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Exploring The Nature And Extent Of Normative Change In Fgm/C In Somaliland, Richard A. Powell, Mohamed Yussuf, Bettina Shell-Duncan, Caroline W. Kabiru 2020 Population Council

Exploring The Nature And Extent Of Normative Change In Fgm/C In Somaliland, Richard A. Powell, Mohamed Yussuf, Bettina Shell-Duncan, Caroline W. Kabiru

Reproductive Health

More than 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone FGM/C across 30 countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. While most affected countries have adopted legal frameworks prohibiting FGM/C, these have been varyingly effective in preventing the practice or significantly accelerating its abandonment. The success of programmatic interventions to address FGM/C has also been variable. One possible reason for the limited success of these initiatives is the neglect of the collectively held social norms underpinning the practice’s continuation. This study, conducted in 30 villages in Somaliland, aimed to investigate: 1) if the norms ...


Parents As Pimps: Survivor Accounts Of Trafficking Of Children In The United States, Jody Raphael 2020 DePaul University College of Law

Parents As Pimps: Survivor Accounts Of Trafficking Of Children In The United States, Jody Raphael

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article discusses four survivor accounts of survivors of being sold for sexual exploitation by their parents for monetary gain. These narratives, supplemented by other accounts from 100 newspaper stories between 2012 and 2018, reveal the fact that many survivors were sold as very young children, and the abuse continued through their teen years, blurring distinctions between pedophilia and the sex trade industry. In their accounts, survivors described the motivations of their parents as well as the buyers, who used excessive force and violence. Some researchers are beginning to document the existence of parental pimping and its prevalence, which ranges ...


Familismo, Fafsa, And Sallie Mae: A Study Of Second Generation Latinx Student Loan Debt, Jasmine Gonsalez 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Familismo, Fafsa, And Sallie Mae: A Study Of Second Generation Latinx Student Loan Debt, Jasmine Gonsalez

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As college expenses continue to skyrocket, borrowing thousands of dollars to pay for college has become a rite of passage towards achieving the American Dream. Very little has explored the problem of rising student loan debt thorough a sociologically-oriented lens, and even less work has examined the variations in the lived experiences of underrepresented student borrowers. This study focuses on second-generation Latinx students who have used student loans to pay for college. As American citizens with Latin American roots, this generation lives in a precarious situation, often straddling the lines between their traditional family-oriented values, and the more individualistic values ...


Associations Between Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting And Early/Child Marriage: A Multi-Country Dhs/Mics Analysis, Jamlick Karumbi, David Gathara 2020 Population Council

Associations Between Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting And Early/Child Marriage: A Multi-Country Dhs/Mics Analysis, Jamlick Karumbi, David Gathara

Reproductive Health

Over the last several decades, global efforts to end female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) have intensified through the combined efforts of international and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), governments, and religious and civil society groups. Evidence of the wider impacts of FGM/C and interventions for its abandonment is small but emerging. The practice of FGM/C has frequently been linked to a girl’s marriageability and is thought to be associated with child marriage, either directly, as a cause of early/child marriage, or vice versa, or indirectly, resulting from common causes. Evidence of the relationships between these two practices ...


Mortality Risk Information, Survival Expectations And Sexual Behaviors, Alberto Ciancio, Adeline Delavande, Hans-Peter Kohler, Iliana V. Kohler 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Mortality Risk Information, Survival Expectations And Sexual Behaviors, Alberto Ciancio, Adeline Delavande, Hans-Peter Kohler, Iliana V. Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Individuals in low-income settings are often overly pessimistic about their own survival, suggesting that better knowledge about survival risks might encourage investments in health. This paper provides evidence from a randomized experiment that provided mature adults aged 45+ in Malawi with information about mortality risks. Treated individuals are less likely to engage in risky sexual practices one year after the intervention, and they increase other forward-looking behaviors such as investments in agriculture. Expectations of HIV+ people living longer, which makes the pool of potential partners riskier, are a primary driver of reduced sexual risk taking in response to the intervention.


Modelling And Mapping Of Regional Disparities Associated With Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Prevalence Among Girls Aged 0–14 Years In Senegal: Evidence From Senegal (Sdhs) Surveys 2005–2017, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Paul Komba, Chibuzor Christopher Nnanatu, Glory Atilola, Lubanzadio Mavatikua, Zhuzhi Moore, Dennis Matanda 2020 Population Council

Modelling And Mapping Of Regional Disparities Associated With Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Prevalence Among Girls Aged 0–14 Years In Senegal: Evidence From Senegal (Sdhs) Surveys 2005–2017, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Paul Komba, Chibuzor Christopher Nnanatu, Glory Atilola, Lubanzadio Mavatikua, Zhuzhi Moore, Dennis Matanda

Reproductive Health

Between 2005 and 2017, Senegal experienced a slight national decline in the prevalence of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) among women aged 15–49 years and girls younger than 15 years. However, significant differences in prevalence exist as a result of multifarious risk factors. Our previous research in Senegal described the national trends in FGM/C, showing where, when, and why FGM/C is practiced in Senegal. However, no recent study exists to analyze the geographical patterns of FGM/C and the effect of individual-and community-level risk factors on the likelihood of cutting among girls younger than 15 years ...


The Mature Adults Cohort Of The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh-Mac), Iliana V. Kohler, Chiwoza Bandawe, Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Collin F. Payne, James Mwera, James Mkandawire, Hans-Peter Kohler 2020 University of Pennsylvania

The Mature Adults Cohort Of The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh-Mac), Iliana V. Kohler, Chiwoza Bandawe, Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Collin F. Payne, James Mwera, James Mkandawire, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Cohort purpose: The Mature Adults Cohort of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH-MAC) contributes to global aging studies by providing a rare opportunity to study the processes of individual and population aging, the public health and social challenges associated with aging and the coincident shifts in disease burdens, in a low-income, high HIV prevalence, sub-Saharan African (SSA) context.

Design and Measures: The MLSFH-MAC is a population-based cohort study of mature adults aged 45 years and older living in rural communities in three districts in Malawi (Mchinji, Balaka and Rumphi). Initial enrollment at baseline is 1,266 individuals ...


National Guard Familes: The Relationship Between Institutional Discourses And Lived Experiences, Kimberly Saunier Boudreaux 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

National Guard Familes: The Relationship Between Institutional Discourses And Lived Experiences, Kimberly Saunier Boudreaux

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

National Guard families live in two different worlds. On the one hand, they are civilians with civilian jobs. On the other hand, they are also part of the military that can be activated at any time. Living in these two worlds simultaneously affects these families differently than families who live either entirely in the civilian world or the military world. The purpose of this qualitative study was to take an ethnographic look at how National Guard families navigate and adapt to these conditions. This study utilized three methods of data collection: analysis of self-help books aimed at helping military spouses ...


Modelling And Mapping Of State Disparities Associated With Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Prevalence Among Girls Aged 0–14 Years In Nigeria: Evidence From Dhs And Mics 2003–2017, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Paul Komba, Chibuzor Christopher Nnanatu, Glory Atilola, Lubanzadio Mavatikua, Zhuzhi Moore, Dennis Matanda 2020 Population Council

Modelling And Mapping Of State Disparities Associated With Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting Prevalence Among Girls Aged 0–14 Years In Nigeria: Evidence From Dhs And Mics 2003–2017, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala, Paul Komba, Chibuzor Christopher Nnanatu, Glory Atilola, Lubanzadio Mavatikua, Zhuzhi Moore, Dennis Matanda

Reproductive Health

The practice of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been positioned as a gender and global development issue that national and international organizations must address for girls and women to thrive in good health and enjoy their fundamental rights. Consequently, many efforts have been made to promote the abandonment of the practice. Despite evidence of a decline in FGM/C, there are significant variations in its prevalence in many sub-Saharan African countries, where the practice persists due to the combined effects of factors among individuals as well as communities. This working paper presents findings from a study that analyzed ...


After-School Tutoring, Household Substitution And Student Achievement: Experimental Evidence From Rural China, Jere R. Behrman, C. Simon Fan, Xiangdong Wei, Hongliang Zhang, Junsen Zhang 2020 University of Pennsylvania

After-School Tutoring, Household Substitution And Student Achievement: Experimental Evidence From Rural China, Jere R. Behrman, C. Simon Fan, Xiangdong Wei, Hongliang Zhang, Junsen Zhang

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Worldwide children’s access to after-school learning activities is highly dependent on family backgrounds. Concern over the implications of such activities for child development and educational inequality has led to a global rise of public provision of after-school learning support. However little is known about interactions of public after-school activities and household investments in children’s learning. This paper contributes to the literature on the effects of public inputs on household inputs and student achievement in after-school settings. We build a model that integrates public and private inputs to produce student achievement through two competing mechanisms – diminishing returns to total ...


The Causal Effects Of Parents' Schooling On Children's Schooling In Urban China, Jere R. Behrman, Yuan Hu, Junsen Zhang 2020 University of Pennsylvania

The Causal Effects Of Parents' Schooling On Children's Schooling In Urban China, Jere R. Behrman, Yuan Hu, Junsen Zhang

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Parental schooling is widely thought to improve child outcomes. But most studies on parental-child relations are associative, without control for estimation problems, such as unobserved intergenerationally-correlated endowments, if causality is of interest. The few exceptions are relatively recent studies that focus on high-income countries (HICs), with their much different contexts than the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in which the vast majority of children globally are growing up. This paper estimates the causal (conditional on the assumptions for the model) relationships between parents’ schooling and their children’s schooling in the most populous LMIC, using adult identical (monozygotic, MZ) twins ...


Pamphlet: Arabs In The U.S. No Longer The Best Kept Secret In Ethnic America, American-Arab Anti-discrimination Committee 2020 University of North Florida

Pamphlet: Arabs In The U.S. No Longer The Best Kept Secret In Ethnic America, American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee

Saffy Collection - All Textual Materials

Pamphlet discussing the Arab community and ethnic discrimination in America. Includes a form to request more information about the work of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. No date given.


Pamphlet: Florida Women’S Consortium: Communication, Coordination, Advocacy – Representing Organizations And Individuals Who Actively Work For The Advancement Of Women, Florida Women's Consortium 2020 University of North Florida

Pamphlet: Florida Women’S Consortium: Communication, Coordination, Advocacy – Representing Organizations And Individuals Who Actively Work For The Advancement Of Women, Florida Women's Consortium

Saffy Collection - All Textual Materials

Informational introductory pamphlet for Florida Women’s Consortium with membership application. An advocacy group consisting of organizations and individuals committed to achieving full equality and empowerment for women. Primary goals are to provide a communication network and coordinate activities of member groups. No date given.


Intensive Referral Of Veterans To Mutual-Help Groups: A Mixed-Methods Implementation Evaluation, Lance Brendan Young, Kathleen M. Grant, R. Dario Pulido, Jamie L. Simpson, Kimberly A. Tyler, Christine Timkof 2020 Western Illinois University-Quad Cities

Intensive Referral Of Veterans To Mutual-Help Groups: A Mixed-Methods Implementation Evaluation, Lance Brendan Young, Kathleen M. Grant, R. Dario Pulido, Jamie L. Simpson, Kimberly A. Tyler, Christine Timkof

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

Community-based support group participation protects against substance use disorder (SUD) relapse, but referrals during treatment are inconsistently delivered and may not acknowledge barriers facing rural patients. This formative evaluation of a rural intensive referral intervention (RAIR) to community-based support groups for veterans seeking SUD treatment surveyed patients (N = 145) and surveyed and interviewed treatment staff (N = 28). Patients and staff did not differ significantly on quantitative ratings of the helpfulness of, or satisfaction with, seven RAIR components, but staff did not deliver the intervention consistently or as designed, citing two themes: lack of commitment and lack of resources.


Population Council Annual Evaluation Report: Opening Futures (Abriendo Futuros) For Indigenous Girls In Yucatan, Mexico, Silvana Larrea 2020 Population Council

Population Council Annual Evaluation Report: Opening Futures (Abriendo Futuros) For Indigenous Girls In Yucatan, Mexico, Silvana Larrea

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This Population Council Annual Evaluation Report includes evaluation activities from December 1, 2015 to December 1, 2019, and future evaluation plans (2019–21), as part of the Opening Futures (Abriendo Futuros) project for indigenous girls in Yucatan, Mexico. The first section describes the finalized analysis of the impact evaluation of the pilot phase; the second section reports the progress of evaluation activities; and the third section includes an evaluation of future plans for the period December 1, 2019 to November 30, 2021.


Informal Science Experiences Among Urban And Rural Youth: Exploring Differences At The Intersections Of Socioeconomic Status, Gender And Ethnicity, Patricia Wonch Hill, Julia McQuillan, Eileen A. Hebets, Amy N. Spiegel, Judy Diamond 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Informal Science Experiences Among Urban And Rural Youth: Exploring Differences At The Intersections Of Socioeconomic Status, Gender And Ethnicity, Patricia Wonch Hill, Julia Mcquillan, Eileen A. Hebets, Amy N. Spiegel, Judy Diamond

Sociology Department, Faculty Publications

The current study explores patterns of informal science experiences among youth in urban and rural middle schools by gender and socioeconomic status. Data come from surveys in two Midwestern middle schools, one in a mid-sized city, and the other in a rural-remote town. We asked about participation in informal science activities (e.g. visiting zoos or museums, or watching shows about science) and if youth had participated in science-focused clubs in the last 12 months (e.g. after-school science clubs, 4-H, scouts). Rural youth reported lower rates of participation in after-school science clubs and a greater desire to participate in ...


Marital Dissolutions And Changes In Mental Health: Evidence From Rural Malawi, Tyler W. Myroniuk, Hans-Peter Kohler, Iliana V. Kohler 2020 University of Alberta

Marital Dissolutions And Changes In Mental Health: Evidence From Rural Malawi, Tyler W. Myroniuk, Hans-Peter Kohler, Iliana V. Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Family demographers conducting research in high-income countries have long examined the link between multiple dimensions of marital dissolutions—including discrete events and marital histories—and adverse health outcomes. Research on the relationship between marital dissolutions, marital histories, and health among older adults in sub-Saharan Africa is comparatively limited, and less empirically developed, despite marriage being a paramount cultural and life-course marker on the African continent. Using fixed-effects regressions and 2012 data from the Mature Adults Cohort of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH-MAC) linked back to cohort information from 2008 and 2010 available through MLSFH, we test ...


Provider Reported Implementation Of Nutrition-Related Practices In Childcare Centers And Family Childcare Homes In Rural And Urban Nebraska, Dipti Dev, Aileen Garcia, David A. Dzewaltowski, Susan B. Sisson, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Zainab Rida, Natalie A. Williams, Carly Hillburn, Danae Dinkel, Deepa Srivastava, Christina Burger, Emily Hulse, Donnia Behrends, Natasha Frost 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Provider Reported Implementation Of Nutrition-Related Practices In Childcare Centers And Family Childcare Homes In Rural And Urban Nebraska, Dipti Dev, Aileen Garcia, David A. Dzewaltowski, Susan B. Sisson, Lisa Franzen-Castle, Zainab Rida, Natalie A. Williams, Carly Hillburn, Danae Dinkel, Deepa Srivastava, Christina Burger, Emily Hulse, Donnia Behrends, Natasha Frost

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Approximately 15 million children under age 6 are in childcare settings, offering childcare providers an opportunity to influence children’s dietary intake. Childcare settings vary in organizational structure – childcare centers (CCCs) vs. family childcare homes (FCCHs) – and in geographical location – urban vs. rural. Research on the nutrition-related best practices across these childcare settings is scarce. The objective of this study is to compare nutrition-related best practices of CCCs and FCCHs that participate in the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) in rural and urban Nebraska. Nebraska providers (urban n = 591; rural n = 579) reported implementation level, implementation difficulty and ...


The Effects Of Negative Economic Shocks At Birth On Child Health In Sub-Saharan Africa, Fabrice Kämpfen 2020 University of Pennsylvania

The Effects Of Negative Economic Shocks At Birth On Child Health In Sub-Saharan Africa, Fabrice Kämpfen

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

In this study, I estimate the effects that mothers' experience of negative economic shocks during pregnancy or shortly after childbirth has on children's subjective and objective health measures in Malawi. Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study on Families and Health (MLSFH), I find that children whose mothers were hit by such economic shocks were about 7 percentage points less likely to be reported to be in excellent health and 8 percentage points less likely to be reported to be in much better health compared to children of the same age and sex in the same village by their ...


Negotiating Informal And Formal Supportive Services Among Older Adults: An Analysis Of A Caring Culture At Hope Meadows, Derek Ruszkowski 2020 Illinois State University

Negotiating Informal And Formal Supportive Services Among Older Adults: An Analysis Of A Caring Culture At Hope Meadows, Derek Ruszkowski

Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development to Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development—Student Research

This case study examines discourses of living and volunteering at an intentional and intergenerational neighborhood in Rantoul, IL managed by a non-profit called Hope Meadows. This is accomplished through participant and non-participant observations and nine resident interviews. The research contributes to literature on community-level efforts serving to strengthen supportive relationships among neighbors by examining a population that is engaged in providing services to their fellow community residents and the non-profit organization in exchange for below-market rent. Additionally, the outcome contributes to literature on aging-in-place, sustaining volunteer programs dependent on committed residents, and challenges of an increasingly disproportionate aging population. Due ...


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