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Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner 2017 Bridgewater State University

Cumulative Sexual Victimization And Mental Health Outcomes Among Incarcerated Women, Jennifer Hartsfield, Susan F. Sharp, Sonya Conner

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This research explores the relationship between three different types of self-reported sexual victimization and subsequent mental health problems in a sample of incarcerated women. Previous literature establishes a link between victimization histories and poor mental health outcomes. This study focuses on sexual victimization experienced as a child, as an adolescent and as an adult, both individually and cumulatively, in relation to entering prison with a mental health diagnosis as well as reporting current depressive symptoms while incarcerated. Each type of victimization is significantly related to both prior mental health diagnosis and current depression in prison. Furthermore, there is an additive ...


Legal Attitudes Of Immigrant Detainees, Emily Ryo 2017 University of Southern California

Legal Attitudes Of Immigrant Detainees, Emily Ryo

Emily Ryo

A substantial body of research shows that people’s legal attitudes can have wide-ranging behavioral consequences.  In this paper, I use original survey data to examine long-term immigrant detainees’ legal attitudes.  I find that the majority of detainees express a felt obligation to obey the law, and do so at a significantly higher rate than other U.S. sample populations.  I also find that the detainees’ perceived obligation to obey U.S. immigration authorities is significantly related to their evaluations of procedural justice, as measured by their assessments of fair treatment while in detention.  This finding remains robust controlling for ...


Pathways To Self-Injury: A Qualitative Exploration Of Social Psychological Processes, Thomas W. Wojciechowski 2017 University of Florida

Pathways To Self-Injury: A Qualitative Exploration Of Social Psychological Processes, Thomas W. Wojciechowski

The Qualitative Report

Self-injury is a deviant behavior often understood as the intentional infliction of harm onto one’s own body that exists absent of suicidal. This study uses a qualitative methodology to examine the etiology and perpetuation of self-injury using the terminology of relevant social-psychological theories to determine which processes best describe a causal pathway leading to self-injury and its perpetuation after the onset of the behavior. Data obtained from 16 semi-structured interviews with former and current self-injurers indicate that the processes described in general strain theory, social learning theory, and social control theory are all important for understanding the etiology and ...


Death And Destruction: Insight Into The Rhino Poaching Epidemic In South Africa, Richard Wayne Charlton 2017 Illinois State University

Death And Destruction: Insight Into The Rhino Poaching Epidemic In South Africa, Richard Wayne Charlton

Theses and Dissertations

The poaching of wildlife has been a concern to many involved in the protection of wildlife. Poaching is found throughout the world and has been around for thousands of years. In the past century, poaching has reached new heights and the concern of an extinction of a species has bought the topic of poaching to new light. Whilst poaching has been seen as a biological or conservation topic in the past, criminologists around the world have now started to delve into the topic. The poaching of wildlife and more so in recent years, rhino poaching, has been a concern in ...


Crime Stats Should Inform The Public: Trump Is Misusing Them To Scare Us Instead, Philip M. Stinson 2017 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Crime Stats Should Inform The Public: Trump Is Misusing Them To Scare Us Instead, Philip M. Stinson

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Undocumented Fears: Immigration And The Politics Of Divide And Conquer In Hazleton, Pennsylvania, Jamie Longazel 2017 University of Dayton

Undocumented Fears: Immigration And The Politics Of Divide And Conquer In Hazleton, Pennsylvania, Jamie Longazel

Jamie Longazel

The Illegal Immigration Relief Act (IIRA), passed in the small rust-belt city of Hazleton, Pennsylvania, in 2006, was a local ordinance that laid out penalties for renting to or hiring undocumented immigrants and declared English the city’s official language. The notorious IIRA gained national prominence and kicked off a parade of local and state-level legislative initiatives designed to crack down on undocumented immigrants.

In Undocumented Fears, Jamie Longazel uses the debate around Hazleton’s controversial ordinance as a case study that reveals the mechanics of contemporary divide-and-conquer politics. He shows how neoliberal ideology, misconceptions about Latina/o immigrants, and ...


An Exploration Of Gender Differences In Higher Risk Young Offenders: Implications For Assessment And Service Delivery, Jordyn G. Webb 2017 The University of Western Ontario

An Exploration Of Gender Differences In Higher Risk Young Offenders: Implications For Assessment And Service Delivery, Jordyn G. Webb

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Current research examining services for male and female youth in the criminal justice system has focused primarily on males and then generalizes findings to reflect the needs of females. However, more recent literature has identified critical differences between males and females involved in the youth criminal justice system, recognizing that females have unique concerns that need to be reflected in services and interventions. This study examined 277 high-risk, violent and chronic offending youth referred to an urban-based court clinic between the years 2010-2015. The youths' files contained information related to psychological functioning, family history, and information related to outside agencies ...


Doing Sustainable Trauma Research, Michael Salter 2017 Western Sydney University, School of Social Sciences and Psychology

Doing Sustainable Trauma Research, Michael Salter

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article reflects on the lessons that I’ve learnt on how to make trauma-intensive research a sustainable professional practice. I draw on my own experiences and emphasise, firstly, the development of a reliable ethical framework for trauma research, and, secondly, key aspects of self-care that can be woven into trauma research to ensure that the work enriches rather than defeats us.


How Should Justice Policy Treat Young Offenders?, B J. Casey, Richard J. Bonnie, Andre Davis, David L. Faigman, Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, Read Montague, Stephen J. Morse, Marcus E. Raichle, Jennifer A. Richeson, Elizabeth S. Scott, Laurence Steinberg, Kim A. Taylor-Thompson, Anthony D. Wagner 2017 Yale University - Department of Psychology

How Should Justice Policy Treat Young Offenders?, B J. Casey, Richard J. Bonnie, Andre Davis, David L. Faigman, Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, Read Montague, Stephen J. Morse, Marcus E. Raichle, Jennifer A. Richeson, Elizabeth S. Scott, Laurence Steinberg, Kim A. Taylor-Thompson, Anthony D. Wagner

Faculty Scholarship

The justice system in the United States has long recognized that juvenile offenders are not the same as adults, and has tried to incorporate those differences into law and policy. But only in recent decades have behavioral scientists and neuroscientists, along with policymakers, looked rigorously at developmental differences, seeking answers to two overarching questions: Are young offenders, purely by virtue of their immaturity, different from older individuals who commit crimes? And, if they are, how should justice policy take this into account?

A growing body of research on adolescent development now confirms that teenagers are indeed inherently different from adults ...


The Fear Factor: Exploring The Impact Of The Vulnerability To Deportation On Immigrants' Lives, Shirley P. Leyro 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Fear Factor: Exploring The Impact Of The Vulnerability To Deportation On Immigrants' Lives, Shirley P. Leyro

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This qualitative study explores the impact that the fear of deportation has on the lives of noncitizen immigrants. More broadly, it explores the role that immigration enforcement, specifically deportation, plays in disrupting the process of integration, and the possible implications of this interruption for immigrants and their communities. The study aims to answer: (1) how vulnerability to deportation specifically impacts an immigrant’s life, and (2) how the vulnerability to deportation, and the fear associated with it, impacts an immigrant’s degree of integration. Data were gathered through a combination of six open-ended focus group interviews of 10 persons each ...


Local Immigration Enforcement Entrepreneurship In The Punishment Marketplace, Daniel L. Stageman 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Local Immigration Enforcement Entrepreneurship In The Punishment Marketplace, Daniel L. Stageman

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The contemporary neoliberal economic order plays a significant role in American social organization and policy-making. Most importantly, neoliberal ideology drives the creation and imposition of markets in public goods and services and the valorization of free market ideology in cultural life. The neoliberal ‘project of inequality’ is in turn delimited and upheld by an authoritarian system of punishment built around mass incarceration, surveillance, and an unprecedented level of social control directed at the lowest strata of American society – a group that includes both the urban underclass, and unauthorized immigrants.

This study lays out the theory of the punishment marketplace: a ...


Should We Talk?: Examining Individual And Aggregate Level Predictors Of Mediation Selection At The New York City Civilian Complaint Review Board, Cynthia-Lee Williams 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Should We Talk?: Examining Individual And Aggregate Level Predictors Of Mediation Selection At The New York City Civilian Complaint Review Board, Cynthia-Lee Williams

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Currently, there are few studies that examine mediation programs within civilian complaint review boards. Research that analyzes these programs mainly focus on the degree of citizen satisfaction. This study adds to existing research by examining possible individual and aggregate-level characteristics linked to mediation selection. Specifically, this study considers the long standing tensions shared between the police and certain groups (e.g. minorities, youths, and residents of disadvantaged communities), and attempts to uncover which groups are more or less likely to meet with officers to resolve police complaints. The data (obtained by the CCRB and US Census 2010) allows for the ...


Ideology, Race, And The Death Penalty: "Lies, Damn Lies, And Statistics" In Advocacy Research, Anthony Walsh, Virginia Hatch 2017 Boise State University

Ideology, Race, And The Death Penalty: "Lies, Damn Lies, And Statistics" In Advocacy Research, Anthony Walsh, Virginia Hatch

Journal of Ideology

We use the literature on race in death penalty to illustrate the hold that ideology has on researchers and journalists alike when a social issue is charged with emotional content. We note particularly how statistical evidence become misinterpreted in ways that support a particular ideology, either because of innumeracy or because—subconsciously or otherwise—one’s ideology precludes a critical analysis. We note that because white defendants are now proportionately more likely to receive the death penalty and to be executed than black defendants that the argument has shifted from a defendant-based to a victim-based one. We examine studies based ...


Sex Trafficking Of Minors In New York State, Porsche Taylor 2017 The College at Brockport

Sex Trafficking Of Minors In New York State, Porsche Taylor

Senior Honors Theses

Sex trafficking is a topic that has been vaguely discussed by many researchers over the years. Although sex trafficking is becoming more common (Kortla, 2010), many people are unaware of how easy it is for children to become victims. This research will look at how children get caught and lured into the sex industry. It will also touch on the factors that play a role in increasing the likelihood of these children becoming sex trafficking victims. Although there are some programs available to help child victims recover from this lifestyle, there are many other programs being worked on that could ...


Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael 2017 CUNY Graduate Center

Cognitive Sociology, Michael W. Raphael

Publications and Research

Cognitive sociology is the study of the conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification. Cognitive sociology traces its origins to writings in the sociology of knowledge, sociology of culture, cognitive and cultural anthropology, and more recently, work done in cultural sociology and cognitive science. Its central questions revolve around locating these processes of reification since the locus of cognition is highly contentious. Researchers consider how individuality is related to notions of society (structures, institutions, systems, etc.) and notions of culture (cultural forms, cultural structures, sub-cultures, etc.). These questions further explore how these answers depend on learning processes ...


The Uncatchable Crook: Pursuing Effective State Crime Control, Daniel J. Patten 2017 Western Michigan University

The Uncatchable Crook: Pursuing Effective State Crime Control, Daniel J. Patten

The Hilltop Review

This article investigates an interesting conundrum of addressing crime when the state commits a crime itself, and most often is the primary apparatus of crime control. Even more difficult in pursuing state crime control, the state typically plays a major role in defining crime. Criminologists commonly suggest state sanctions to address crime, and states to sanctions other states for their crimes. However, such an approach struggles when faced with the punishment of a powerful state’s criminal actions such as the United States. After laying out the controversy at the heart of controlling state crimes, several criminological theories traditionally employed ...


Health And Safety Overregulation, Michael Lewyn 2017 Touro Law Center

Health And Safety Overregulation, Michael Lewyn

Michael E Lewyn

Anti-jaywalking laws are designed to protect the safety of pedestrians. Similarly, police and child protection officials punish parents who allow their children to walk to school, in the name of child safety. This speech criticizes these policies and their justifications.


Jailhouse Informants In Canadian Criminal Courts, Olena Beshley 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

Jailhouse Informants In Canadian Criminal Courts, Olena Beshley

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Criminal justice systems in Canada and around the world have been established to deal with matters that require attention, punishment, and justice. An important function of criminal justice systems is the evaluation of evidence presented in the court of law. Evidence from jailhouse informants who testify that they have been privy to confessions of crimes is a contentious issue. Much of the scholarly literature available to date on wrongful conviction cases focuses on causes of insufficient and unreliable evidence obtained through different techniques and from different sources. Despite the high number of investigations into wrongful conviction cases, the subject of ...


Socioeconomic Status, Academic Success, And Relationship With Parent/Guardian: Contributions To Marijuana Use In Teens, Justin Hamas 2017 The University of Akron

Socioeconomic Status, Academic Success, And Relationship With Parent/Guardian: Contributions To Marijuana Use In Teens, Justin Hamas

Honors Research Projects

As illicit drug use has steadily increased over the last decade, marijuana use has become much more prevalent among a variety of age groups. According to the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 8.6 million adolescents and young adults (age 12-25) use marijuana. This is significant as prior studies have found that marijuana use has damaging effects on the brain, especially teens whose brains are still developing. In order to gain a better understanding as to why individuals engage in marijuana use and how it may act as a coping mechanism, this study looks at how sources ...


The Impact Of Court Ordered Sobriety: A Test Of Labeling Theory, Monica B. Andress 2017 The University of Akron

The Impact Of Court Ordered Sobriety: A Test Of Labeling Theory, Monica B. Andress

Honors Research Projects

Alcohol is a common thread in the fabric of American culture. This ever-expanding industry continues to benefit the economy, however the success is not without a cost to communities across in the United States as alcohol is a leading contributor to criminal activity. Laws related to crimes in which alcohol is a driving factor have evolved in recent years which has inspired the development of new tools available to assist in reducing alcohol use and abuse. One such tool, which was developed in the 1990s and is now used by the criminal justice system across the country, is the Secured ...


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