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Rural America Lost Population Over The Past Decade For The First Time In History, Kenneth M. Johnson 2022 University of New Hampshire

Rural America Lost Population Over The Past Decade For The First Time In History, Kenneth M. Johnson

The Carsey School of Public Policy at the Scholars' Repository

In this brief Carsey Senior Demographer Kenneth Johnson examines rural demographic trends between 2010 and 2020 using data from the 2020 Census. The economic turbulence beginning with the Great Recession and continuing through the next decade had a significant demographic impact on rural America. Between 2010 and 2020 rural population loss was widespread, with more than two-thirds of all nonmetropolitan counties losing population. With fewer births, more deaths, and more people leaving than moving in, rural America experienced an overall population loss for the first time in history. Population losses were greatest in remote rural counties, but even in rural …


Aging And Disability Services Are Unequally Distributed Across The United States, Claire Pendergrast, Danielle Rhubart 2022 The Pennsylvania State University

Aging And Disability Services Are Unequally Distributed Across The United States, Claire Pendergrast, Danielle Rhubart

Population Health Research Brief Series

As the U.S. population ages, demand for aging and disability services will increase, but 15% of U.S. counties have no aging and disability services organizations. This brief shows that rural counties and counties with the highest rates of poverty, highest shares of older adults, and highest shares of non-Hispanic Blacks are most likely to be aging and disability services deserts. To support healthy aging across the country, policymakers should invest in aging services infrastructure and should prioritize resources for places that are aging and disability services deserts.


Union Formation, Within-Couple Dynamics, And Child Well-Being In Global Comparative Perspective, Ewa Batyra, Luca Maria Pesando, Andrés F. Castro, Frank F. Furstenberg, Hans-Peter Kohler 2022 Center for Demographic Studies (CED)

Union Formation, Within-Couple Dynamics, And Child Well-Being In Global Comparative Perspective, Ewa Batyra, Luca Maria Pesando, Andrés F. Castro, Frank F. Furstenberg, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Studies on global changes in families have greatly increased over the past decade, adopting both a country-specific and, more recently, a cross-national comparative perspective. While most studies are focused on the drivers of global changes in families, little comparative research has explored the implications of family processes for the health and well-being of children. This study aims to fill this gap and launch a new research agenda exploring the intergenerational implications of union-formation and within-couple dynamics for children’s health and well-being across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), both globally, regionally, and by the stage of fertility transition. We do so …


Racial, Ethnic, And Urban/Rural Differences In Transitions Into Diabetes: Evidence From The Health And Retirement Survey Biomarker And Self-Reported Data, Hyeran Chung, Mary Arends-Kuenning 2022 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Racial, Ethnic, And Urban/Rural Differences In Transitions Into Diabetes: Evidence From The Health And Retirement Survey Biomarker And Self-Reported Data, Hyeran Chung, Mary Arends-Kuenning

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

We examine differences in transitions between stages of type 2 diabetes across racial, ethnic, and urban/rural statuses. The individual-level data from the 2006 to 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) and county-level data from the 1990-2000 U.S. Censuses, the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care, and the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research are used to analyze the transition from the stage of prediabetic to diabetic, and the transition from having no diabetes to being prediabetic and diabetic. The HRS includes both biomarker data and self- reported doctors’ diagnoses of diabetes, which allow us to identify people …


Exploring Rural-Urban Differences In Polygenic Associations For Health Among Older Adults In The United States, Trent Davidson, Jason D. Boardman, Lori M. Hunter 2022 University of Colorado, Boulder

Exploring Rural-Urban Differences In Polygenic Associations For Health Among Older Adults In The United States, Trent Davidson, Jason D. Boardman, Lori M. Hunter

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

A complex combination of genes and environment influence health and, as a result, both genes and environment can play a role in shaping health disparities. We consider distinctions in these influences across rural and urban settings, expanding upon work that shows lower genetic associations in rural compared to urban places by studying an older age group and examining more than the typical outcomes of alcohol/substance abuse. Using a sample of 14,994 adults from the 1992 through 2016 waves of the Health andRetirement Study, our results suggest genetic associations for BMI and heart conditions are significantly lower in rural compared to …


Socio-Spatial Disparities In County-Level Availability Of Aging And Disability Services Organizations, Claire Pendergrast, Danielle Rhubart 2022 Syracuse University

Socio-Spatial Disparities In County-Level Availability Of Aging And Disability Services Organizations, Claire Pendergrast, Danielle Rhubart

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

Aging and disability services are essential for supporting older adults in living independently in their homes and communities as they age. Applying theoretical perspectives of community gerontology and spatial inequality, we use county-level data (N=3142) from the National Neighborhood Data Archive (NaNDA) and the American Community Survey to explore if and how availability of aging and disability services organizations varies across the rural-urban continuum and across compositional characteristics of counties. Results show that rural counties are significantly more likely to be aging and disability services deserts. Stratified models show that poverty rates and relative shares of non-Hispanic Blacks are positively …


Support From Adult Children And Parental Health In Rural America, Shelley Clark, Elizabeth M. Lawrence, Shannon M. Monnat 2022 McGill University

Support From Adult Children And Parental Health In Rural America, Shelley Clark, Elizabeth M. Lawrence, Shannon M. Monnat

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

Adult children are a primary source of care for their aging parents. Parents in rural areas, however, live further from their adult children than parents in urban areas, potentially limiting the support they receive and compromising their health and ability to age in place. We use two waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (2013 and 2017) to investigate the relationships among geographic proximity, adult children’s instrumental and financial support, and parental health. Rural parents live further from their adult children and receive less financial support, but they are more likely to receive instrumental assistance. In addition, rural parents …


Rural Population Health And Aging: Introduction To The Special Issue, John J. Green, Shannon M. Monnat, Leif Jensen, Lori Hunter, Martin Sliwinski 2022 Southern Rural Development Center

Rural Population Health And Aging: Introduction To The Special Issue, John J. Green, Shannon M. Monnat, Leif Jensen, Lori Hunter, Martin Sliwinski

Journal of Rural Social Sciences

This special issue of the Journal of Rural Social Sciences (JRSS) focuses on rural population health and aging. It showcases the work of scholars from several backgrounds and social science disciplines to advance knowledge in a critical field of investigation. Assembled through an open call for submissions coordinated through the National Institute on Aging (NIA) funded Interdisciplinary Network on Rural Population Health and Aging (INRPHA), the collection of articles helps inform a more nuanced understanding of the factors associated with rural places, which often have different health outcomes and aging patterns than their urban counterparts. The authors achieve this through …


Same Environment, Stratified Impacts? Air Pollution, Extreme Temperatures, And Birth Weight In South China, Xiaoying Liu, Jere R. Behrman, Emily Hannum, Fan Wang, Qingguo Zhao 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Same Environment, Stratified Impacts? Air Pollution, Extreme Temperatures, And Birth Weight In South China, Xiaoying Liu, Jere R. Behrman, Emily Hannum, Fan Wang, Qingguo Zhao

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This paper investigates whether associations between birth weight and prenatal ambient environmental conditions—pollution and extreme temperatures—differ by 1) maternal education; 2) children’s innate health; and 3) interactions between these two. We link birth records from Guangzhou, China, during a period of high pollution, to ambient air pollution (PM10 and a composite measure) and extreme temperature data. We first use mean regressions to test whether, overall, maternal education is an “effect modifier” in the relationships between ambient air pollution, extreme temperature, and birth weight. We then use conditional quantile regressions to test for effect heterogeneity according to the unobserved innate vulnerability …


Aging And Hypertension Among The Global Poor—Panel Data Evidence From Malawi, Iliana V. Kohler, Nikkil Sudharsanan, Chiwoza Bandawe, Hans-Peter Kohler 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Aging And Hypertension Among The Global Poor—Panel Data Evidence From Malawi, Iliana V. Kohler, Nikkil Sudharsanan, Chiwoza Bandawe, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Background: Hypertension has a rapidly growing disease burden among older persons in low-income countries (LICs) that is often inadequately diagnosed and treated. Yet, most LIC research on hypertension is based on cross-sectional data that does not allow inferences about the onset or persistence of hypertension, its correlates, and changes in hypertension as individuals become older.

Data and methods: The Mature Adults Cohort of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH-MAC) is used to provide among the first panel analyses of hypertension for older individuals in a sub-Saharan LIC using blood pressure measurements obtained in 2013 and 2017.

Findings: …


Rural Working-Age Adults Report Worse Health Than Their Urban Peers, Shannon M. Monnat, Danielle Rhubart 2022 Syracuse University

Rural Working-Age Adults Report Worse Health Than Their Urban Peers, Shannon M. Monnat, Danielle Rhubart

Population Health Research Brief Series

Self-rated health is considered a strong predictor of chronic disease risk and premature mortality. This brief analyzes data from the National Wellbeing Survey (NWS), a sample of approximately 4,000 U.S. working-aged adults (ages 18-64) conducted in Feb-March 2021 to examine differences in self-rated physical health among residents of large urban counties (counties in a metro area of 1+ million people), medium/small urban counties, rural counties that neighbor a metro area (metro-adjacent), and rural counties that do not neighbor a metro area (remote rural). Results show higher shares of poor/fair self-rated health among residents of rural and small urban counties than …


America At A Glance: An Update On Rural-Urban Difference In Disability Rates, University of Montana Rural Institute 2022 RTC:Rural

America At A Glance: An Update On Rural-Urban Difference In Disability Rates, University Of Montana Rural Institute

Independent Living and Community Participation

For this report we analyzed the most recent disability data from the American Community Survey (ACS 5-year estimates 2015-2019) to examine what has changed over the last decade. Our key findings are:

  • The disability disparity between rural and urban persists, with higher rates of disability in rural counties
  • Rates of disability across rural and urban have increased slightly
  • Rates of disability are higher in rural counties across disability type, age, race, and ethnicity


Disability And Health In African Americans: Population Research And Implications For Occupational Therapy Community-Based Practice, Emily Schulz, Debarchana Ghosh, Eddie M. Clark, Beverly R. Williams, Randi Williams, Lijing Ma, Crystal L. Park, Cheryl L. Knott 2022 Northern Arizona University – USA

Disability And Health In African Americans: Population Research And Implications For Occupational Therapy Community-Based Practice, Emily Schulz, Debarchana Ghosh, Eddie M. Clark, Beverly R. Williams, Randi Williams, Lijing Ma, Crystal L. Park, Cheryl L. Knott

The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy

Background: Population-based research and community-based interventions are integral to occupational therapy’s scope of practice, yet they are underdeveloped in actual implementation. Therefore, this paper focuses on some health challenges facing the African American population, guided by the Person-Environment-Occupation-Performance Model.

Method: Using data from an observational cross-sectional nationwide telephone survey of African American adults, we examined differences between African Americans who are receiving disability payments (RDP) and those who are employed full time (FTE) on several physical health behaviors and psychosocial health indicators. We further compared the differences between African Americans RDP versus those FTE on those physical health …


Long-Term Care Insurance Financing Using Home Equity Release: Evidence From An Online Experimental Survey, Katja Hanewald, Hazel Bateman, Hanming Fang, Tin Long Ho 2022 UNSW Sydney and The Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence in Population Ageing Research (CEPAR)

Long-Term Care Insurance Financing Using Home Equity Release: Evidence From An Online Experimental Survey, Katja Hanewald, Hazel Bateman, Hanming Fang, Tin Long Ho

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This paper explores new mechanisms to fund long-term care using housing wealth. Using data from an online experimental survey fielded to a sample of 1,200 Chinese homeowners aged 45-64, we assess the potential demand for new financial products that allow individuals to access their housing wealth to buy long-term care insurance. We find that access to housing wealth increases the stated demand for long-term care insurance. When they could only use savings, participants used on average 5% of their total (hypothetical) wealth to purchase long-term care insurance. When they could use savings and a reverse mortgage, participants used 15% of …


Barker’S Hypothesis Among The Global Poor: Positive Long-Term Cardiovascular Effects Of In-Utero Famine Exposure, Alberto Ciancio, Jere R. Behrman, Fabrice Kämpfen, Iliana V. Kohler, Jürgen Maurer, Victor Mwapasa, Hans-Peter Kohler 2022 University of Glasgow

Barker’S Hypothesis Among The Global Poor: Positive Long-Term Cardiovascular Effects Of In-Utero Famine Exposure, Alberto Ciancio, Jere R. Behrman, Fabrice Kämpfen, Iliana V. Kohler, Jürgen Maurer, Victor Mwapasa, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

An influential literature on the Barker's hypothesis (or the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, DOHaD) has documented that poor conditions in utero lead to higher risk of hypertension, diabetes, stroke and heart disease in middle age in middle- and high-income contexts. One of the main explanations is that periods of high calorie intake after birth are inconsistent with the adaptations that the fetus makes to prepare for a poor resources environment (thrifty phenotype hypothesis). Using data from a persistently low-income country, Malawi, we find that individuals exposed in utero to a substantial famine in 1949, have lower levels of …


Changing Age Segregation In The Us: 1990 To 2010, Debasree Das Gupta, David W. S. Wong 2022 Utah State University

Changing Age Segregation In The Us: 1990 To 2010, Debasree Das Gupta, David W. S. Wong

Kinesiology and Health Science Faculty Publications

Age segregation adversely impacts health and wellbeing. Prior studies, although limited, report increasing age segregation of the US. However, these studies are dated, do not comprehensively examine the spatiotemporal patterns and the correlates of intergenerational segregation, or suffer from methodological limitations. To address these gaps, we assess the spatiotemporal patterns of age segregation between 1990 and 2010 using census-tract data to compute the dissimilarity index (D) at the national, state, and county levels. Results contradict previous findings providing robust evidence of decreasing age segregation for most parts of the country and across geographical levels. We also examine factors explaining adult-older …


Urban Pastures: A Computational Approach To Identify The Barriers Of Segregation, Noah Gans 2022 Bowdoin College

Urban Pastures: A Computational Approach To Identify The Barriers Of Segregation, Noah Gans

Honors Projects

Urban Sociology is concerned with identifying the relationship between the built environment and the organization of residents. In recent years, computational methods have offered new techniques to measure segregation, including using road networks to measure marginalized communities' institutional and social isolation. This paper contributes to existing computational and urban inequality scholarship by exploring how the ease of mobility along city roads determines community barriers in Atlanta, GA. I use graph partitioning to separate Atlanta’s road network into isolated chunks of intersections and residential roads, which I call urban pastures. Urban pastures are social communities contained to residential road networks because …


The Isolated As The Revolutionary: How “Leftover” Men In China Challenge Heteronormativity, Ruwen Chang 2022 University of Kentucky

The Isolated As The Revolutionary: How “Leftover” Men In China Challenge Heteronormativity, Ruwen Chang

Theses and Dissertations--Gender and Women's Studies

In contemporary China, demographers estimate that 30 million men are single because there are simply not enough women in the Chinese population, and the 2020 Chinese census shows that there are 34.9 million more men than women. These men are called guanggun, which can be directly translated to “bare sticks/branches,” a slur that indicates a lack of marriage and sex. In this project, I demonstrate that guanggun’s singlehood marks them as the marginalized at the intersection of heteronormativity, patriarchy, globalizing capitalism, and pronatalist governmentality. In a highly heteronormative and patrilineal culture, guanggun are branded as abnormal/incomplete. However, because …


The Influence Of Sociopolitical Factors On Adolescents’ And Youths’ Development, Banafsheh aghayeeabianeh 2022 University of Kentucky

The Influence Of Sociopolitical Factors On Adolescents’ And Youths’ Development, Banafsheh Aghayeeabianeh

Theses and Dissertations--Family Sciences

Youths and adolescents are one of the major perpetrators of antisocial and deviant behaviors, which have deleterious consequences for both the perpetrators and society. Although there is extensive literature on youth and adolescent antisocial behavior, some correlates of youth antisociality are not known yet. As such, the present study is devoted to understanding the micro- and macro-level predictors of youth and adolescents’ antisociality in three contexts. Three empirical studies applying bioecological systems theory and analyzing data from the International Dating Violence database using Mixed Effects Models were conducted to investigate the ecology of the development of antisocial behaviors among youth. …


Asian Americans In Massachusetts Including Boston And Other Selected Cities: Data From The 2020 Decennial Census And American Community Survey, Shauna Lo 2022 University of Massachusetts Boston

Asian Americans In Massachusetts Including Boston And Other Selected Cities: Data From The 2020 Decennial Census And American Community Survey, Shauna Lo

Institute for Asian American Studies Publications

The data in this report are drawn from multiple U.S. Census Bureau datasets: the 2020 Decennial Census, the 2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, the 2015–2019 American Community Survey 5-year Estimates, and the 2015-2019 American Community Survey 5-Year Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS). Note that data from different datasets are not directly comparable. The dataset used for each table and chart is indicated.

Limited data was available from the 2020 Decennial Census at the time of publication.

Population data in this report may be for racial groups “alone” (one race only) or “alone or in combination” (one or more races), …


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