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How Major Risk Factors Influence Mortality Trends In The National Health Interview Survey, Samuel Preston, Yana Vierboom 2022 University of Pennsylvania

How Major Risk Factors Influence Mortality Trends In The National Health Interview Survey, Samuel Preston, Yana Vierboom

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

This paper estimates the contribution of changes in major risk factors to mortality trends in the United States during the period 1997-2015. The risk factors investigated include cigarette smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, educational attainment, health insurance coverage, and mental distress. It uses National Health Interview Surveys followed into death records to investigate the relationship between mortality and risk factors and to identify changes in the prevalence of the risk factors over the period of observation. All models control for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. It concludes that increases in educational attainment and reductions in smoking prevalence are the most important contributors …


Change In Subjective Well-Being, Affluence And Trust In State Governments In India, Vani S. Kulkarni, Veena S. Kulkarni, Katsushi Imai, Raghav Gaiha 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Change In Subjective Well-Being, Affluence And Trust In State Governments In India, Vani S. Kulkarni, Veena S. Kulkarni, Katsushi Imai, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

The present study explores the relationship between trust in state governments and changes in subjective well-being in India, drawing upon the nationally-representative India Human Development Survey (IHDS) panel data for 2005 and 2012. Our econometric results confirm that people’s trust in state governments is positively associated with changes in their subjective well-being in economic aspects. To take into account the endogeneity of people’s trust in the state government, we have used the 2SLS model where the trust is instrumented by (i) whether the winning legislators belonged to the ruling party, and (ii) whether the margin of victory over the closest …


Were Latinos Undercounted In The 2020 Census? An Assessment Of Latino Demographic Data From 2010 Through 2020, Laird W. Bergad 2022 Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Were Latinos Undercounted In The 2020 Census? An Assessment Of Latino Demographic Data From 2010 Through 2020, Laird W. Bergad

Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Introduction:

This report examines makes estimates about the Latino Population for 2020—in the United States, Los Angeles, New York City, Miami, and Houston—that differ dramatically from those published by the Census Bureau.

Methods:

This report uses population growth rates calculated from the raw data found in the American Community Survey (ACS) five-year files for each year between 2010 and 2019 and 2015 to 2019 to project ‘assumed’ population totals for 2020. It uses the American Community Survey PUMS (Public Use Microdata Series) data for all years released by the Census Bureau and reorganized for public use by the Minnesota Population …


江門市居家養老研究報告 = A Research Report On Ageing In Place In Jiangmen City, 嶺南大學-五邑大學居家養老聯合研究創新中心 2022 Lingnan University

江門市居家養老研究報告 = A Research Report On Ageing In Place In Jiangmen City, 嶺南大學-五邑大學居家養老聯合研究創新中心

APIAS Research Report 研究報告

本研究旨在瞭解江門市”社區居家養老”的狀況及需求,以便當局制定服務,讓長者能在自己最熟悉的地方養老。

硏究採用「量性研究」(Quantitative research method) 的方法,以問卷收集了482位居住在江門市城市、鄉鎮和農村60歲或以上長者的個人狀況和對居家養老的意見。

硏究發現8成以上長者偏好在家養老及覺得其現在居所環境適合養老,但超過一半長者居所的安全性成疑,這包括居所存在鼠患蟲患、住屋光線不足和缺乏維修等。另外,有大約3成認爲社區設施便利性有待提升。

在社交支持方面,超過8成老年人擁有良好的社交支持網絡,出入醫療場所和在生活上遇到難題時能獲得幫忙;少部分無法尋求任何幫助。值得注意的是,尋求正式機構協助的長者不多。

在財務狀況方面,約6成長者主要收入來源為退休金,另外少於半數老年人依靠兒女資助。有部分受訪者依賴存款,政府補貼和勞動收入。受訪者月收入偏低,以1000~4000元爲主,部分沒有任何收人。被訪者的醫療保險覆蓋率接近9成,約有2成人對承擔醫療費用感到吃力。

參與是次研究的受訪者普遍身體狀況和自理能力良好,7成以上滿意當前生活狀態 (包括居所狀況、社會支持、居家安老安排、社區設施及其生活條件),認爲目前條件能支持他們居家養老。

本研究提出五大建議。第一,雖然目前大部分受訪者滿意當前生活狀態,居家養老服務供給水平仍有改進空間。為應付老年人口急增,政府應加速發展養老業。第二,社區和居家環境需配合長者的身體機能和需要,進行適老化改造,以支持他們在家養老。第三,爲減輕長者醫療費用的負擔,建議政府篩查符合救助標準的長者,提高老年人醫療補貼。第四,為了讓更多老年人能在社區組織中獲得適切的正式服務支持,政府應加大服務購買力度,增加服務名額同時提升服務質素。第五,子女對年長父母的陪伴和依靠是不能缺乏的,但部分子女沒有很好地履行贍養義務。爲增加子女對年老父母的照顧力度,政府應從教育、媒體方面營造社會尊老敬老氛圍。


Growing Racial Diversity In Rural America: Results From The 2020 Census, Kenneth M. Johnson, Daniel Lichter 2022 University of New Hampshire

Growing Racial Diversity In Rural America: Results From The 2020 Census, Kenneth M. Johnson, Daniel Lichter

The Carsey School of Public Policy at the Scholars' Repository

In this brief, authors Kenneth Johnson and Daniel Lichter report that although population declines were widespread between 2010 and 2020, rural America became more racially and ethnically diverse. In part, the recent uptick in racial diversity in rural America is a consequence of White population decline.

Rural America remains predominately non-Hispanic White with 35 million White residents constituting 76 percent of the rural population according to the 2020 Census. This represents a decline from 79.8 percent in 2010. The number of rural residents who are members of a racial or ethnic minority increased to 11 million between 2010 and 2020, …


Does Schooling Improve Cognitive Abilities At Older Ages: Causal Evidence From Nonparametric Bounds, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Jason M. Fletcher, Carlos A. Flores, Alfonso Flores-Lagunes, Hans-Peter Kohler 2022 Central Michigan University

Does Schooling Improve Cognitive Abilities At Older Ages: Causal Evidence From Nonparametric Bounds, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Jason M. Fletcher, Carlos A. Flores, Alfonso Flores-Lagunes, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

We revisit the much-investigated relationship between schooling and health, focusing on cognitive abilities at older ages using the Harmonized Cognition Assessment Protocol in the Health & Retirement Study. To address endogeneity concerns, we employ a nonparametric partial identification approach that provides bounds on the population average treatment effect using a monotone instrumental variable together with relatively weak monotonicity assumptions on treatment selection and response. The bounds indicate potentially large effects of increasing schooling from primary to secondary but are also consistent with small and null effects. We find evidence for a causal effect of increasing schooling from secondary to tertiary …


Marriage Change And Fertility Decline In Sub-Saharan Africa, 1991-2019, Monica J. Grant, Hans-Peter Kohler 2022 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Marriage Change And Fertility Decline In Sub-Saharan Africa, 1991-2019, Monica J. Grant, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

The institutions of marriage and the family have undergone profound changes over recent decades in sub-Saharan Africa, following differentiated paths across and within countries. These changes, however, have not been systematically related to variation in fertility and its decline over time. We use Demographic and Health Survey data from 29 countries in sub-Saharan Africa to examine how nuptiality patterns have changed over the period 1991-2019, and how these changes are associated with changes in the total fertility rate and ideal family size. Using multi-level linear models, we find that our four marriage indicators are all significantly associated with the total …


Change In Subjective Well-Being, Affluence And Trust In Judiciary In India, Vani S. Kulkarni, Veena S. Kulkarni, Katsushi S. Imai, Raghav Gaiha 2022 University of Pennsylvania

Change In Subjective Well-Being, Affluence And Trust In Judiciary In India, Vani S. Kulkarni, Veena S. Kulkarni, Katsushi S. Imai, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

The present study tests the hypothesis that trust in the lower judiciary in India - comprising High Courts at the state level and District Courts at the lower level - is associated with improvement in subjective economic well-being. The analysis is based on the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) 1 and 2 in 2005 and 2012, a large nationally representative household panel dataset. Using 2SLS and Lewbel IV models to take into account the endogeneity of trust in the lower judiciary, our analysis confirms that trust in the lower judiciary has a positive association with the change in SWB. The …


Interrogating Race And Place-Based Inequities In Hiv And Covid-19, Rohan Khazanchi 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Interrogating Race And Place-Based Inequities In Hiv And Covid-19, Rohan Khazanchi

MD Honors Theses

Over the last four years, I have developed a research focus examining the intersections of race, place, and health. My M.D. Honors Thesis reflects a snapshot of these efforts. In this collection of brief research reports, I leverage area-based measures to investigate structural inequities in three contexts: the HIV epidemic in our hyperlocal community, the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, and clinical trials for novel COVID-19 therapeutics. I apply novel social epidemiologic tools to measure and explore disparate outcomes. And, in reflecting upon my findings, I discuss concrete implications for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers alike.

Chapter 1: Neighborhood-Level Deprivation …


Population Aging And Healthcare Costs In China And Japan, Sean Brown 2022 University of Mississippi

Population Aging And Healthcare Costs In China And Japan, Sean Brown

Honors Theses

This study focuses on the natural demographic phenomenon known as population aging and its intersection with healthcare expenditures. Healthcare spending can be a major burden on a country’s economy, so it is important to accurately assess the connection between these two factors. Population aging occurs when countries reach a point in their demographic transitions characterized by declining total fertility rates and high life expectancy. This natural but undesirable position has implications for virtually all aspects of society, and all countries are trending towards aging. This study examines the cases of China and Japan in an effort to assess the validity …


Consumption, Nicotine Dependence And Motivation For Smoke Cessation During Early Stages Of Covid-19 Pandemic In Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira Freire, Bruna A.S. Medina, Marceli R. Leite, Tainá O. Lopes, Ester T. Santos, Milena M. Ferreira, Bruna S.A. Silva, Margaret A. Cavalcante, Francis L. Pacagnelli 2022 Central Washington University

Consumption, Nicotine Dependence And Motivation For Smoke Cessation During Early Stages Of Covid-19 Pandemic In Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira Freire, Bruna A.S. Medina, Marceli R. Leite, Tainá O. Lopes, Ester T. Santos, Milena M. Ferreira, Bruna S.A. Silva, Margaret A. Cavalcante, Francis L. Pacagnelli

All Faculty Scholarship for the College of Education and Professional Studies

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic may have changed smoking habits. For the smoking population, information regarding smoking habits and the pandemic could potentially aid COVID-19 prevention and control measures. Our study aimed to analyze the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on tobacco consumption, nicotine dependence levels, and motivation for smoking cessation. We also collected information from smokers regarding their awareness of the consequences of tobacco use and the increased risks smokers have for severe complications from COVID-19.

Methods: In the survey for this observational cross-sectional study, 122 smokers responded to an online form. The participants provided general data about their smoking …


Social Infrastructure (“Third Places”) Is Not Distributed Equally Across The U.S., Danielle Rhubart, Yue Sun, Claire Pendergrast, Shannon M. Monnat 2022 The Pennsylvania State University

Social Infrastructure (“Third Places”) Is Not Distributed Equally Across The U.S., Danielle Rhubart, Yue Sun, Claire Pendergrast, Shannon M. Monnat

Population Health Research Brief Series

Third places are the physical spaces in a community where people can gather to connect and share resources, support, and information. They can help support health because they promote social interaction, community trust, and resource and information sharing. This data slice shows that third places are not evenly distributed across the U.S. Results show less availability of third places per capita in neighborhoods (Census tracts) with larger shares of non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics and larger shares of residents in poverty. The authors also found that third places are in shorter supply in rural neighborhoods than in urban neighborhoods, with the …


Socioeconomic Landscape Restructuring Caused By Property Appreciation Rates, Abner Garcia 2022 California State University, San Bernardino

Socioeconomic Landscape Restructuring Caused By Property Appreciation Rates, Abner Garcia

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Real estate property has historically been considered the bedrock of the American Dream and a primary method used to build wealth. However, homeownership has not been attainable for many people because property appreciation rates have consistently exceeded income growth. Available research indicates that rapid appreciation rates pressure low to average income earners out of their counties of residence towards more affordable counties’ residencies. This creates a problem where the receiving counties have increased demand and prices which starts a cycle of migration for lower income populations. Shifting populations can change the economic and demographic characteristics of counties. Previous research that …


Perceived Covid-19 Threat Across The Intersections Of Age, Race/Ethnicity, And Gender, Christina Varghese 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Perceived Covid-19 Threat Across The Intersections Of Age, Race/Ethnicity, And Gender, Christina Varghese

Sociology and Criminology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Studying how perceived threat of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) differs across intersections of age and race/ethnicity as well as age and gender will create a basis for identifying subgroups at greater risk of negative mental health outcomes. I analyzed nationally representative survey data collected in February 2021 from the Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel (N=9,069). To measure perceived threat, the respondents were asked whether COVID-19 is considered 0) no threat, minor threat, or 1) major threat for personal and population health. Race/ethnicity, gender, and age categories are used as independent variables. Results from logistic regression models indicate that …


The Great Resignation: A Content Analysis Of News Sources' Portrayals Of The Covid-19 Labor Shortage., Mackenzie Williams 2022 University of Louisville

The Great Resignation: A Content Analysis Of News Sources' Portrayals Of The Covid-19 Labor Shortage., Mackenzie Williams

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

When workers left the labor market in large numbers during the COVID-19 pandemic, proclamations of a labor shortage emerged extensively throughout the news. In this study, I analyze the coverage of the worker shortage among three news sources with different political orientations. Several themes emerged from analyzing a total of 75 articles. The findings showed that the perspective shown in the article, the cause of the labor shortage, restaurant worker portrayal, support of solutions, and opinion of the labor shortage all differed based on the political identity of the news source. This research supports previous findings that show there is …


Racial And Ethnic Composition Among Latinos In The United States (1990-2017), Sebastian F. Villamizar-Santamaría 2022 Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Racial And Ethnic Composition Among Latinos In The United States (1990-2017), Sebastian F. Villamizar-Santamaría

Center for Latin American, Caribbean, and Latino Studies

Introduction:

This report examines the socioeconomic trends and differences among not only the four major racial and ethnic groups in the country (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Latinos, and Asians) but also within the Latino population from 1990 to 2017.

Methods:

This report uses the American Community Survey PUMS (Public Use Microdata Series) data for all years released by the Census Bureau and reorganized for public use by the Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota, IPUMSusa, (https://usa.ipums.org/usa/index.shtml). See Public Use Microdata Series Steven Ruggles, J. Trent Alexander, Katie Genadek, Ronald Goeken, Matthew B. Schroeder, and Matthew Sobek. Integrated Public Use Microdata …


Underutilizaiton Of Mental Health Services By Marginalized Populations, Jermaine Bennett, Anna Blum 2022 California State University - San Bernardino

Underutilizaiton Of Mental Health Services By Marginalized Populations, Jermaine Bennett, Anna Blum

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Underutilization of mental health services is a serious issue in the United States, particularly among marginalized groups. Previous research has not explored this issue in depth in the Inland Empire nor focused simultaneously on the federal protected classes of race, age, gender, and sexual orientation. This study expands the literature by using Systems Theory and Intersectional Perspective to determine whether there exists a difference in utilization of mental health services between marginalized populations and their non-marginalized counterparts in San Bernardino County. Through a non-probability sampling method, this study recruited 87 adults who completed a questionnaire on their participation in mental …


The Role Of Homeownership In Taiwan's Low Fertility Story, William Anderson 2022 Wiilliam & Mary

The Role Of Homeownership In Taiwan's Low Fertility Story, William Anderson

Undergraduate Honors Theses

With one of the lowest fertility rates on record, Taiwan is at the forefront of the global lowest-low fertility phenomenon. Policymakers in Taiwan and researchers around the world have a considerable interest in the reasons driving Taiwan’s depressed fertility and possible ways to alleviate the associated economic concerns. Properties of the housing market represent one suggested factor that may be contributing to this trend. Using individual panel data from Taiwan’s Panel Study of Family Dynamics, I test the correlation between homeownership and fertility outcomes. I find that other variables, such as marriage, age, generation, and socioeconomic status, can explain much …


Wilderness Is Not A Safe Space: How Nature Has Been Used As A Form Of Oppression Towards Black People Throughout American History, Dorothy Irrera 2022 Skidmore College

Wilderness Is Not A Safe Space: How Nature Has Been Used As A Form Of Oppression Towards Black People Throughout American History, Dorothy Irrera

English Honors Theses

This Capstone won Skidmore's Racial Justice Student Award. An analysis of literature, American history, and pop culture, Wilderness Is Not a Safe Space: How Nature Has Been Used as a Form of Oppression Towards Black People Throughout American History uses a sociological lens to approach the inherent relationship between racism and wilderness.


The Effect Of Early Cross-Race Socialization On Black Lives Matter Attitudes, Elizabeth Popovich 2022 University of Richmond

The Effect Of Early Cross-Race Socialization On Black Lives Matter Attitudes, Elizabeth Popovich

Honors Theses

The present study investigated the effect of early cross-race socialization within the family, school, and neighborhood on current support for Black Lives Matter and anti-racist attitudes. Specifically, this study will examine the variables of whether participants’ families talked about race and the diversity of schools and neighborhoods. 98 female participants, 36 male participants, and 2 n.a. participants were recruited from the University of Richmond’s Introduction to Psychology class (N= 136) and were asked to complete an anonymous survey on their attitudes regarding Black Lives Matter. Based on the results, there was no clear influence of early cross-race socialization on current …


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