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Understanding Micro-Spatial Crime Patterns: A Comprehensive Trajectory Analysis Of Violent Crime At Street Segments In St. Louis, Mo, Aaron Levin 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Understanding Micro-Spatial Crime Patterns: A Comprehensive Trajectory Analysis Of Violent Crime At Street Segments In St. Louis, Mo, Aaron Levin

Dissertations

Spatial crime studies have existed for over a century, but the last 20 years have seen a turn in focus toward micro-spatial units such as street blocks and street segments. A particular subfield of this modern micro-spatial perspective is called crime trajectory analysis, which can isolate patterns of crime at small spatial units over time. Though several crime trajectory analyses have been conducted for coastal cities, the technique has never been applied to Midwestern data. This project fills that research gap by using the group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) algorithm to uncover patterns of violent crime at street segments in St ...


A General Mitigation For Disturbance-Driven Crimes?: Psychic State, Personal Choice, And Normative Inquiries, Paul H. Robinson 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

A General Mitigation For Disturbance-Driven Crimes?: Psychic State, Personal Choice, And Normative Inquiries, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

It is argued here that the narrow provoked “heat of passion” mitigation available under current law ought to be significantly expanded to include not just murder but all felonies and not just “heat of passion” but potentially all mental or emotional disturbances, whenever the offender’s situation and capacities meaningfully reduce the offender’s blameworthiness for the violation. In determining eligibility for mitigation, the jury should take into account (a) the extent to which the offender was acting under the influence of mental or emotional disturbance (the psychic state inquiry), (b) given the offender’s situation and capacities, the extent ...


Social Justice Guest Speaker Series: Does More Immigration Mean More Crime In The United States?, Ramiro Martinez Ph.D. 2018 Northeastern University

Social Justice Guest Speaker Series: Does More Immigration Mean More Crime In The United States?, Ramiro Martinez Ph.D.

Social Justice & Activism

Professor Martinez is a quantitative criminologist. Within that broad arena, his work contributes to violent crime research. His core research agenda asks how does violence vary across ecological settings, and, does violent crime and violent deaths vary across racial/ethnic and immigrant groups? In 2011, he was a recipient of American Society of Criminology DPCC’s Lifetime Achievement for outstanding scholarship in the area of race, crime, and justice. In 2007 he was a recipient of American Society of Criminology DPCC’s Coramae Richey Mann Award for outstanding scholarship in the area of race, crime, and justice. In 2006 he ...


A Bit Like Cash: Understanding Cash-For-Bitcoin Transactions Through Individual Vendors, Stephanie J. Robberson, Mark R. McCoy 2018 University of Central Oklahoma

A Bit Like Cash: Understanding Cash-For-Bitcoin Transactions Through Individual Vendors, Stephanie J. Robberson, Mark R. Mccoy

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

As technology improves and economies become more globalized, the concept of currency has evolved. Bitcoin, a cryptographic digital currency, has been embraced as a secure and convenient type of money. Due to its security and privacy for the user, Bitcoin is a good tool for conducting criminal trades. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) has regulations in place to make identification information of Bitcoin purchasers accessible to law enforcement, but enforcing these rules with cash-for-Bitcoin traders is difficult. This study surveyed cash-for-Bitcoin vendors in Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico to determine personal demographic information, knowledge of ...


Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić 2018 Utrecht University

Nineteen Minutes Of Horror: Insights From The Scorpions Execution Video, Iva Vukušić

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

After the fall of Srebrenica in summer of 1995, the Scorpions unit, dispatched to support the Bosnian Serb Army as it took over the enclave, shot six men in Trnovo. The men, three of whom were underage, were some of thousands of Bosnian Muslims that fell into the hands of Bosnian Serb troops, and that were executed in the days and weeks following July 11th. A member of the unit filmed the execution. Fragments of the video were first shown during the Slobodan Milosevic trial, and multiple times in the years after, in the courtrooms in The Hague and Belgrade ...


Bonding Images: Photography And Film As Acts Of Perpetration, Christophe Busch 2018 Kazerne Dossin: Memorial, Museum and Research Center

Bonding Images: Photography And Film As Acts Of Perpetration, Christophe Busch

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Historical and contemporary cases of collective violence show an incremental use of photography and film to capture and disseminate violent acts. Recording cruelty during conflict seems to be a highly ritualised practice that urges the question what communicative and psychological functions these acts have? Why and how does perpetrator photography shape a binding moral world that divides 'us' versus 'them'? These visualising acts are commonly seen as proof of power that desensitises the perpetrators and dehumanises the victims. This contribution focuses on the imagery of the Holocaust, looks into the functions that capturing and sharing cruelty has on the evolution ...


Delineating Victims From Perpetrators: Prosecuting Self-Produced Child Pornography In Youth Criminal Justice Systems, Bryce Westlake 2018 San Jose State University

Delineating Victims From Perpetrators: Prosecuting Self-Produced Child Pornography In Youth Criminal Justice Systems, Bryce Westlake

Faculty Publications

Video recording technology advancements and accessibility has been paralleled by a growth in self-produced child pornography (SPCP). Although social and judicial attention has been given to instances of teenage sexting, Internet-based forms of SPCP, such as webcam/website sex tourism, have almost been ignored. While some of the proposed legislation reform has referenced video-based SPCP, the majority has focused on SPCP distributed through cellular phones; excluding that which is manifested online or through entrepreneurial efforts. The purpose of this article is to introduce non-sexting SPCP, using the case study of Justin Berry (in the United States), and to propose a ...


Putting An End To The Punishment And Rehabilitation Pendulum, Cassandra Long 2018 Merrimack College

Putting An End To The Punishment And Rehabilitation Pendulum, Cassandra Long

Criminology Student Work

Over the past 30 years, the juvenile justice system can be described as a pendulum that swings between the concepts of rehabilitation and punishment. When the juvenile justice system was first created, rehabilitation and restorative justice were its primary purposes. However, over time the system has strayed from these views and has turned its focus toward punishment. The punishment focus has partially risen out of the communities’ fear of crime that has been ignited by the media concerning adolescents who are not deterred by the juvenile justice system. Nonetheless, it can be argued that the juvenile justice system should revert ...


Should Female Prostitution Be Legalized? An Opinion Survey Of Jordanian Citizens Living In The United States, Rana Q. Alzoubi 2018 Merrimack College

Should Female Prostitution Be Legalized? An Opinion Survey Of Jordanian Citizens Living In The United States, Rana Q. Alzoubi

Criminology Student Work

Prostitution is a worldwide phenomenon in which different cultures attempt to control and regulate sex work often with terrible consequences. The purpose of the current study is to examine the opinions of Jordanian citizens living in the United States concerning the legalization of prostitution. To provide a better understanding of prostitution in the Middle East, this research explores the opinions of Jordanian citizens on the legalization of prostitution in the Middle East. The research asks participants about prostitution as it relates to health, victimization, and the marginalization of prostitutes, as well as the ways in which prostitutes lack protection through ...


Student Attitudes Toward Sex Offender Policies And Laws In An Era Of High Profile Sex Crimes In The News, Amber Bennett 2018 Western Kentucky University

Student Attitudes Toward Sex Offender Policies And Laws In An Era Of High Profile Sex Crimes In The News, Amber Bennett

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

This is a study looking at the attitudes that undergraduate college students taking introductory sociology and criminology courses have toward sex offender policies and laws such as community notification, residence restrictions, and the registry system. Voluntary participants were also asked to look at the appropriateness of the punishment given to perpetrators in case studies based off real cases. Results showed that there are potential gender differences in the attitudes about appropriateness of notification and the registration of sex offenders. There were less favorable attitudes toward chemical and surgical castration. Further research should be done to look at different types of ...


Abuse Or Be Abused: Traumatic Memory, Sex Inequality, And Millennium As A Socio-Literary Device, Kate Rose 2018 Date To Tell

Abuse Or Be Abused: Traumatic Memory, Sex Inequality, And Millennium As A Socio-Literary Device, Kate Rose

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article applies the research of French psychiatrist Muriel Salmona to literary analysis of Stieg Larsson’s protagonist, Lisbeth Salander, in the Millennium trilogy (The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, 2008; The Girl Who Played with Fire, 2009; The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet’s Nest, 2010). It suggests that Larsson’s novels may be useful in raising awareness of childhood sexual abuse, through reading neglected signs linked to the neurology of traumatic memory. In the tradition of Nordic noir novels, hyperboles in Salander’s sensationalized identity serve to magnify and bring to light a misunderstood social problem. The article ...


From Ruby Ridge To Oklahoma City: The Radicalization Of Timothy Mcveigh, Allison Reese 2018 University of South Carolina - Columbia

From Ruby Ridge To Oklahoma City: The Radicalization Of Timothy Mcveigh, Allison Reese

Senior Theses

The Oklahoma City bombing on April 19, 1995 was a watershed moment in American history and indelibly changed the way Americans viewed terrorism and public safety. While the effects of the bombing are well-documented, not as much attention has been paid to the motivations of the bomber, Timothy McVeigh. He was spurred to action by the events of the Waco siege, where the FBI engaged in a 51-day standoff with the Branch Davidians, a small religious group suspected of owning illegal weapons. However, this was not the first incident that inspired his later actions. In 1992, the Weaver family entered ...


A New Mass Incarceration: Community Corrections, Carceral Geography, And Spatial Power, Iolanthe Brooks 2018 Clark University

A New Mass Incarceration: Community Corrections, Carceral Geography, And Spatial Power, Iolanthe Brooks

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

In the age of Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow (2010), promises to depopulate overcrowded American prisons, and a mainstream acknowledgement of mass incarceration, the American criminal justice system is anything but inert. Instead, modalities of punishment are shifting, particularly towards community-located corrections involving GPS surveillance. This paper seeks to examine this evolution of the carceral state through the marriage of two theoretical lenses: carceral geography and Foucauldian spatial power analysis. Carceral geography offers a theory of the embodied nuance of movement. Its work revolves around the three mobilities of the carceral system: movement to/from, within, and between ...


Report On The Legal Needs Of Impoverished Oregonians, Aaron Roussell, Wynn Strange 2018 Portland State University

Report On The Legal Needs Of Impoverished Oregonians, Aaron Roussell, Wynn Strange

Aaron Roussell

Report to the Oregon Law Foundation on the legal needs of impoverished Oregonians


Against Criminalization And Pathology: The Making Of A Black Achievement Praxis, Charles M. Green Sr. 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Against Criminalization And Pathology: The Making Of A Black Achievement Praxis, Charles M. Green Sr.

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Utilizing 29 in-depth semi-structured interviews, the life-course narratives of Black male scholars who, as victims of varying manifestations of structural violence, have “beat the odds” academically. Findings suggest that Black men and boys benefit from positive, racially-informed socialization that assists in the development of an internalized identity that (a) acts as a protective and resistant barrier against some of the impediments of institutional racism, (b) operates as a counter-criminogenic influence, and (c) facilitates educational resilience. Criminogenic Resistance Theory (C.RT) is presented as an alternative conceptualization of the process by which Black boys resist the criminogenic influences of structuralized violence.


Young And Unafraid: Queer Criminology's Unbounded Potential, Vanessa R. Panfil 2018 Old Dominion University

Young And Unafraid: Queer Criminology's Unbounded Potential, Vanessa R. Panfil

Sociology & Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Queer criminology, a fairly young subfield, deals with matters of import for sexual and gender minorities, particularly LGBTQ+ populations. Areas of interest include reducing invisibility and inequity, though these pursuits can sometimes be accompanied with potential pitfalls or unintended consequences. This article provides an overview of the goals and considerations of queer criminology, while focusing on how to cultivate queer criminology's unbounded potential to help address pressing social problems. Several global issues of immediate concern for LGBTQ+ people are identified, such as criminalization and devaluation of their lives, which has resulted in their detainment and torture, persecution when they ...


Rape Crises In Rape Cultures: Transnational Dehumanization Within Sexual Assault Response Complexes, Elizabeth Ellen Whalley 2018 University of Colorado at Boulder

Rape Crises In Rape Cultures: Transnational Dehumanization Within Sexual Assault Response Complexes, Elizabeth Ellen Whalley

Sociology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the State and cultural responses to sexual assault in two cultures: Ireland and the United States. As two former colonies of the United Kingdom, the U.S. and Ireland exemplify the complicated dynamic between post-colonial religious nationalism and sexual assault response. My data includes ethnographic research conducted over four years at two rape crisis centers (RCCs), including participant observation and sixty interviews with RCC management and advocates. I examine how governmental structures maintain economic control over anti-rape movements, which neutralizes the social threat posed by such activism. In both countries, RCC’s dependence on State complexes promotes ...


Opencrimemapping.Org: An Online Tool For Visualizing Crime, Michael Crowder, Lauren Darr, Gerardo Garza, Brent Allen 2018 Southern Methodist University

Opencrimemapping.Org: An Online Tool For Visualizing Crime, Michael Crowder, Lauren Darr, Gerardo Garza, Brent Allen

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper we present a method for creating geographic visualizations of criminal incidents using open data and open-source software. The motivation for this method is to provide law enforcement agencies (LEAs) and interested citizens an affordable and relatively easy way to start analyzing geospatial data. The National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is a national standard for LEA incident reporting going into effect for all 18,000 U.S. LEAs in 2021. This project uses the Dallas Police Department's publicly available, NIBRS-style, incident data to develop a geovisual analysis tool called opencrimemapping.org.


The Bottom Two Percent: Using Positive Psychology To Create Change Among Convicts, Katie Wittekind 2018 University of Pennsylvania

The Bottom Two Percent: Using Positive Psychology To Create Change Among Convicts, Katie Wittekind

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

We can turn convicted individuals into thriving members of the community. An empowering approach with the convicted will improve rehabilitative outcomes by creating behavior change. There exists a model that successfully rehabilitates the convicted by teaching the skills necessary to reenter society. This capstone uses the Delancey Foundation as a case study of this model. Delancey provides housing, job training, and education to convicts, addicts, and the homeless. Delancey uses social entrepreneurship and peer mentorship to empower residents. This capstone uses the research of positive psychology to demonstrate how Delancey converts takers into givers using peer mentorship, which develops the ...


Prison Officer Legitimacy, Their Exercise Of Power, And Inmate Rule Breaking, Benjamin Steiner, John Wooldredge 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Prison Officer Legitimacy, Their Exercise Of Power, And Inmate Rule Breaking, Benjamin Steiner, John Wooldredge

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Prison officers are directly responsible for transmitting penal culture and prison policy to the confined, yet few studies of officers’ impact on inmate behavior have been conducted. We examined the effect of inmates’ perceptions of officer legitimacy on rule breaking within prisons, as well as the effects of officers’ reliance on different power bases on rates of rule breaking across prisons. The findings from bi-level analyses of data from inmates and officers from 33 prisons revealed that inmates who held stronger views regarding officer legitimacy committed fewer nonviolent infractions but that perceived legitimacy did not affect the number of violent ...


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