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The Effects Of Gang Membership And Transitions In A Gang On Within-Individual Changes In Offending., Leon Sergio Garduno 2022 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Gang Membership And Transitions In A Gang On Within-Individual Changes In Offending., Leon Sergio Garduno

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have established that joining a gang exposes individuals to factors and environments that promote and increase antisocial and illegal behaviors, which decrease after leaving the gang (Decker & Van Winkle, 1994; Melde & Esbensen, 2014; Thornberry, Krohn et al., 1993). Scholars, by analyzing qualitative data, bivariate statistics, and by comparing gang members with non-gang members, have found that as individuals join and leave a gang they experience changes in the frequency with which they carry firearms, sell drugs, and engage in property crimes (Bjerregaard & Lizotte, 1995; Hagedorn, 1994; Thornberry et al., 1993). Researchers also have established that within-individuals’ …


Court Actor Decision-Making: The Influence Of Victim Characteristics On Legal Outcomes In Cases Of Bias Homicide, Taylor June 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Court Actor Decision-Making: The Influence Of Victim Characteristics On Legal Outcomes In Cases Of Bias Homicide, Taylor June

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While most states in America have passed laws permitting harsher punishments for those convicted of hate (or bias) crimes, there has been no research to date on the adjudication of these defendants, including how legal and extralegal attributes of bias crime shape prosecutorial and judicial decision-making. This gap in research is likely due in part to the limitations of official data on bias crimes. Fortunately, new data on legal outcomes for bias homicide offenders who target victims because of their race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity or homed status have become available from the open-source database known as …


A Tale Of Two Gentrifications: Reconceptualizing Gentrification Using Third Places, Demolition And Hierarchical Linear Modeling, Kylil R. Martin 2022 Old Dominion University

A Tale Of Two Gentrifications: Reconceptualizing Gentrification Using Third Places, Demolition And Hierarchical Linear Modeling, Kylil R. Martin

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

A growing body of research points out that communities in the most need of assistance are often the ones established by racially biased processes and have not been invested in for generations – with little to no attention ever positively directed toward these spaces. Instead, because of policies and tactics used to label areas as problematic and divest from them, public actors are reluctant to consider the lived-lives, both good and bad, of the residents of these communities when discussing needed changes. Criminologists have long been interested in neighborhood change and its relationship with crime. There has also been theoretical …


Film Women Violence, Madison R. Ross 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Film Women Violence, Madison R. Ross

Masters Theses

As a condensed version of social reality, film has become a more common object of modern sociological and criminological investigation. As such, we can explore film to understand taken-for-granted as well as innovative constructions of social phenomena. Among these are gendered violence. We can use film to dig deep into its logics, elaborated in visual and narrative representations. Prior literature has analyzed crime films and the behavioral constructions within them, outlining the representations of serial homicide, rape, mass shootings and revenge. However, few studies have outlined films that do meaningful, non-voyeuristic representational work on the issue of violence against …


Putting The Meat In Meat-Less?: A Critical Discourse Analysis Of Corporate Marketing Of Plant-Based Products, Samantha A. McIntyre 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Putting The Meat In Meat-Less?: A Critical Discourse Analysis Of Corporate Marketing Of Plant-Based Products, Samantha A. Mcintyre

Masters Theses

The plant-based industry has sustained rapid growth within recent years due to awareness surrounding environmental harms. Due to the rise in profitability of plant-based products in the consumer market, multiple corporations have either acquired or created plant-based brands. The corporations that have done so (Tyson, Smithfield, Kellogg’s, Nestlé, and Conagra Foods) are the subjects of study for this project. These major corporations are also part of the industrial animal agriculture system, and garner profit from meat and dairy businesses. This study explores the way the marketing is embedded in ideologies of Western capitalism and patriarchy. I use critical discourse analysis …


Sexual Harassment As A Narrative Contest, Christine Vossler 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Sexual Harassment As A Narrative Contest, Christine Vossler

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examines how stories shape both the perpetration of sexual harassment and the experiences of victims during and after sexual harassment. During and after the experience of sexual harassment, a narrative contest transpires between the harasser, victim, and others who contribute to the contest by engaging in the formal and informal conversations that follow known experiences of harassment in the workplace. I analyze 22 public statements, interviews, and investigative reports, including statements from men accused of sexual harassment, women who were sexually harassed, and bystanders. A narrative framework, including concepts of narrative believability and story credibility, is used to …


The Experiences Of Sexually Abused Women With Disabilities Who Consulted Services In Zimbabwe: The Intersection Of Disability, Gender, And Poverty, Tafadzwa Oswell Rugoho, Michael Ashley Stein, Pamela Wright, Jacqueline E. W. Broerse 2022 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

The Experiences Of Sexually Abused Women With Disabilities Who Consulted Services In Zimbabwe: The Intersection Of Disability, Gender, And Poverty, Tafadzwa Oswell Rugoho, Michael Ashley Stein, Pamela Wright, Jacqueline E. W. Broerse

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Women have experienced sexual abuse, and very few of them report to the police or seek other services, such as medical attention. This study aims to gain insight into the barriers women with disabilities face when accessing police, health, and counseling services after experiencing sexual abuse. Barriers such as long distances, physical barriers at service sites, communication barriers, gender issues, lack of confidence in the service providers, and an overall lack of resources were reported. In a study undertaken in Zimbabwe, women with disabilities encountered intersecting barriers such as the intersection of disability, and gender, poverty, unemployment, and low levels …


Housing Market Conditions And Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage: Impacts On Crime Victimization In Knoxville, Tennessee, Jiayi Li 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Housing Market Conditions And Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage: Impacts On Crime Victimization In Knoxville, Tennessee, Jiayi Li

Doctoral Dissertations

Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage is a composite social factor that quantifies the quality of neighborhoods in urban areas. Criminal activity and victimization are more prevalent in disadvantaged neighborhoods. However, whether housing market factors (e.g., eviction, foreclosure, and subprime lending) represent an unrecognized dimension of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage remains unknown. I contribute to the neighborhood disadvantage literature by assessing whether three housing market factors (eviction, foreclosure, and subprime lending) are a neglected part of neighborhood concentrated disadvantaged that explains criminal activity and victimization. Furthermore, I investigate whether housing market factors mediate the relationship between concentrated disadvantage and crime. Last, using spatial analysis …


Tracking The Impact Of Covid-19 On Community-Based Intervention Programs For Justice-Involved Youth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study, Darren R. Beneby, Jonathan W. Glenn 2022 North Carolina Central University

Tracking The Impact Of Covid-19 On Community-Based Intervention Programs For Justice-Involved Youth: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study, Darren R. Beneby, Jonathan W. Glenn

Journal of Restoration, Rehabilitation, and Reentry

The aim of this study is to explore the challenges facing community-based intervention programs designed for justice-involved young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted four focus groups with practitioners working in community-based intervention programs at the onset and decline of the pandemic in the fall of 2020 and spring of 2021, respectively. The results suggest that there was ample preparation for programs earlier during the pandemic but that unforeseen challenges still arose. Moreover, the results obtained from the second round of focus groups, which coincided with the rollout of the vaccines, suggest that practitioners had to be creative to …


Criminal Justice Update - July 2022, Autumn R. Chassie 2022 Gettysburg College

Criminal Justice Update - July 2022, Autumn R. Chassie

Criminal Justice Updates

The Criminal Justice Update is a monthly newsletter created by the Adams County Bar Foundation Fellow providing updates in criminal justice policy coming from Pennsylvania's courts and legislature as well as the US Supreme Court.

Contents:

  • Updates from PA Governor's Office (No new updates this month)
  • Updates from the PA Legislature
  • Updates from the Courts
    • U.S. Supreme Court (No new updates this month)
    • PA Supreme Court
    • PA Superior Court


Let’S Work Together: Police Views On Collaborating With Recovery Coaches, Laurie T. Becker, Sean P. Varano 2022 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Let’S Work Together: Police Views On Collaborating With Recovery Coaches, Laurie T. Becker, Sean P. Varano

Journal of Restoration, Rehabilitation, and Reentry

Fighting on the front lines against the opioid crisis for over three decades now, law enforcement agencies are increasingly shifting away from a strictly enforcement-based approach in favor of a public health model focused on both prevention and intervention. Embracing this new approach, many police departments are collaborating with non-traditional law enforcement partners, such as recovery coaches. Although many police departments across the nation are currently engaging in, or strongly considering, a police-recovery coach collaboration, there is little research regarding police attitudes toward this type of partnership. Therefore, this study examines police views on incorporating recovery coaches into the police …


Incarcerated Men’S Perceptions Of The Prison Environment: An Exploratory Study, Melissa J. Stacer 2022 University of Southern Indiana

Incarcerated Men’S Perceptions Of The Prison Environment: An Exploratory Study, Melissa J. Stacer

Midwest Social Sciences Journal

The punitiveness of prisons is considered necessary for deterrence, but there is also a societal expectation that prisons will also rehabilitate. Scholars have examined whether prisons are ideal environments for rehabilitation from the perspective of the inmate, though this work largely focuses on measurement issues related to the scales used to measure offenders’ perceptions. The current research expands upon this by asking a sample of 154 incarcerated men from three different correctional facilities in the Midwestern United States what they think about their current correctional environment using the Prison Environment Scale (PES) and focusing on the answers provided by those …


Baseline Needs Assessment For A Hospital-Based Violence Intervention Program 1-Year Pilot, Nathan Foje, Ashley Ann Raposo-Hadley, Ashley Farrens, Jenny Burt, Charity H. Evans, Zachary M. Bauman, Gaylene Armstrong, Mark Foxall, Julie D. Garman 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Baseline Needs Assessment For A Hospital-Based Violence Intervention Program 1-Year Pilot, Nathan Foje, Ashley Ann Raposo-Hadley, Ashley Farrens, Jenny Burt, Charity H. Evans, Zachary M. Bauman, Gaylene Armstrong, Mark Foxall, Julie D. Garman

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

The objectives of the present study were to measure and describe the baseline participant needs of a hospital-based violence intervention 1-year pilot program, assess differences in expected hospital revenue based on changes in health insurance coverage resulting from program implementation and discuss the program’s limitations. Methods: Between September 2020 and September 2021 Encompass Omaha enrolled 36 participants. A content analysis of 1199 progress notes detailing points of contact with participants was performed to determine goal status. Goals were categorized and goal status was defined as met, in process, dropped, or participant refusal. Results: The most frequently identified needs were help …


Criminal Justice Update - June 2022, Autumn R. Chassie 2022 Gettysburg College

Criminal Justice Update - June 2022, Autumn R. Chassie

Criminal Justice Updates

The Criminal Justice Update is a monthly newsletter created by the Adams County Bar Foundation Fellow providing updates in criminal justice policy coming from Pennsylvania's courts and legislature as well as the US Supreme Court.

Contents:

  • Updates from PA Governor's Office
  • Updates from the PA Legislature
  • Updates from the Courts
    • U.S. Supreme Court
    • PA Supreme Court
    • PA Superior Court


Where Gunshots Turn Fatal: A Geographic Examination Of The Spatial Patterning Of Gun Violence, David Hatten 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Where Gunshots Turn Fatal: A Geographic Examination Of The Spatial Patterning Of Gun Violence, David Hatten

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation contributes fundamental work to the examination of gun violence through an investigation of prevalence, trends, and likely place-based dynamics that explain the spatial patterning of gun violence in Kansas City, MO over a 5-year period (2015-2019). Specifically, this dissertation assesses 1) the degree to which separate shooting typologies (fatal and non-fatal) concentrate in micro-places, 2) whether they co-locate at micro-places, and 3) the likely community characteristics and place-based dynamics that explain these observed patterns. Importantly, the role of place-based dynamics related to the post-incident operational response to gun violence is tested (e.g., a street segment’s proximity to trauma …


Tablets As A Vehicle For Imprisoned People’S Digital Connection With Loved Ones, Andrea Mufarreh 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Tablets As A Vehicle For Imprisoned People’S Digital Connection With Loved Ones, Andrea Mufarreh

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The intersection between criminal justice and technology is fairly understudied, despite increasing technological advancements in the world and within the criminal justice system. A rather recent addition to the technological landscape of prison is the adoption of tablets used by imprisoned people for communication and connection with loved ones and other activities, which is particularly important given the context of COVID-19, a virus which caused a global pandemic from 2020-2022. While the use of tablets by imprisoned people appears to be a new trend, the use of tablets in prison both prior to and during the pandemic has remained an …


Elements Of Social Disorganization And Environmental Criminology: A Spatial Analysis Of Homicides In Villa Nueva, Guatemala, David J. Topel 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Elements Of Social Disorganization And Environmental Criminology: A Spatial Analysis Of Homicides In Villa Nueva, Guatemala, David J. Topel

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study seeks to integrate the main spatial theories of crime, social disorganization, and routine activities theories while investigating the spatial dimension of homicides in Villa Nueva, Guatemala. Empirical relationships at a small unit of analysis, the natural cadaster blocks as defined by the municipality offer a more appropriate unit of analysis for the context of the city. While there is a robust body of work in developed nations synthetizing social disorganization and routine activities theories, the exploration of criminological theory integration and the use of the smallest unit of analysis still needs the addition of empirical research in Latin …


Do Body-Worn Cameras Reduce Disparities In Police Behavior In Minority Communities? Evidence Of Nuanced Influences Across Black And Hispanic Neighborhoods, Jessica Huff 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Do Body-Worn Cameras Reduce Disparities In Police Behavior In Minority Communities? Evidence Of Nuanced Influences Across Black And Hispanic Neighborhoods, Jessica Huff

Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Research Summary

The adoption of body-worn cameras (BWCs) is often promoted in response to contentious police use of force incidents involving minority civilians. BWCs are expected to improve policing outcomes by enhancing accountability, although researchers have yet to determine whether BWCs can reduce racial/ethnic disparities. I examine whether BWCs mitigate the influence of neighborhood racial/ethnic context on arrests and use of force using cross-classified logistic regression models to examine the outcomes of 900,000+ police–civilian contacts in Phoenix. Arrests were significantly more likely to occur in Hispanic and Black neighborhoods before and after BWC deployment, even accounting for situational, officer, and …


Female Sex Offenders: Double Standards, Sofia Enes 2022 Kean University

Female Sex Offenders: Double Standards, Sofia Enes

Kean Quest

This paper will discuss female pedophiles, rapists, and sex offenders, also known as female sex criminals, the double standards, of how they are viewed in the criminal justice system, how the medical fields view them, the psychological effects of their actions on their victims, and how the public views them. Unlike male pedophiles, rapists, and sex offenders of that gender; female pedophiles are not as readily identified as male pedophiles. Since female sex criminals do not always conform and fit the stereotypes that are more commonly found in male sex criminals, it is much more difficult for authorities to detain …


Data Ethics: An Investigation Of Data, Algorithms, And Practice, Gabrialla S. cockerell 2022 Seattle Pacific University

Data Ethics: An Investigation Of Data, Algorithms, And Practice, Gabrialla S. Cockerell

Honors Projects

This paper encompasses an examination of defective data collection, algorithms, and practices that continue to be cycled through society under the illusion that all information is processed uniformly, and technological innovation consistently parallels societal betterment. However, vulnerable communities, typically the impoverished and racially discriminated, get ensnared in these harmful cycles due to their disadvantages. Their hindrances are reflected in their information due to the interconnectedness of data, such as race being highly correlated to wealth, education, and location. However, their information continues to be analyzed with the same measures as populations who are not significantly affected by racial bias. Not …


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