremist groups, and this impacts on ...


A Comparative Analysis Of Identity Theft Within America And Australia, Vincent Alagna 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

A Comparative Analysis Of Identity Theft Within America And Australia, Vincent Alagna

Criminal Justice

Identity theft is a very prevalent crime within the United States that has substantial repercussions on society. This study analyzes factors that potentially contribute to America’s elevated rate of identity theft in relation to Australia in order to reveal its cause. It was ultimately found that the United States experiences a greater amount of computer usage within its country, has the ability to implement a stricter prison sentence on those convicted of committing identity theft in accordance with its legal code, and has a greater conviction rate while Australia has a higher prosecution rate. These findings, when applied in ...


Combating Sexual Misconduct And Abuse Of Authority In The United States Army: Same Long Fight, Wesley Martin 2020 United States Army Military Police (Retired)

Combating Sexual Misconduct And Abuse Of Authority In The United States Army: Same Long Fight, Wesley Martin

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

Before my combat deployments into Iraq, I, Colonel Wes Martin, had successfully fought another war. As a military police officer, I spent many years fighting against sexual misconduct, abuse of authority, and cover-ups within the senior officer and sergeant ranks in the United States Army. During this fight I faced continual criticism from my senior officers who claimed I was discrediting the Army by exposing the corrupt and immoral behavior of senior officers and sergeants.

During the early days of standing up to the corruption, when I had the rank of Major, I received retaliatory evaluations and was forced to ...


Extreme Ideologies, Situational Factors, And Terrorists’ Target Selection, Evan Mudgett 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Extreme Ideologies, Situational Factors, And Terrorists’ Target Selection, Evan Mudgett

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the current study is to examine how ideology and situational factors shape terrorist target selection in the United States. While a growing number of studies have examined target selection by terrorists, the current study is the first to consider how combinations of factors present situated opportunities for terrorists to select particular types of targets as opposed to others. Guided by the situational crime prevention approach, this study relies on data from the American Terrorism Study (ATS) to measure attributes of incidents perpetrated by far-right and Islamic extremists and target selection. The outcomes of interest include government versus ...


Show Me St. Louis: Risk Assessment Through An 80-20 Framework, Hannah K. Steinman 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Show Me St. Louis: Risk Assessment Through An 80-20 Framework, Hannah K. Steinman

Theses and Dissertations

Researchers of crime and place have long explored the uneven distribution of crime within the built environment and repeatedly identified where crime is concentrated. The longstanding question pertaining to crime at the micro-level, is why crime concentrates. This study operates within environmental criminology, through an 80-20 framework, to explore the spatial distribution of crime across streets with crime generators and attractors in St. Louis, Missouri to fill this gap in the literature. A conjunctive analysis of case configurations is used to identify unique high and low-crime street profiles. Crime data from 2018 – 2019 are used from the St. Louis Metropolitan ...


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