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Nvestigating The Utility Of Interviewer Observations On The Survey Response Process, Frauke Kreuter, Brady West, Ting Yan, Michael Josten, Heather Schroeder 2019 University of Maryland/University of Mannheim/Institute for Employment Research

Nvestigating The Utility Of Interviewer Observations On The Survey Response Process, Frauke Kreuter, Brady West, Ting Yan, Michael Josten, Heather Schroeder

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

TBD.


Response Times As An Indicator Of Data Quality: Associations With Interviewer, Respondent, And Question Characteristics In A Health Survey Of Diverse Respondents, Dana Garbarski, Jennifer Dykema, Nora Cate Schaeffer, Dorothy Farrar Edwards 2019 Loyola University Chicago

Response Times As An Indicator Of Data Quality: Associations With Interviewer, Respondent, And Question Characteristics In A Health Survey Of Diverse Respondents, Dana Garbarski, Jennifer Dykema, Nora Cate Schaeffer, Dorothy Farrar Edwards

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Survey research remains one of the most important ways that researchers learn about key features of populations. Data obtained in the survey interview are a collaborative achievement accomplished through the interplay of the interviewer, respondent, and survey instrument, yet our field is still in the process of comprehensively documenting and examining whether, when, and how characteristics of interviewers, respondents, and questions combine to influence the quality of the data obtained.

Researchers tend to consider longer response times as indicators of potential problems as they indicate longer processing or interaction from the respondent, the interviewer (where applicable), or both. Previous work ...


Antecedents And Consequences Of Interviewer Pace: Assessing Interviewer Speaking Pace At The Question Level, Allyson L. Holbrook, Timothy P. Johnson, Evgenia Kapousouz, Young Ik Cho 2019 The University of Illinois at Chicago

Antecedents And Consequences Of Interviewer Pace: Assessing Interviewer Speaking Pace At The Question Level, Allyson L. Holbrook, Timothy P. Johnson, Evgenia Kapousouz, Young Ik Cho

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

The pace at which interviewers read survey questions may vary considerably across interviewers (e.g., Cannell, Miller, & Oksenberg, 1981) and as a function of interviewer experience (Olson and Petchev, 2007). The pace at which interviews are conducted can influence respondent perceptions of the importance of interaction (Fowler, 1966). Interviewer training typically includes instructions to read questions slowly and clearly to respondents is based on the assumption that doing so maximizes data quality (e.g., Fowler and Mangione, 1990). In this research, we examine possible causes and consequences of interviewer pace using data from in person surveys conducted with respondents from ...


Exploring The Impact Of Interviewer Perceptions And Interviewer-Respondent Interactions On The Survey Of Income And Program Participation: Analysis Of Cari Recordings, Erica Yu, Rodney L. Terry, Alina Kline, Holly Fee, Robin Kaplan 2019 US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Exploring The Impact Of Interviewer Perceptions And Interviewer-Respondent Interactions On The Survey Of Income And Program Participation: Analysis Of Cari Recordings, Erica Yu, Rodney L. Terry, Alina Kline, Holly Fee, Robin Kaplan

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Interviewers play a significant role in telephone and face-to-face interviews, including gaining respondent cooperation and administering survey questions. Increasingly, interviewers’ perceptions of the respondent and interview experience, such as cooperativeness and interest, are also being used to assess measurement error and make adjustments to data (West, 2013; Kirchner et al., 2017). Although interviewer perceptions are typically recorded at the end of the interview, interviewers are likely to begin forming perceptions about the household and respondent based on their first contact attempt (and continue developing them during the interview). We hypothesize that interview context factors, such as interviewer perceptions of the ...


What Do Interviewers Learn? Changes In Interview Length And Interviewer Behaviors Over The Field Period, Kristen Olson, Jolene Smyth 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Sociology

What Do Interviewers Learn? Changes In Interview Length And Interviewer Behaviors Over The Field Period, Kristen Olson, Jolene Smyth

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Interviewers systematically speed up over the field period of a survey as they conduct interviews (Olson and Peytchev 2007; Olson and Bilgen 2011; Kirchner and Olson 2017). Competing hypotheses for this increase in speed is that interviewers learn from previous interviews, changing their behaviors accordingly, or that they change behaviors in response to who the respondent is, including both respondent’s fixed characteristics and their response propensity. Previous work (e.g., Kirchner and Olson 2017) has failed to completely explain this learning effect, even after accounting for a wide range of measures of each of these hypotheses. However, prior work ...


Race-Of-Virtual-Interviewer Effects, Frederick Conrad, Michael Schober, Daniel Nielsen, Heidi Reichert 2019 The University Of Michigan

Race-Of-Virtual-Interviewer Effects, Frederick Conrad, Michael Schober, Daniel Nielsen, Heidi Reichert

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

In developing self-administered interviewing systems that go beyond text, survey designers are faced with choices about how to represent the interviewing agent. In speech-dialog systems like ACASI and IVR, designers must decide if the voice that presents the spoken questions is unambiguously male or female, whether the pronunciation is regionally marked, etc. Any visual representation of an interviewer (e.g., a photograph, a video) requires designers to choose features that visually convey demographic features like race, gender, age, etc. Here we investigate whether the representation of animated virtual interviewers (VIs) affects responses in the same way that analogous attributes of ...


Interviewer Variation In Third Party Presence During Face-To-Face Interviews, Zeina N. Mneimneh, Julie de Jong, Jennifer Kelley 2019 The University Of Michigan

Interviewer Variation In Third Party Presence During Face-To-Face Interviews, Zeina N. Mneimneh, Julie De Jong, Jennifer Kelley

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

The presence of a third person in face-to-face interviews constitutes an important contextual factor that affects the interviewee's responses to culturally sensitive questions (Aquilino, 1997; Casterline and Chidambaram, 1984; Mneimneh et al., 2015; Pollner and Adams, 1994). Interviewers play an essential role in requesting, achieving, and reporting on the private setting of the interview. Our recent work has shown that the rate of interview privacy varies significantly across interviewers; while some interviewers report high rates of privacy among their interviews, others report low rates of privacy for the interviews they administered (Mneimneh et al., 2018). Yet, there is a ...


The Cannell Legacy, Nancy A. Mathiowetz, Peter V. Miller 2019 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Emerita

The Cannell Legacy, Nancy A. Mathiowetz, Peter V. Miller

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Charles Cannell engineered the study of Interviewer-respondent interaction. He created conceptual frameworks for understanding the interviewing process and its impact on data quality. He invented methods for observing and recording interview interaction. He pioneered the use of randomized experiments in the survey context. He amalgamated insights from clinical and social psychology, sociology, group dynamics, as well as research on verbal and nonverbal communication to inform his work. This interdisciplinary approach has broadly influenced both interviewing research and practice. In this paper, we review Cannell’s many contributions to the field and his enduring legacy.


Scientific Network Of Experts: Interviewer Effects And Interviewer Training, Daniela Ackermann-Piek, Joe Sakshaug 2019 GESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences

Scientific Network Of Experts: Interviewer Effects And Interviewer Training, Daniela Ackermann-Piek, Joe Sakshaug

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Although the collection of survey data is undergoing a notable shift toward online and mixed-mode data collection methods (Baker et al., 2010; Groves, 2011), interviewers are still heavily involved in the majority of survey data collections that serve as a basis for important economic, educational, and public policy decisions. Research supports the notion that interviewer characteristics and task-specific skill levels significantly influence the resulting data quality (see, e.g. Ackermann-Piek, 2018; Billiet & Loosveldt, 1988; Dahlhamer, Cynamon, Gentleman, Piani, & Weiler, 2010; Durand, 2005; Fowler Jr., 1991; Hox & de Leeuw, 2002; Jäckle, Lynn, Sinibaldi, & Tipping, 2013; Sakshaug, Tutz, & Kreuter, 2013; Schnell & Trappman, 2006; Vannette & Krosnick, 2018; West & Blom, 2017; West, Kreuter, & Jaenichen, 2013). Thus, it is not surprising, that the international survey research community has sought opportunities to facilitate intensive exchanges between survey researchers on topics related to interviewer training procedures, fieldwork processes, and interviewer effects at international workshops and conferences (e.g. Workshop on Explaining interviewer effects in interviewer-mediated surveys, Germany: Mannheim, April 2013; Interviewer workshop, USA Nebraska: Lincoln, February 2019; Conferences ...


The Accuracy And Utility Of Using Paradata To Detect Interviewer Question-Reading Deviations, Jennifer Kelley 2019 PhD Student, University of Essex; Survey Methodologist, University of Michigan

The Accuracy And Utility Of Using Paradata To Detect Interviewer Question-Reading Deviations, Jennifer Kelley

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Deviations from reading survey questions exactly as worded may change the validity of the questions, thus increasing measurement error. Hence, organizations train their interviewers to read questions verbatim. To ensure interviewers are reading questions verbatim, organizations rely on interview recordings. However, this takes a significant amount of resources. Therefore, some organizations are using paradata generated by the survey software, specifically timestamps, to try to detect when interviewers’ deviate from reading the question verbatim.

To monitor interviewers’ question reading behavior using timestamps, some organizations estimate the expected question administration time to establish a minimum and maximum question administration time thresholds (QATT ...


Interacting With Interviewers In Voice And Text Interviews On Smartphones, Michael Schober, Frederick Conrad, Christopher Antoun, Alison W. Bowers, Andrew L. Hupp, H. Yanna Yan 2019 New School for Social Research

Interacting With Interviewers In Voice And Text Interviews On Smartphones, Michael Schober, Frederick Conrad, Christopher Antoun, Alison W. Bowers, Andrew L. Hupp, H. Yanna Yan

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

As people increasingly adopt SMS text messaging for communicating in their daily lives, texting becomes a potentially important way to interact with survey respondents, who may expect that they can communicate with survey researchers as they communicate with others. Thus far our evidence from analyses of 642 iPhone interviews suggests that text interviewing can lead to higher quality data (less satisficing, more disclosure) than voice interviews on the same device, whether the questions are asked by an interviewer or an automated system. Respondents also report high satisfaction with text interviews, with many reporting that text is more convenient because they ...


Interviewer Falsification In Survey Research: Detection Methods And Impact Of Fraudulent Interviews, Silvia Schwanhäuser, Joseph Sakshaug, Yuliya Kosyakova, Frauke Kreuter 2019 Institute for Employment Research, Germany

Interviewer Falsification In Survey Research: Detection Methods And Impact Of Fraudulent Interviews, Silvia Schwanhäuser, Joseph Sakshaug, Yuliya Kosyakova, Frauke Kreuter

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

The role of the interviewer and sources of interviewer error in the survey data collection process are widely discussed topics in the survey methodology literature. An understudied problem in this context is the falsification of interview data by the interviewer. Research gaps concern, for example, how conclusions drawn from survey data are affected by falsified interviews. So far it is commonly assumed, that the possible effect of falsifications on univariate statistics can only be as high as the overall share of falsified data. Since the share of faked data is usually very low for most surveys, the problem is regarded ...


Investigating The Use Of Nurse Paradata In Understanding Nonresponse To Biological Data Collection, Fiona Pashazadeh, Alexandru Cernat, Joseph W. Sakshaug 2019 University of Manchester, United Kingdom

Investigating The Use Of Nurse Paradata In Understanding Nonresponse To Biological Data Collection, Fiona Pashazadeh, Alexandru Cernat, Joseph W. Sakshaug

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

The recent collection of biological data in large-scale sample surveys has opened up new possibilities for research into the interactions between physical and social mechanisms in the general population. Whilst the possibilities are undoubtedly exciting, these data can create additional challenges from the viewpoints of both collection and analysis. In particular, the extra burden of biological data collection can lead to increased incidences of nonresponse, potentially affecting the quality of the data and the robustness of results from subsequent analysis. Where the two-stage nurse visit survey design is used, such as in Understanding Society (UKHLS) and the English Longitudinal Study ...


Comparison Of Different Approaches To Evaluate And Explain Interviewer Effects, Geert Loosveldt, Celine Wuyts 2019 KU Leuven

Comparison Of Different Approaches To Evaluate And Explain Interviewer Effects, Geert Loosveldt, Celine Wuyts

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Within survey methodology it is common knowledge that interviewers in face-to-face or telephone interviews can have undesirable effects on the obtained answers. These effects can be created in an active way by, for example, asking suggestive questions or they can be obtained in a passive way as a consequence of certain interviewer characteristics eliciting socially desirable answers. These active and passive effects may differ from interviewer to interviewer. These differences between interviewers in systematic effects create additional variance in the data. The proportion of variance in a (substantive) variable that can be explained by the interviewers is the ‘so called ...


Designing Studies For Comparing Interviewer Variance Components In Two Groups Of Survey Interviewers, Brady T. West 2019 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

Designing Studies For Comparing Interviewer Variance Components In Two Groups Of Survey Interviewers, Brady T. West

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Methodological studies of interviewer effects often seek to identify factors that influence the magnitude of interviewer variance for particular survey questions. There is a long history of work in this area, and results from studies like this have informed current interviewing practice. Unfortunately, many studies of this type suffer from one or more of the following limitations in terms of their designs: 1) a failure to randomly assign interviewers to the treatments being compared; 2) a failure to formally test for differences in the variance components between the two groups; and 3) insufficient statistical power for comparison of the variance ...


How To Conduct Effective Interviewer Training: A Meta-Analysis, Jessica Daikeler 2019 GESIS – Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences and University of Mannheim

How To Conduct Effective Interviewer Training: A Meta-Analysis, Jessica Daikeler

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Interviewer training can improve the performance of interviewers and thus also the quality of survey data. However, the question of how effective interviewer training is for improving data quality and more importantly, which determinates drive its success, remain unanswered. This research uses meta-analytical methods to evaluate both the improvements in data quality due to interviewer training and the effectivity of training modules with respect interviewer performance. We consider various aspects of data quality, namely unit nonresponse, item nonresponse, probing behavior, administration, reading, and recording. Based on more than sixty experimental studies, we find that comprehensive interviewer training improves unit- and ...


Analysing The Influence Of Non-Observable And Observable Interviewer Characteristics On Measurement Error: Evidence From Zambia, P. Linh Nguyen 2019 , University of Essex/University of Mannheim

Analysing The Influence Of Non-Observable And Observable Interviewer Characteristics On Measurement Error: Evidence From Zambia, P. Linh Nguyen

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

In Sub-Saharan Africa, where only one in five people uses the Internet and connectivity issues restrict the possibility for phone surveys in rural areas, interviewer-administered face-to-face (F2F) surveys are and will remain the principal data collection tool in the foreseeable future. Yet questions remain as to what extent previous findings on interviewer-administered surveys from Western countries may apply to a different cultural and geographical context. In this light, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence of certain observable interviewer characteristics (such as gender, age) and non-observable characteristics (such as education, attitudes) on interviewer variance on a subset ...


Unintended Interviewer Bias In A Community-Based Participatory Research Randomized Control Trial Among American Indian Youth, Patrick Habecker, Jerreed Ivanich 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Unintended Interviewer Bias In A Community-Based Participatory Research Randomized Control Trial Among American Indian Youth, Patrick Habecker, Jerreed Ivanich

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) projects often employ members of the host partner community to engage and assist with research projects. However, CBPR may also introduce bias to survey statistics when community partners work as interviewers for projects within their own communities. Here, the advantage of employing interviewers from the local community and region may lead to unintended bias when participants and interviewers know each other outside of the research project. In situations where a preexisting social relationship exists, there is a greater possibility of social desirability bias. This may be particularly true for sensitive issues where they may not wish ...


Examining Interviewer Effects On The Agricultural Labor Survey: A Mixed-Methods Approach, David Biagas, Emilola Abayomi, Joseph Rodhouse, Heather Ridolfo 2019 Bureau of Labor Statistics

Examining Interviewer Effects On The Agricultural Labor Survey: A Mixed-Methods Approach, David Biagas, Emilola Abayomi, Joseph Rodhouse, Heather Ridolfo

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

Interviewer effects remain a pervasive problem in survey research. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, this study explores the effects that interviewers have on the reporting of agricultural workers on the USDA’s Agricultural Labor Survey. The Agricultural Labor Survey is administered by the USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service on a biannual basis, with each data collection period collecting information for two quarters (e.g. April and January of 2018). While the majority of data is collected via computer-assisted telephone interviewing, a sizeable proportion is completed online or via mail. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, this study explores the patterns of ...


Did The Respondent Really Mean That? How The Behaviors Of Cati Interviewers And Data Editors Impact Measurement And Processing Errors In Establishment Surveys, Joseph Rodhouse, Heather Ridolfo, Emilola Abayomi, David Biagas 2019 National Institute of Statistical Services and National Agricultural Statistics Service

Did The Respondent Really Mean That? How The Behaviors Of Cati Interviewers And Data Editors Impact Measurement And Processing Errors In Establishment Surveys, Joseph Rodhouse, Heather Ridolfo, Emilola Abayomi, David Biagas

2019 Workshop: Interviewers and Their Effects from a Total Survey Error Perspective

It is well documented that interviewers can have profound effects on the survey data collection process. This research looks to build on that knowledge by examining the relationship between CATI interviewers and data editors and how the recording of answers, and editing of the survey answers recorded, contribute to total survey error (TSE). Specifically, we are interested in comparing answers recorded by CATI interviewers and the final response codes after the editing stage. Since the interviewing stage and the editing (or processing) stage are often two distinct phases of the data collection process where the interviewer and data editor work ...


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