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The Role Of Random Allocation In Randomized Controlled Trials: Distinguishing Selection Bias From Baseline Imbalance, Allyn Fives, Daniel W. Rusell, Noreen Kearns, Rena Lyons, Patricia Eaton, John Canavan, Carmel Devaney, Aoife O'Brien 2017 National University of Ireland, Galway

The Role Of Random Allocation In Randomized Controlled Trials: Distinguishing Selection Bias From Baseline Imbalance, Allyn Fives, Daniel W. Rusell, Noreen Kearns, Rena Lyons, Patricia Eaton, John Canavan, Carmel Devaney, Aoife O'Brien

Daniel W. Russell

Background: This paper addresses one threat to the internal validity of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), selection bias. Many authors argue that random allocation is used to ensure baseline equality between study conditions in a given study and that statistically significant differences at pretest mean that randomisation has failed. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of random allocation in an RCT study. Is the role of random allocation to protect against selection bias? And does it have a further role, namely to ensure baseline equality and the absence of statistically significant differences between study conditions ...


Ethical Theories And Perspectives On End-Of-Life Decisions, Lauren Skelton 2017 Abilene Christian University

Ethical Theories And Perspectives On End-Of-Life Decisions, Lauren Skelton

Dialogue & Nexus

This paper approaches several different ethical theories to see how they interact with the issue of withdrawing and withholding life-sustaining care. After the theories of Utilitarianism, Kantian and Prima Facie Deontology, Virtue Ethics, and Evolutionary Ethics are explored at length, Deontological theories are proven to be the best decision-making guide from the perspective of both patients and those in policy-making positions. When used together, Kantian and Prima Facie Deontology offer the overall best combination of ethical instruction and personal freedom.


The Ethical Considerations Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Madeline Jordan 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Ethical Considerations Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Madeline Jordan

Dialogue & Nexus

With respect to physician-assisted suicide, several approaches to adjudicate an ethical position can be processed from the theories of utilitarianism, Kantian deontology, and virtue ethics. This paper will explore these three positions with respect to physician-assisted suicide and the pros and cons of each. In conclusion, based on my research and Christian beliefs, I will define why I reside with virtue ethics and why it leads me to a position that is against physician-assisted suicide at this particular point in my life.


Christian And Islamic Perspectives On The Ethical Dilemma Of In Vitro Fertilization (Ivf), Stephanie Sariles 2017 Abilene Christian University

Christian And Islamic Perspectives On The Ethical Dilemma Of In Vitro Fertilization (Ivf), Stephanie Sariles

Dialogue & Nexus

After defining IVF procedures and the associated biomedical ethics with each, I will compare and contrast Christian and Islamic perspectives on IVF. Christianity in general does not accept IVF, because it is an unnatural method of reproduction that can affect Christian traditions such as parenthood and marriage. Despite this view, Protestants, in particular, have opened up to IVF as a method for treating infertility. Islam fully accepts IVF provided the married couple follows Islamic law. Sunni Muslims do not accept gamete donation, but Shi’ite Muslims are more flexible with gamete donation and surrogacy.


Gadgets And Grieving: A Chronological Analysis On The Ways In Which Advancements In Medical Technologies Have Altered The Grieving Process, Grace McNair 2017 Abilene Christian University

Gadgets And Grieving: A Chronological Analysis On The Ways In Which Advancements In Medical Technologies Have Altered The Grieving Process, Grace Mcnair

Dialogue & Nexus

Since the 1940s, both end-of-life care and advancements in medical technologies have expanded exponentially. This article explores the advancements in medical technologies and how these have altered the way that Western society grieves death. With the capabilities to prolong life, the family, the patient, and the medical team, all grieve the end of life in different ways. This article provides a chronological analysis of palliative care, hospice care, and various medical advancements. These changes in medicine are then paralleled with alterations in the bereavement process. This article explores historical narratives of Western society’s transformation of grief through the lens ...


An Ethical Evaluation Of The Modern Pharmaceutical Industry, Kaitlyn Drennan 2017 Abilene Christian University

An Ethical Evaluation Of The Modern Pharmaceutical Industry, Kaitlyn Drennan

Dialogue & Nexus

Lack of transparency, wrongdoings, and unlawful promotion characterize the healthcare industry; these are especially prevalent within the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, an investigation into the evidence of the corruption and the ethical infringement is needed. In this paper, I will evaluate the pharmaceutical industry’s adherence to the three major branches of ethics. The ever-increasing prices of pharmaceutical products, especially medications used for the combating of anaphylaxis and cancer, coupled with the compensatory-based medication promotion and research points to a major crisis in the realm of social justice. These examples, among many other current issues, lead to difficulties in individuals receiving ...


Up, Down And Reciprocal: The Dynamics Of Intergenerational Transfers, Family Structure And Health In A Low-Income Context, Collin F. Payne, Luca Maria Pesando, Hans-Peter Kohler 2017 Harvard University

Up, Down And Reciprocal: The Dynamics Of Intergenerational Transfers, Family Structure And Health In A Low-Income Context, Collin F. Payne, Luca Maria Pesando, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

In the absence of well-functioning public transfer systems and safety nets, the family acts as the key provider of income and support through the intergenerational redistribution of resources. In this paper we use micro-level longitudinal data and a mix of methodologies to document the lifecycle patterns of financial transfers in a rural, sub-Saharan African population. Underneath a well-established age-pattern of intergenerational transfers in which transfer patterns change according to broad stages of the economic life cycle, our analyses document significant heterogeneity and fluidity: Intergenerational transfers are variable and reverse their direction, with individuals moving between the provider and recipient states ...


Medical Transnationalism: Korean Immigrants’ Medical Tourism To The Home Country, Sou Hyun Jang 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Medical Transnationalism: Korean Immigrants’ Medical Tourism To The Home Country, Sou Hyun Jang

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation examines Korean immigrants’ barriers to formal U.S. healthcare, three distinctive types of healthcare behaviors that they exhibit, contributing factors to their medical tourism, and their experiences and evaluations of medical tourism. Analyzing survey data with 507 Korean immigrants and in-depth interviews with 120 Korean immigrants in the New York-New Jersey area, the study finds that more than half of Korean immigrants have barriers to healthcare in the U.S., the two biggest being the language barrier and not having health insurance. The study also finds that there are three distinctive types of healthcare behavior that Korean immigrants ...


Threat Of Deportation As Proximal Social Determinant Of Mental Health Amongst Migrant Workers, Nicholas HARRIGAN, Yee Koh CHIU, Amirah Amirrudin 2017 nharrigan@smu.edu.sg

Threat Of Deportation As Proximal Social Determinant Of Mental Health Amongst Migrant Workers, Nicholas Harrigan, Yee Koh Chiu, Amirah Amirrudin

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

While migration health studies traditionally focused on socioeconomic determinants of health, an emerging body of literature is exploring migration status as a proximate cause of health outcomes. Study 1 is a path analysis of the predictors of mental health amongst 582 documented migrant workers in Singapore, and shows that threat of deportation is one of the most important proximate social determinants of predicted mental illness, and a mediator of the impact of workplace conflict on mental health. Study 2 is a qualitative study of the narratives of 149 migrant workers who were in workplace conflict with their employers, and demonstrates ...


A Descriptive Study Of The Elderly In California Substance Abuse Treatment Programs, David Berenschot 2017 California State University - San Bernardino

A Descriptive Study Of The Elderly In California Substance Abuse Treatment Programs, David Berenschot

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

As gerontologists may know, there are a great deal of studies and a variety of academic literature on the misuse of alcohol and prescription medication amongst the elderly population. While there is a plethora of information on alcohol and prescription misuse, there is little reported data about the prevalence of other substance misuse experienced by this population. This study aims to help to fill that gap in the data by using quantitative methods to describe the scope of substance abuse of individuals 55-years or older. This study utilizes data from the Treatment Data Set Admission (TEDS-A). The TEDS-A is a ...


Strategies And Substance Treatment: Perceptions Of Older Adults 60 And Over, Kim Malveo Jones 2017 California State University - San Bernardino

Strategies And Substance Treatment: Perceptions Of Older Adults 60 And Over, Kim Malveo Jones

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to gather the perceive strategies and substance treatment needs of adults 60 and over. To examine what recovery treatment models and strategies could be most effective for the age-related complex needs of the 60 and over population who are at risk for substance misuse, use or abuse. In the coming years, there will be a substantial increase in the numbers of older adults with substance misuse and abuse problems. Even though one in five individuals who experience substance abuse are older adults many clinicians remain ill equipped to serve older clientele, and particularly those ...


Flesh And Blood, Clayton Petras 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Flesh And Blood, Clayton Petras

Graduate School of Art Theses

In my work, I look for ways to visualize and document the degenerative mental disease of Parkinson’s and transform it into portrayals of the disease itself, its effects, and those it afflicts. Being a physical breakdown of the body, both popular culture and my own corporal understanding influence my interpretation and representation. This document outlines those influences and their buildup towards a shared understanding of the interests behind the work, as well as implies what the work does through these contexts.

How do we give identity to a disease that is difficult to diagnose or view on medical technology ...


The Problem Of Suffering: Universal Health Coverage As A Partial Solution, Christen Scaggs 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Problem Of Suffering: Universal Health Coverage As A Partial Solution, Christen Scaggs

Dialogue & Nexus

Universal Health Coverage is evaluated from a Christian Biblical perspective and found that it meets an appropriate standard of service to the poor. Christians should consider its benefits and drawbacks compared to doing nothing. The issue of diminished access to healthcare, burdensome medical costs, reduced coverage, and discrimination against impoverished individuals with specific regards to healthcare are all conquerable challenges.


Volume 3 Editorial, Daniel Brannan 2017 Abilene Christian University

Volume 3 Editorial, Daniel Brannan

Dialogue & Nexus

No abstract provided.


Strain, Depression, And Reentry: Effects Of Incarceration On Depression And Reentry, Danielle Creech 2017 University of Wyoming

Strain, Depression, And Reentry: Effects Of Incarceration On Depression And Reentry, Danielle Creech

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Thousands of people face release from incarceration in America each day, which is a process termed reentry. The reentry process is accompanied by a multitude of complex challenges, which are compounded by the presence of a mental disorder. Research has explored the relationship between mental health and incarceration, as well as mental health and reentry. However, little has been done to determine how incarceration effects depressive disorders or how changes in mental health alter coping mechanisms for reentry-induced stress. Using strain theory as the central theoretical perspective, this research seeks to determine how incarceration effects those with depression and how ...


Waiting For The Wisdom To Drop: A Photovoice Exploration Of Menopause, Delinda L. Free 2017 Portland State University

Waiting For The Wisdom To Drop: A Photovoice Exploration Of Menopause, Delinda L. Free

Student Research Symposium

The purpose of this study was to create a women’s menopause discussion group based on the Photo Voice method, to use a narrative approach to learn what is currently relevant in the experience of menopausal women, to reveal insights about menopause as a phase of psychological development, and to bring a visual representation together with narratives to tell a story about the collective psychological themes. Participants were asked to meet and reflect on what has changed in their values, attitudes, aspirations, goals, and outlook on life. Then participants were asked to take pictures over the course of a week ...


Madness, Medicine, And Witchcraft In Bududa, Uganda, Hugh H. Bartlett 2017 Lehigh University

Madness, Medicine, And Witchcraft In Bududa, Uganda, Hugh H. Bartlett

Eckardt Scholars Projects

Many developing nations struggle to provide adequate care for their mentally ill. Mental illness is predicted to affect 10 percent of a given population and left untreated can lead to a life of poverty and vagrancy. Many African countries, including Uganda, have strong belief systems in religion and spirituality which include the beliefs in evil spirits, witchcraft, and prayer healing. Religious and spiritual beliefs are often applied to perceptions of mental illness - evil spirits and witchcraft are seen as causes of mental illness and prayer is an acceptable method of treatment of mental illness. This study qualitatively assessed the beliefs ...


Natural Debts, Natural Dangers: An Ideology Of Nation-State And Subject In An Immunology Text, Quinn Monette 2017 College of William and Mary

Natural Debts, Natural Dangers: An Ideology Of Nation-State And Subject In An Immunology Text, Quinn Monette

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In an inquiry into the systems of metaphor used in an immunology text, I argue that the conceptualization of science is ideological, non-neutral, and has important consequences in the formation of subjects.


A Guide For Assessing Older Adults’ Needs On Maine Islands, Beatrice Byrne 2017 University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service

A Guide For Assessing Older Adults’ Needs On Maine Islands, Beatrice Byrne

Muskie School Capstones

This template may help Maine island communities identify older adults’ needs and island resources, in order to allow older adults to age in the island communities.

Three interviews with island health leaders, one community conversation with older islanders, and one pilot test provided information about what to include in the template.

The template includes a demographic survey, guides for conducting semi-structured interviews and group conversations with older adults and caregivers, a guide and worksheet for analyzing the data, a guide for assessing community resources, a guide for dissemination, and a list of additional resources.


Psychosocial Challenges Facing Women Living With Hiv During The Perinatal Period In Rural Uganda, Scholastic Ashaba, Angela Kaida, Jessica N. Coleman, Bridget F. Burns, Emma Dunkley, Kasey O'Neil, Jasmine Kastner, Naomi Sanyu, Cecilia Akatukwasa, David R. Bangsberg, Lynn T. Matthews, Christina Psaros 2017 Mbarara University of Science and Technology

Psychosocial Challenges Facing Women Living With Hiv During The Perinatal Period In Rural Uganda, Scholastic Ashaba, Angela Kaida, Jessica N. Coleman, Bridget F. Burns, Emma Dunkley, Kasey O'Neil, Jasmine Kastner, Naomi Sanyu, Cecilia Akatukwasa, David R. Bangsberg, Lynn T. Matthews, Christina Psaros

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

The complexities of navigating pregnancy while living with HIV predispose women to additional stress. Finding ways to minimize psychosocial challenges during the perinatal period may maximize the well-being of mothers living with HIV and their children. The goal of this study was to explore psychosocial challenges experienced by women living with HIV (WLWH) during pregnancy and the postpartum.

We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 20 WLWH recruited from an HIV treatment cohort study in Mbarara, Uganda as part of a larger study exploring perinatal depression. We conducted content analyses to identify themes related to challenges of WLWH during pregnancy and ...


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