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Typologies Of Battering: Uncovering Patterns Of Coercive Tactics Used By Abusive Men In A Mixed Methods Study, Abbie L. Tuller 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Typologies Of Battering: Uncovering Patterns Of Coercive Tactics Used By Abusive Men In A Mixed Methods Study, Abbie L. Tuller

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Coercive control provides a current day feminist understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV). Recent research has demonstrated the significance of coercive control and suggests it provides a more accurate understanding of IPV than using physical violence alone. Utilizing a feminist lens, this study’s first aim was to explore if typologies based on coercive control could be developed. The second and third aims were to explore if demographic differences and differences in masculinity exist across typologies. The final aim of this study was to continue the feminist understanding of IPV using the moral emotions of shame and guilt as an extension …


Beyond Punishment: A Critical And Interpretive Phenomenology Of Accountability, Cameron Rasmussen 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Beyond Punishment: A Critical And Interpretive Phenomenology Of Accountability, Cameron Rasmussen

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

State responses to interpersonal violence in the US have long been focused on punishment and prison. While opposition to punitive responses to interpersonal violence has been marginal, there are small but growing efforts to challenge the primacy of punishment and incarceration. In its place, different non-punitive approaches to justice have been practiced and promoted including restorative justice and transformative justice, which see accountability, not punishment, as a primary goal. Accountability has been theorized and researched largely from the perspective of survivors of harm, and there is limited research on the experiences of people who have caused harm and engaged in …


Harnessing Large Language Models To Simulate Realistic Human Responses To Social Engineering Attacks: A Case Study, Mohammad Asfour, Juan Carlos Murillo 2023 Cornell University

Harnessing Large Language Models To Simulate Realistic Human Responses To Social Engineering Attacks: A Case Study, Mohammad Asfour, Juan Carlos Murillo

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

The research publication, “Generative Agents: Interactive Simulacra of Human Behavior,” by Stanford and Google in 2023 established that large language models (LLMs) such as GPT-4 can generate interactive agents with credible and emergent human-like behaviors. However, their application in simulating human responses in cybersecurity scenarios, particularly in social engineering attacks, remains unexplored. In addressing that gap, this study explores the potential of LLMs, specifically the Open AI GPT-4 model, to simulate a broad spectrum of human responses to social engineering attacks that exploit human social behaviors, framing our primary research question: How does the simulated behavior of human targets, based …


Understanding The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Cybercrime, Katalin Parti, Thomas Dearden, Sinyong Choi 2023 Virginia Tech

Understanding The Use Of Artificial Intelligence In Cybercrime, Katalin Parti, Thomas Dearden, Sinyong Choi

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Artificial intelligence is one of the newest innovations which offenders exploit to satisfy their criminal desires. Although understanding cybercrime that is associated with this relatively new technology is essential in developing proper preventive measures, little has been done to examine this area. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the two articles featured in the special issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime, one about deepfakes in the metaverse and the other about social engineering attacks. The articles were written by the winners of the student paper competition at the 2023 International White Hat Conference.


Victimization By Deepfake In The Metaverse: Building A Practical Management Framework, Julia Stavola, Kyung-Shick Choi 2023 Boston University

Victimization By Deepfake In The Metaverse: Building A Practical Management Framework, Julia Stavola, Kyung-Shick Choi

International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime

Deepfake is digitally altered media aimed to deceive online users for political favor, monetary gain, extortion, and more. Deepfakes are the prevalent issues of impersonation, privacy, and fake news that cause substantial damage to individuals, groups, and organizations. The metaverse is an emerging 3-dimensional virtual platform led by AI and blockchain technology where users freely interact with each other. The purpose of this study is to identify the use of illicit deep fakes which can potentially contribute to cybercrime victimization in the metaverse. The data will be derived from expert interviews (n=8) and online open sources to design a framework …


Nonprofit Accountability: Effects Of Subsector On Online Accountability, Ibrahima F. Yaro, Trent A. Engbers 2023 Western Kentucky University

Nonprofit Accountability: Effects Of Subsector On Online Accountability, Ibrahima F. Yaro, Trent A. Engbers

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

Scandals within the nonprofit sector over compensation and management have increased calls for nonprofits to demonstrate accountability. Many organizations have responded by disclosing information online and providing tools that allow web-based interactions with stakeholders. The literature on nonprofits’ online accountability has found that the level of nonprofit online accountability is affected by their size, age, asset, revenue, and location, but hasn’t been examined in terms of how subsector influences online accountability. Through a web-content analysis of fifty-five nonprofits, this research investigated how subsector (arts and culture, education, health, and human services) influences online accountability using a framework of four types …


Examining Remorse In Attributions Of Focal Concerns During Sentencing: A Study Of Probation Officers, Colleen M. Berryessa 2023 Rutgers University, School of Criminal Justice

Examining Remorse In Attributions Of Focal Concerns During Sentencing: A Study Of Probation Officers, Colleen M. Berryessa

International Journal on Responsibility

This research, using interviews with probation officers in the United States (n = 151) and a constant comparative method for analysis, draws from the focal concerns framework to qualitatively model a process by which probation officers use a defendant’s remorse to attribute focal concerns in order to guide their sentencing recommendations in pre-sentencing reports. The model suggests that officers use expressions of remorse to make attributions about mitigated criminal intention (blameworthiness and notions of responsibility), reduced dangerousness and a high potential for reform (community protection), and organization-level effects for increasing caseload efficiency and using correctional resources (practical effects of …


Carceral Data: The Limits Of Transparency-As-Accountability In Prison Risk Data, Becka Hudson, Tomas Percival 2023 Birkbeck, University of London

Carceral Data: The Limits Of Transparency-As-Accountability In Prison Risk Data, Becka Hudson, Tomas Percival

Secrecy and Society

Prison data collection is a labyrinthine infrastructure. This article engages with debates around the political potentials and limitations of transparency as a form of “accountability,” specifically as it relates to carceral management and data gathering. We examine the use of OASys, a widely used risk assessment tool in the British prison system, in order to demonstrate how transparency operates as a means of legitimating prison data collection and ensuing penal management. Prisoner options to resist their file, or “data double,” in this context are considered and the decisive role of OASys as an immediately operationalized technical structure is outlined. We …


Heat Mapping Crime: A Data-Driven Approach To Policing In New York, Beruktawit Gebreamlak, Daniel Ochoa 2023 Portland State University

Heat Mapping Crime: A Data-Driven Approach To Policing In New York, Beruktawit Gebreamlak, Daniel Ochoa

altREU Projects

In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, New York City has seen a surge in criminal activities. In 2023, major crime continues to be higher compared to pre-pandemic levels. Although progress is being made to reduce the number of murders and robberies, law enforcement is continuing to struggle with increases in felony assaults and car thefts. Our project serves to benefit members of the community and law enforcement alike. We created a heat map, which is a visual representation of data that uses colors to represent different values. In the context of crime mapping, our heat map is used to …


A Call To Action: Person-Centered Care Aligned With Reproductive Justice For Incarcerated Pregnant People With Substance Use Disorder, Essence Hairston, Aunchalee El Palmquist, Andrea K. Knittel, Kevin Mensah-Biney, Crystal M. Hayes, Amelia Mack, Hendrée E. Jones 2023 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

A Call To Action: Person-Centered Care Aligned With Reproductive Justice For Incarcerated Pregnant People With Substance Use Disorder, Essence Hairston, Aunchalee El Palmquist, Andrea K. Knittel, Kevin Mensah-Biney, Crystal M. Hayes, Amelia Mack, Hendrée E. Jones

School of Social Work Faculty Publications

Although research has proven that jails and prisons are ineffective in preventing or reducing substance use among pregnant people, the USA continues to rely heavily on the criminal legal system as its intervention. Pregnant people with an opioid use disorder are more likely to experience incarceration than pregnant people without an opioid use disorder. In some states, pregnant people are transported from jail to prison through the process of safekeeping in order to receive physical or mental health care that the jail does not provide, despite conviction status. When pregnant and postpartum safekeepers with an opioid use disorder experience incarceration, …


Disparities In Extreme Contexts: The Impact Of Gender And Mental Health Status On The Criminal Justice Outcomes Of Extremists, Andrea Corradi 2023 Georgia Southern University

Disparities In Extreme Contexts: The Impact Of Gender And Mental Health Status On The Criminal Justice Outcomes Of Extremists, Andrea Corradi

Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology Faculty Publications

Purpose: While disparities in the treatment of individuals in the criminal justice system have been well-documented, due to varying political and legal contexts it is likely that disparities may differ for perpetrators of extremism. This research examines the effects of gender and mental health status on criminal justice outcomes of individuals who have been accused of committing ideologically motivated crimes in the United States. Methods: Using the Extremist Crime Database (ECDB) and logistic and ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression models, this study estimates the effects of these individual characteristics on adjudication method and sentence length, and isolates pre/post-2001 time-periods. Results: The …


Differences In Due Process During Post-Conviction: Examining Jurisdictional Influence On Exoneration, Kimberly Hawkins 2023 University of Arkansas-Fayetteville

Differences In Due Process During Post-Conviction: Examining Jurisdictional Influence On Exoneration, Kimberly Hawkins

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Research on wrongful conviction has found several factors associated with an erroneous conviction. As of yet, research has not delved into the jurisdictional effects on exoneration. Using the American State’s use of the death penalty for a proxy of punitiveness, this study will examine if there is a relationship between use of capital punishment and exoneration rates. The National Registry of Exonerations is the most comprehensive collection of exonerations to date and this secondary data source will be analyzed using logistic regression models to examine differences across policy environments. Result show that non-death penalty states have a much higher exoneration …


Segmenting The Thin Blue Line: An Ethnographic Content Analysis Of Myth And Ritual In Contemporary U.S. Police Film, Alexandra Szmutko 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Segmenting The Thin Blue Line: An Ethnographic Content Analysis Of Myth And Ritual In Contemporary U.S. Police Film, Alexandra Szmutko

Doctoral Dissertations

The continued ills of mass incarceration, combined with the more recent rash of police-caused killings of people of color, make it clear that the U.S. criminal justice system is experiencing a period of profound crisis related to policing. This dissertation aims to interrogate the cultural ideologies supporting the existing policing enterprise in the U.S. To do this, the study first examines the foundational myths that shape prevailing cultural perceptions of the police and their social role. Ethnographic content analysis methodology is then utilized to identify both the presence and the subversion of these myths and their attendant rituals in a …


Unf@Cking People’S Problems: A Theory Of Policing, Laura Huey, Stephen Johnston 2023 University of Western Ontario

Unf@Cking People’S Problems: A Theory Of Policing, Laura Huey, Stephen Johnston

Sociology Publications

One of the problems that has plagued policing researchers over the past few decades – ourselves included -- is the interminable question of ‘what do police do?’ Some ideas, tasks, roles, institutions and other social creations are easy to define. Policing has not been one of those. In part, it’s because it’s not only a descriptive problem, it’s also a normative one. Once you start to address the question of what do police do, then you also have to wrestle with the much meatier issue of ‘what do we want police to do’? In this paper, we exercise our theory …


Aotearoa New Zealand, The Forcible Transfer Of Tamariki And Rangatahi Māori, And The Royal Commission On Abuse In Care, David B. MacDonald 2023 University of Guelph

Aotearoa New Zealand, The Forcible Transfer Of Tamariki And Rangatahi Māori, And The Royal Commission On Abuse In Care, David B. Macdonald

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This article investigates to what extent the forcible transfer of tamariki and rangatahi Māori (Indigenous children and youth) in Aotearoa New Zealand can be considered genocide. First, I begin by exploring contemporary genocide theory as it relates to dolus eventualis in settler colonial contexts, before engaging with precedents for recognizing Indigenous genocides established by truth commissions in Canada (2015; 2019) and Australia (1997). I then explore the history around Indigenous child removal in Aotearoa from the onset of colonization to the present day, attentive to ways in which the UN Convention can apply to the forced removal of Māori children. …


Anonymity And Gender Effects On Online Trolling And Cybervictimization, Gang Lee, Annalyssia Soonah 2023 Kennesaw State University

Anonymity And Gender Effects On Online Trolling And Cybervictimization, Gang Lee, Annalyssia Soonah

Journal of Cybersecurity Education, Research and Practice

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the anonymity of the internet and gender differences in online trolling and cybervictimization. A sample of 151 college students attending a southeastern university completed a survey to assess their internet activities and online trolling and cybervictimization. Multivariate analyses of logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression were used to analyze online trolling and cybervictimization. The results indicated that the anonymity measure was not a significant predictor of online trolling and cybervictimization. Female students were less likely than male students to engage in online trolling, but there was no gender …


Social Spaces, Places, And Substance Use In Shaping Queer Identities, Alessandra Milagros Early 2023 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Social Spaces, Places, And Substance Use In Shaping Queer Identities, Alessandra Milagros Early

Dissertations

Research has suggested that queer people may be more likely than their cisgender heterosexual counterparts to use substances. Largely, these higher rates are commonly explained through frameworks of victimization or (ab)use that render substance use as a form of coping or inherently problematic. While some queer people do use substances to cope, the social spaces, places, and contexts in which use often occurs are often obscured or ignored. More recently, contemporary queer criminologists have explored queer substance use and have considered how it is intimately linked to social space, place, identity formation, and community building. This dissertation draws from queer …


Irish Farm Crime Survey, Nicola Hughes Dr, Matt Bowden 2023 Technological University Dublin

Irish Farm Crime Survey, Nicola Hughes Dr, Matt Bowden

Reports

No abstract provided.


The Sanctity Of Human Life: An Examination Of The Effects Of Education And Training Of Less-Lethal Force Option Devices In The Royal Thai Police, Trak Silapaduriyang 2023 DePaul University

The Sanctity Of Human Life: An Examination Of The Effects Of Education And Training Of Less-Lethal Force Option Devices In The Royal Thai Police, Trak Silapaduriyang

College of Education Theses and Dissertations

Under Article III of the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, everyone has the right to life, liberty, and security. It is the duty of law enforcement to protect and respect these rights. The Royal Thai Police (RTP) patrol officers carry firearms as lethal weapons on their duty belts, similar to police officers in the United States (US). However, firearms are the only force option available to the RTP in stark contrast to the options police officers in the US have when they encounter resistance from suspects. For the RTP, conducted energy devices (CED) and oleoresin capsicum (OC) sprays are …


A Vicious Cycle: How Racialised Moral Panics Simultaneously Reproduce (And Are Reproduced By) Repressive Policing Practices, Oscar D. Sharples 2023 University of Cambridge

A Vicious Cycle: How Racialised Moral Panics Simultaneously Reproduce (And Are Reproduced By) Repressive Policing Practices, Oscar D. Sharples

Culture, Society, and Praxis

Policing and moral panics exist in a mutually reinforcing, reciprocal relationship, the harmful outcomes of which are disproportionately directed towards poor communities of colour. This paper will draw on two examples of moral panics: those surrounding Islamic terrorism and Black crime, in order to illustrate the harm that this reinforcing relationship can cause. This harm manifests itself in increasingly restrictive antiterrorism laws, Prevent initiatives, racial profiling, and internal surveillance within the Muslim community; as well as the policies of Joint Enterprise, Knife Crime Prevention Orders (KCPOs), and the strengthening of the school-to-prison pipeline, which disproportionally target Black youth. With reference …


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