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Individualism-Collectivism And Group Creativity, Jack A. Goncalo, Barry M. Staw 2010 Cornell University

Individualism-Collectivism And Group Creativity, Jack A. Goncalo, Barry M. Staw

Jack Goncalo

Current research in organizational behavior suggests that organizations should adopt collectivistic values because they promote cooperation and productivity, while individualistic values should be avoided because they incite destructive conflict and opportunism. In this paper, we highlight one possible benefit of individualistic values that has not previously been considered. Because individualistic values can encourage uniqueness, such values might be useful when creativity is a desired outcome. Although we hypothesize that individualistic groups should be more creative than collectivistic groups, we also consider an important competing hypothesis: Given that collectivistic groups are more responsive to norms, they might be more creative than …


Ilr Impact Brief - Group Success Depends On Giving Individuals Credit Where Credit Is Due, Jack A. Goncalo, Michelle M. Duguid 2010 Cornell University

Ilr Impact Brief - Group Success Depends On Giving Individuals Credit Where Credit Is Due, Jack A. Goncalo, Michelle M. Duguid

Jack Goncalo

[Excerpt] Does the tendency of groups to take credit for their success without acknowledging the input of specific group members affect subsequent group performance? In a word, yes. This “group-serving bias” may cause groups to ignore or underestimate the potentially unique contributions made by each individual member, a common practice that can lead to inferior outcomes. When groups ascribe their success to individuals, they are more likely to explore a wide range of divergent alternatives before reaching consensus. Attribution to individuals also facilitates the sharing of information that is known to only one member of the group but is critical …


Hidden Consequences Of The Group Serving Bias: Causal Attributions And The Quality Of Group Decision Making, Jack Goncalo, Michelle M. Duguid 2010 Cornell University

Hidden Consequences Of The Group Serving Bias: Causal Attributions And The Quality Of Group Decision Making, Jack Goncalo, Michelle M. Duguid

Jack Goncalo

A long stream of research in attribution theory suggests that groups are biased toward attributing their success to factors that are internal to their group. However, the existing research has confounded two types of attributions that are both internal to the group, but theoretically distinct: (1) Attributions that differentiate between the contributions made by each individual group member and (2) attributions that focus on the group as a whole. This dichotomy is important because, drawing on theories of social influence, we predict that different types of attributions will have different consequences for the quality of group decision making. In experiment …


Past Success And Creativity Over Time: A Study Of Inventors In The Hard Disk Drive Industry, Pino G. Audia, Jack A. Goncalo 2010 University of California, Berkeley

Past Success And Creativity Over Time: A Study Of Inventors In The Hard Disk Drive Industry, Pino G. Audia, Jack A. Goncalo

Jack Goncalo

We integrate psychological theories of individual creativity with organizational theories of exploration versus exploitation in order to examine the relationship between past success and creativity over time. A key prediction derived from this theoretical integration is that successful people should be more likely to generate new ideas, but these ideas will tend to be less divergent as they favor the exploitation of familiar knowledge at the expense of the exploration of new domains. This prediction departs from the often-held view that people who generate more ideas will also generate ideas that are more divergent. Analyses of patenting in the hard …


Can Confidence Come Too Soon? Collective Efficacy, Conflict And Group Performance Over Time, Jack Goncalo, Evan Polman, Christina Maslach 2010 Cornell University

Can Confidence Come Too Soon? Collective Efficacy, Conflict And Group Performance Over Time, Jack Goncalo, Evan Polman, Christina Maslach

Jack Goncalo

Groups with a strong sense of collective efficacy set more challenging goals, persist in the face of difficulty, and are ultimately more likely to succeed than groups who do not share this belief. Given the many advantages that may accrue to groups who are confident, it would be logical to advise groups to build a high level of collective efficacy as early as possible. However, we draw on Whyte’s (1998) theory of collective efficacy and groupthink, to predict that when confidence emerges at a high level toward the beginning of a group’s existence, group members may be less likely to …


Escenario Lingüístico Multilingüe: Una Evidencia De Vitalidad Etnolingüística, Maria Eugenia De Luna Villalón 2010 University of Western Ontario

Escenario Lingüístico Multilingüe: Una Evidencia De Vitalidad Etnolingüística, Maria Eugenia De Luna Villalón

Maria Eugenia De Luna Villalón

No abstract provided.


Insurance In Sociolegal Research, Tom Baker 2010 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Insurance In Sociolegal Research, Tom Baker

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Insurance has a long history in sociolegal research, most prominently as a window on accident compensation and related tort law in action. Recent work has extended that research, with the result that tort law in action may be the best mapped of any legal field outside criminal law. Sociological research has begun to explore insurance as a form of governance, with effects in many legal fields and across the economy. This essay reviews developments in both bodies of work. Part one examines the relationship between liability insurance and tort law in action using the metaphors of window and frame. Part …


Market Forces And Indigenous Resistance Paradigms, Maggie Walter 2010 Western University

Market Forces And Indigenous Resistance Paradigms, Maggie Walter

Aboriginal Policy Research Consortium International (APRCi)

The pervasive force in the relationship between the nation-state and Australian Indigenous peoples during the 1990s and 2000s was, and is, neoliberalism. Free market ideals became the dominant political philosophy and Indigenous people were coerced into a political ‘experimental’ cutting of a neoliberal template into the fabric of Indigenous life. The pairing of market ideology with concerted efforts to de-power Indigenous groups and people align, at least thematically, the Indigenous experience of neoliberalism with that of a social movement. This article details the entwined story of explicit Indigenous resistance and activism and the how and what of the infiltration of …


Economic Outlook 2010: Innovation, Connie I. Reimers-Hild 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Economic Outlook 2010: Innovation, Connie I. Reimers-Hild

Kimmel Education and Research Center - Presentations and White Papers

This article discusses the importance of innovation to individuals and the overall economy.


Against The State Governance, Governance From Below & Governing Through Terrorism: Analytically Investigating The Technologies Of Power Within The Terrorist Arsenal., Allen Gnanam 2010 University of Windsor

Against The State Governance, Governance From Below & Governing Through Terrorism: Analytically Investigating The Technologies Of Power Within The Terrorist Arsenal., Allen Gnanam

Allen Gnanam

Terrorism as a violent and destabilizing act performed by terrorists, meaning loyal followers of political or religious agendas who hold resent and animosity toward a certain authority/ government (Lin, Liou, & Wu, 2007, pg. 149), will be explored and analyzed through the utilization of the governmentality perspective. For the purposes of this paper terrorism governance will refer to the governance/ control/ influence exerted by terrorists and terrorism. The focus of this explorative and analysis paper will be to identify diverse terrorism oriented technologies of governance, and analyze the ways in which these technologies enable terrorist to exert governance both indirectly …


W Obronie Biurokracji, Dariusz Jemielniak 2010 Kozminski University

W Obronie Biurokracji, Dariusz Jemielniak

Dariusz Jemielniak

Niniejszy artykuł stara się obronić prowokacyjną tezę, iż biurokracja jest jedną z najbardziej naturalnych form organizacji pracy i posiada liczne korzyści, zwłaszcza skonfrontowana z nowoczesnymi metodami zarządzania, opierającymi się na kontroli normatywnej.


Temporal And Spatial Shifts Within Playful Work, Carolyn Hunter, Dariusz Jemielniak, Agnieszka Postuła 2010 Loughborough University

Temporal And Spatial Shifts Within Playful Work, Carolyn Hunter, Dariusz Jemielniak, Agnieszka Postuła

Dariusz Jemielniak

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a qualitative study of software engineers' playful behaviors at work. Design/methodology/approach – The interviewed software engineers come from two European and three American companies. The research is based on ethnographical data, gathered in two longitudinal studies2005-2008 . The methods used in the study include open-ended unstructured interviews, participant observations, stories collection, and shadowings. Findings – It is found that the currently dominant theory of normative control explaining software engineers workplace diminishes leisure and entertainment attributes of knowledge work. Fun at workplace is discovered to be an important, …


Narratives Of Irony And Failure In Ethnographic Work, Dariusz Jemielniak, Monika Kostera 2010 Kozminski University

Narratives Of Irony And Failure In Ethnographic Work, Dariusz Jemielniak, Monika Kostera

Dariusz Jemielniak

Organizational ethnography is one of the most valued approaches to qualitative studies of organizations. Much attention has been given to the development of the research process, of which the researcher's identity is an integral part. However, we believe that the analysis of research failures has been much less developed in the discourse of ethnographic methods for the study of organizations. Therefore, we have explored some of the “slips” in ethnographic work, as described in accounts of fellow organizational anthropologists. As the study is qualitative, we have adopted a narrative research method. We have divided the “slips” (i.e., errors) into four …


An Entrepreneurial Approach To Career Development, Connie I. Reimers-Hild 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

An Entrepreneurial Approach To Career Development, Connie I. Reimers-Hild

Kimmel Education and Research Center - Presentations and White Papers

This article explains how people can use an entrepreneurial approach to career development in and effort to advance their careers and employment opportunities.


Introduction To America's Four Gods: What We Say About God And What That Says About Us, Paul Froese, Christoper Bader 2010 Baylor University

Introduction To America's Four Gods: What We Say About God And What That Says About Us, Paul Froese, Christoper Bader

Sociology Faculty Books and Book Chapters

Despite all the hype surrounding the "New Atheism," the United States remains one of the most religious nations on Earth. In fact, 95% of Americans believe in God--a level of agreement rarely seen in American life. The greatest divisions in America are not between atheists and believers, or even between people of different faiths. What divides us, this groundbreaking book shows, is how we conceive of God and the role He plays in our daily lives.

America's Four Gods draws on the most wide-ranging, comprehensive, and illuminating survey of American's religious beliefs ever conducted to offer a systematic exploration of …


Connection To Nature In Park Visitors: A Look At Structured And Unstructured Recreational Activities, Chelsea D. West 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

Connection To Nature In Park Visitors: A Look At Structured And Unstructured Recreational Activities, Chelsea D. West

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

There is evidence that park visitation is on the decline (Pergams & Zaradic, 2008) and if this is the case, and budgets decrease proportionately, there is a chance park land will be lost. Definitive explanations of the decline in park visits and time spent in nature are not available. In addition, there has been some discussion and research pertaining to the possible effects on people of not going into the natural environment and experiencing a connection with nature.

This study represents the first research known to focus on connectedness to nature and its relationship to structured and unstructured recreational activities. …


Para-Romantic Love And Para-Friendships: Development And Assessment Of A Multiple-Parasocial Relationships Scale, Riva Tukachinsky 2010 Chapman University

Para-Romantic Love And Para-Friendships: Development And Assessment Of A Multiple-Parasocial Relationships Scale, Riva Tukachinsky

Communication Faculty Articles and Research

Parasocial-relationships (PSR) are viewers' imaginary relationships with media personae. Despite the growing body of research on PSR, the field is still lacking a clear conceptualization and precise measure of this phenomenon. The present study suggests a novel theorization of PSR as para-friendship and para-love. Study 1 demonstrates construct validity of a new Multiple-PSR scale using the logic of a multi-trait multi-method approach. Study 2 replicates the factorial solution using confirmatory factor analysis. Finally, Study 3 provides evidence for the criterion validity of the scales. Together, these findings suggest that PSR encompass several types of relationships that might mediate different media …


Traitor In Our Midst: Cultural Variations In Japanese Vs. Oklahoman Public Discourse On Domestic Terrorism In The Spring Of 1995, Carl W. Roberts, Yong Wang 2010 Iowa State University

Traitor In Our Midst: Cultural Variations In Japanese Vs. Oklahoman Public Discourse On Domestic Terrorism In The Spring Of 1995, Carl W. Roberts, Yong Wang

Department of Sociology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

When “one of our own” commits mass murder, mechanisms that sustain our social order are opened to question. Based on two samples of newspaper editorials written in 1995 ‐ either after the poison gas attack in the Tokyo subway or after the Oklahoma City bombing ‐ evidence is provided that Japanese editorialists advised strategies for retaining order, whereas Oklahoman authors endorsed ones for reestablishing it. In accordance with Simmel’s distinction between faithfulness and gratitude as social forms, Japanese advised faithful continuation of wholesome interactions with their terrorists, whereas Oklahomans expressed gratitude for rescue workers’ assistance. We apply modality analysis to …


Newman, Oscar: Defensible Space Theory, Patrick G. Donnelly 2010 University of Dayton

Newman, Oscar: Defensible Space Theory, Patrick G. Donnelly

Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work Faculty Publications

The concept of “defensible space” was first explicated by Oscar Newman in a 1972 book by the same title. The concept, which contains elements of a theory of crime as well as a set of urban design principles, became popular in the 1970s as urban crime problems continued to rise. Defensible space was discussed, utilized, and critiqued widely by criminologists and other social scientists, as well as urban planners, law enforcement officials, and architects.

The design concepts have also been implemented in numerous communities in the United States and around the world. Later works by Newman, including Community of Interest …


A History Of Opera In Boston, John R. Tedesco 2010 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A History Of Opera In Boston, John R. Tedesco

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

This thesis examines the cultural context of opera in Boston between the years 1620 to 2010. Specifically, I look at how the Boston Opera Company was founded, its existence, and its ultimate demise. The rise of opera in colonial Boston is also explored and especially how the immigration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries influenced the city. Around this time of changing demographics Eben D. Jordan, Jr., of Jordan Marsh Co. decided to build an opera house for the city of Boston.

The effects that Puritanism had on music and the culture of Boston during its early years …


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