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Trends And Disparities In Postpartum Sterilization Following C-Section, 2000-2008, Ginny Garcia-Alexander, Dawn Richardson, Kelly Gonzales, Adolfo Gabriel Cuevas 2016 Portland State University

Trends And Disparities In Postpartum Sterilization Following C-Section, 2000-2008, Ginny Garcia-Alexander, Dawn Richardson, Kelly Gonzales, Adolfo Gabriel Cuevas

Ginny Garcia-Alexander

Objectives. We examined variations in the prevalence of postpartum tubal sterilizations following cesarean sections (C-sections) from 2000 to 2008. Methods. We used data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) to estimate odds ratios for patient- (race, marital status, age) and system-level factors (hospital size, type, region) on the likelihood of receiving tubal sterilization after C-section. Results. A disproportionate share of postpartum tubal sterilizations following C-section was covered by Medicaid. The likelihood of undergoing sterilization was increased for Black women, women of older age, and non-single women. Additionally, they were increased in proprietary and government hospitals, smaller hospital settings, and ...


Religion And Infant Mortality In The United States: A Community-Level Investigation Of Denominational Variations, Ginny Garcia-Alexander, John P. Bartkowski, Xiaohe Xu 2016 Portland State University

Religion And Infant Mortality In The United States: A Community-Level Investigation Of Denominational Variations, Ginny Garcia-Alexander, John P. Bartkowski, Xiaohe Xu

Ginny Garcia-Alexander

A burgeoning body of scholarship has explored the influence of community-level religiosity (religious ecology) on various health outcomes. In this study, we enlist data from the Glenmary Census of Churches, county-level infant mortality rates from the NCHS, and select Census data to investigate the relationship between infant mortality and religion. Our study employs both aggregate analyses of major faith traditions (conservative Protestant, mainline Protestant, Catholic, and other religions) as well as decomposition analyses that subdivide conservative Protestants into four variants: fundamentalist, evangelical, Pentecostal, and other conservative Protestant. Our preliminary findings suggest that counties with a high prevalence of Catholic and ...


Impacts Of Early Sexual Experience And Associated Risk Of Sexually Transmitted Infection (Sti) Among Teens And Adults In The United States, Ginny Garcia-Alexander 2016 Portland State University

Impacts Of Early Sexual Experience And Associated Risk Of Sexually Transmitted Infection (Sti) Among Teens And Adults In The United States, Ginny Garcia-Alexander

Ginny Garcia-Alexander

This analysis explores incidence rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among minority group teenagers (aged 15-19) and adults aged 20-34 in the United States. The primary research question is aimed at whether or not the early onset of sexual activity is directly related to the incidence of STI transmission among Americans. Discussion is given to the current literature with respect to the most recent trends in STIs as well as some historical background on classifications. Also examined are the differing impacts observed for those who are affected by bacterial infections (young minorities) and those who are affected by viral infections ...


Racial Disparities In Infant Mortality, 1990 To 2004: Low Birth Weight, Maternal Complications And Other Causes, Ginny Garcia-Alexander, Hyeyoung Woo 2016 Portland State University

Racial Disparities In Infant Mortality, 1990 To 2004: Low Birth Weight, Maternal Complications And Other Causes, Ginny Garcia-Alexander, Hyeyoung Woo

Ginny Garcia-Alexander

Demographers have long studied the unacceptably high rates of infant mortality in the U.S., relative to other advanced countries. These higher rates are largely attributable to persistent racial gaps in infant health outcomes and are likely a reflection of social inequalities, which manifest as poorer infant health outcomes in certain groups. We extend on previous research in this area by utilizing the restricted 1990 and 2000 cohort linked birth-death files to examine the risk of infant death due to several main causes including: maternal complications, low birth weight, and other causes, and how it has changed over time. We ...


Using The Theory Of Fundamental Causes To Show The Potential Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Surgical Outcomes, Mehwish Qasim, A.B.D. 2016 University of Iowa

Using The Theory Of Fundamental Causes To Show The Potential Effects Of Socioeconomic Status On Surgical Outcomes, Mehwish Qasim, A.B.D.

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Surgical procedures are both costly and common. There are large differences in surgical outcomes both within and between hospitals based on patient characteristics such as measures of income. In both 2000 and 2009, patients residing in low-income communities had worse morbidity and mortality rates, across a wide range of quality indicators. In this review, the author will explicate the Theory of Fundamental Causes as it relates to surgical care, review key empirical findings and address potential limitations of the theory. This review will provide a platform for researchers to discuss current research in surgical disparities using the Theory of Fundamental ...


“Great Job Cleaning Your Plate Today!” Determinants Of Child-Care Providers’ Use Of Controlling Feeding Practices: An Exploratory Examination, Dipti Dev, Brent A. McBride, Katherine E. Speirs, Kimberly A. Blitch, Natalie A. Williams 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

“Great Job Cleaning Your Plate Today!” Determinants Of Child-Care Providers’ Use Of Controlling Feeding Practices: An Exploratory Examination, Dipti Dev, Brent A. Mcbride, Katherine E. Speirs, Kimberly A. Blitch, Natalie A. Williams

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Background National early childhood obesity prevention policies recommend that child-care providers avoid controlling feeding practices (CFP) (e.g., pressure-to-eat, food as reward, and praising children for cleaning their plates) with children to prevent unhealthy child eating behaviors and childhood obesity. However, evidence suggests that providers frequently use CFP during mealtimes.

Objective Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (2011) benchmarks for nutrition in child care as a framework, researchers assessed child-care providers’ perspectives regarding their use of mealtime CFP with young children (aged 2 to 5 years).

Design Using a qualitative design, individual, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with providers ...


Visualizing And Interacting With Social Determinants Of Health, Moutasem Zakkar 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Visualizing And Interacting With Social Determinants Of Health, Moutasem Zakkar

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the use of information visualization to represent specific social determinants of health, and to examine the benefits of such representation for health policymaking. Methods: The study developed a prototype for a visualization tool (www.healthvisualization.ca), which represents the conceptual framework for the social determinants of health (CSDH) and new ways to represent related health equity indicators. This tool was used by study participants. The experience of these participants and the usability of the tool were evaluated using qualitative semi-structured interviews. Results: Visualizing the CSDH framework helps to present the social ...


Facing Our Demons: Psychiatric Perspectives On Exorcism Rituals, Joel R. Sanford 2016 Western Michigan University

Facing Our Demons: Psychiatric Perspectives On Exorcism Rituals, Joel R. Sanford

The Hilltop Review

Belief in possession by malevolent spirits exists in many cultures and religions throughout the world, and such beliefs often serve as explanations for a variety of psychological and emotional afflictions. Traditional remedies in these cases often involve exorcism rituals, which are believed to expel spirits from a person's mind and/or body. Some of the cases commonly attributed to involuntary spirit possession are diagnosed within the psychiatric community as schizophrenia or some sort of dissociative disorder and treated with psychotherapy and/or medicine. For some in the psychiatric community, exorcisms and their use by patients are viewed as problematic ...


Ramadan & Pregnancy, Omar Rizvi 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Ramadan & Pregnancy, Omar Rizvi

Celebration of Learning

Fasting during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, is one of the five pillars of Islam and is fard (obligatory) for all Muslims physically and mentally capable of doing so. In the Qur’an, it is made abundantly clear that religion and its acts of worship are not meant to pose undue difficulty or hardship (Qur’an 22:78, 5:6, 2:185). My paper explores the Islamic definitions for “unnecessary difficulty” and “physically capable” specifically in regards to pregnant women. At what point does fasting incur significant, if any, damage to the fetus that it should prevent ...


Health Information Brokers In The General Population: An Analysis Of The Health Information National Trends Survey 2013-2014, Sarah L. Cutrona, Kathleen M. Mazor, Amenah A. Agunwamba, Sruthi Valluri, Patrick M. Wilson, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Lila J. Finney Rutten 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Health Information Brokers In The General Population: An Analysis Of The Health Information National Trends Survey 2013-2014, Sarah L. Cutrona, Kathleen M. Mazor, Amenah A. Agunwamba, Sruthi Valluri, Patrick M. Wilson, Rajani S. Sadasivam, Lila J. Finney Rutten

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Health information exchanged between friends or family members can influence decision making, both for routine health questions and for serious health issues. A health information broker is a person to whom friends and family turn for advice or information on health-related topics. Characteristics and online behaviors of health information brokers have not previously been studied in a national population.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine sociodemographic characteristics, health information seeking behaviors, and other online behaviors among health information brokers.

METHODS: Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2013-2014; n=3142) were used to compare brokers ...


Ethnicity Matters: Implications For Understanding And Acting Upon Disparities In Health Affecting Black Men In The United States, Helen V. S. Cole 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Ethnicity Matters: Implications For Understanding And Acting Upon Disparities In Health Affecting Black Men In The United States, Helen V. S. Cole

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks have higher rates of mortality from heart disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and HIV/AIDS. Black men have a life expectancy approximately 4.7 years than the life expectancy of non-Hispanic white men, due in part to higher prevalence of chronic disease among black men. Many factors are hypothesized to contribute to disparities in health between races, including differences in socioeconomic status; culturally-linked behaviors such as diet, substance use, and physical activity; access to quality healthcare and other resources; and experiences of racism, both institutional and interpersonal. However, in public health research, race is usually ...


Prevalence Of Chronic Health Conditions Among Latinos In The United States Between 1990 And 2011, Amanda Mia Marín-Chollom 2016 Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Prevalence Of Chronic Health Conditions Among Latinos In The United States Between 1990 And 2011, Amanda Mia Marín-Chollom

Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Introduction: This study examines the prevalence of five major chronic health conditions – heart disease, stroke, cancer, arthritis, and diabetes – among adults 18 years of age and older in the United States between 1999 and 2011.

Methods: The data used in this report come from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics, Health Data Interactive tables. Patterns were examined by age structure among the four largest race/ethnic groups in the U.S., and among the two largest Latino subgroups in the U.S. (Mexicans and Puerto Ricans)

Results: Latinos had higher rates of ...


The Relationship Between Food Insecurity And Weight In The United States, 2011 – 2014, Sebastian Villamizar-Santamaria 2016 Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

The Relationship Between Food Insecurity And Weight In The United States, 2011 – 2014, Sebastian Villamizar-Santamaria

Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Introduction: This report examines the relation between weight and food insecurity in the United States between 2011 and 2014.

Methods: The data used in this report come from the Integrated Health Interview Services (IHIS) and its food security index. Weight is assessed by body mass index, and the population is divided into four weight groups based on body mass index ranges.

Results: First, food insecurity rates declined among the general population of Latinos between 2011 and 2014, however, food insecurity rates rose dramatically among underweight Latinos over that time period. Second, food insecurity rates were greatest among the obese and ...


Health Applications Of Social Network Analysis And Computational Social Science, James Kitts 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Health Applications Of Social Network Analysis And Computational Social Science, James Kitts

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Social network analysis has proliferated across the social and behavioral sciences, shifting our analytical focus from individuals to the patterns of social ties that connect them. This perspective has enriched our understanding of a great variety of health-related phenomena, including the spread of STDs on contact networks, the spread of health care practices on physicians’ professional networks, the dynamics of patient transfers on networks of clinics, and the spread of weight-related behaviors among adolescents at risk for obesity. The advent of the era of computational social science has augmented the contributions of this perspective, by moving beyond expensive and laborious ...


Science, Symptoms, And Support Groups:Adhd In The American Cultural Context, Kealy D. Fallon 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Science, Symptoms, And Support Groups:Adhd In The American Cultural Context, Kealy D. Fallon

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This thesis is a cultural analysis of the behaviorally- and psychiatrically-defined disorder ADHD, socio-historically contextualizing it in the United States and exploring ethnographically how people affected by it talk about and organize their experience of its symptoms.


The Social Implications Of Wellness, Mary G. Fisher 2016 Butler University

The Social Implications Of Wellness, Mary G. Fisher

BU Well

This paper presents the existing health disparities between populations of varying socio-economic statuses in the US as part of a broader discussion of the modern wellness industry. The discussion highlights the threat modern wellness poses to the individual and society and the implications these threats have on the health and future of the US if the wellness industry is left unchecked.


Gender And Health Over The Life Course: Temporal, Contextual, And Intersectional Considerations, Nicole Etherington 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Gender And Health Over The Life Course: Temporal, Contextual, And Intersectional Considerations, Nicole Etherington

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Research has continuously demonstrated differences in health between men and women and emphasized a “gender paradox” whereby women live longer than men, but have higher rates of morbidity. Still, relatively little attention has been given to the underlying mechanisms and processes involved within groups of women and men that may provide greater insight into the patterns of health experienced among each group rather than simply between them. Specifically, there has been an over-reliance on cross-sectional and retrospective data; inattention to multiple resources and health conditions; limited consideration of various age ranges and time spans; and an over-emphasis on comparing women ...


Policy Brief: Lifespan Respite Care Reauthorization Act, The 2015-2016 Cohort of New Hampshire Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (NH LEND) Program Trainees. 2016 The University of Maine

Policy Brief: Lifespan Respite Care Reauthorization Act, The 2015-2016 Cohort Of New Hampshire Leadership Education In Neurodevelopmental And Related Disabilities (Nh Lend) Program Trainees.

Policy Analysis

The Lifespan Respite Care Act (PL 109-442) provides critical support for families caring for loved ones at home. Family caregivers in the United States provide an estimated $470 billion worth of uncompensated care—a figure that exceeds the total Medicaid budget for 2013 (NAC Task Force, 2016). According to the National Respite Coalition, access to respite care helps protect caregiver health, strengthens families, keeps marriages intact, and prevents the need for expensive institutional long-term care. Reauthorization of the Lifespan Respite Care Act is essential to the well-being of individuals in need of long-term care and their families affected by long-term ...


A Study Of Hiv And Stigma At The University Of Tennessee: A Discussion Of Its Prevalence And How Hiv Awareness Correlates With Stigma, Renee L. Adamec 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Study Of Hiv And Stigma At The University Of Tennessee: A Discussion Of Its Prevalence And How Hiv Awareness Correlates With Stigma, Renee L. Adamec

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Predictors Of Quality Of Life For African American Women Who Assist Persons Who Receive Dialysis, Shaquita A. Starks 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Predictors Of Quality Of Life For African American Women Who Assist Persons Who Receive Dialysis, Shaquita A. Starks

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The purpose of this predictive correlational study was to describe predictors of quality of life (QoL) for African American women who were caregivers of persons with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Five purposes, derived from a review of literature and conceptual model, guided this study. First, the study described the association between demographic factors (i.e., education, employment, age, marital status), and QoL. Second, the study explored the relationship between stress and QoL. Third, the study described the association between depressive symptoms and QoL. Fourth, the study described the association between family health/happiness and QoL. Fifth, the study described ...


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