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Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall 2018 Michigan State University

Models As Weapons: Review Of Weapons Of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality And Threatens Democracy By Cathy O’Neil (2016), Samuel L. Tunstall

Numeracy

Cathy O’Neil. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy (New York, NY: Crown) 272 pp. ISBN 978-0553418811.

Accessible to a wide readership, Cathy O’Neil’s Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy provides a lucid yet alarming account of the extensive reach of mathematical models in influencing all of our lives. With a particular eye towards social justice, O’Neil not only warns modelers to be cognizant of the effects of their work on real people—especially vulnerable groups who have less power to fight back—but also ...


High-Risk Behavior: Who's Engaging In It?, Rachel Licata 2018 Skidmore College

High-Risk Behavior: Who's Engaging In It?, Rachel Licata

Sociology Senior Seminar Papers

Why are people engaging in dangerous behaviors, putting themselves and society at risk, despite the detrimental consequences? I propose that with more years of education completed, an individual is less likely to participate in high-risk behaviors; and also, that those who lived in a two-parent household at age 16 are less likely to engage in these behaviors as well. In this research we analyze 345, unmarried respondents, from the 2004 General Social Survey, all whom have answered questions about their educational attainment, strength in religion, familial formation at age 16, employment status and age through an interview process. The data ...


Book Review: The Pimping Of Prostitution: Abolishing The Sex Work Myth By Julie Bindel, Roger Matthews 2018 The University of Kent

Book Review: The Pimping Of Prostitution: Abolishing The Sex Work Myth By Julie Bindel, Roger Matthews

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Museum Of Modern-Day Slavery: A Photo Essay, Micah Gamboa 2018 Museum of Modern-Day Slavery

Museum Of Modern-Day Slavery: A Photo Essay, Micah Gamboa

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

A photo essay from the Museum of Modern-Day Slavery in Houston, Texas, with photographs of rooms, entrances, and storage spaces in brothels following raids, including artifacts of the trade found at the scenes are documented. Photographs include brothels, bars, and strip clubs where Korean women and Mexican women were exploited. Photographs from the Mexican-American border document the violence the victims are subjected to during their journey.


Script Analysis Of Open-Air Drug Selling: A Systematic Social Observation Of Cctv Footage, Victoria A. Sytsma, Eric L. Piza 2018 Department of Sociology, Queen's University at Kingston

Script Analysis Of Open-Air Drug Selling: A Systematic Social Observation Of Cctv Footage, Victoria A. Sytsma, Eric L. Piza

Publications and Research

Objectives: Through the use of closed-circuit television (CCTV) video foo- tage, the current study builds upon the drug transaction work of Piza and Sytsma by developing a crime script for open-air drug selling.

Methods: Researchers conducted a systematic social observation of CCTV footage of open-air drug markets in Newark, NJ. The data were used to identify sequential stages of drug transactions. Fisher’s exact tests measured whether buyer and seller activities during specific acts of the drug transaction event were related to activities seen in subsequent stages.

Results: This study finds three distinct acts to open-air drug events. During the ...


Measuring The Effect Heterogeneity Of Police Enforcement Actions Across Spatial Contexts, Eric L. Piza 2018 City University of New York, John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Measuring The Effect Heterogeneity Of Police Enforcement Actions Across Spatial Contexts, Eric L. Piza

Publications and Research

Purpose: This study tests whether the effect of police actions is influenced by similar crime generators and attractors (CGAs) that influence crime. Said differently, in recognition that the presence of CGAs presents higher risk of crime at certain places, we test whether CGAs similarly create a situation where specific police enforcement actions are more effective at certain types of places than others.

Methods: Using longitudinal logistic regression models incorporating panel data, we measure the effect of various police enforcement actions on gun violence in Newark, NJ. Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) was further used to test whether the effect of the ...


The Crime Prevention Effect Of Cctv In Public Places: A Propensity Score Analysis, Eric L. Piza 2018 CUNY John Jay College

The Crime Prevention Effect Of Cctv In Public Places: A Propensity Score Analysis, Eric L. Piza

Publications and Research

This study measures the effect of CCTV in Newark, NJ across three separate crime categories: auto theft, theft from auto, and violent crime. CCTV viewsheds, denoting camera line-of-sight, were units of analysis. Viewsheds for treatment units were created by digitizing live CCTV footage within a geographic information system (GIS). Control viewsheds were created with GIS tools and aerial imagery from Google maps. Treatment cases were matched with control cases via propensity score matching (PSM) to ensure statistical equivalency between groups. Effect was measured via odds ratios and average treatment on the treated statistics. Findings offer modest support for CCTV as ...


The Effects Of Juvenile Life Sentences On Family Relationships, Antoinette Pigatt 2018 Walden University

The Effects Of Juvenile Life Sentences On Family Relationships, Antoinette Pigatt

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Juveniles serving adult sentences are separated from their families for extensive amounts of time. During incarceration, youths attempt to maintain close relationships with family members, but are faced with challenges. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore adult incarceration of youthful offenders and its effect on family relationships using Bowen's family systems theory as the theoretical foundation. Three Maryland families who have first-hand experience with the phenomenon were selected to share their stories. Through this study, to the family unit was given voice to assist understanding the experience from multiple perspectives. Interviews were conducted with each ...


Incarceration Of Nonviolent Offenders At The High Court In Oyo State, Nigeria, Olugbenga Rotimi Akanji 2018 Walden University

Incarceration Of Nonviolent Offenders At The High Court In Oyo State, Nigeria, Olugbenga Rotimi Akanji

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The nonuse of community correction in the Nigeria criminal justice system has led to increased recidivism, contributed to prison congestion, introduced the risk of prison victimization, and lacked the provision of a rehabilitative structure for nonviolent offenders. The purpose of this phenomenological research study was to explore Nigerian judges' use of alternatives to incarcerations for nonviolent offenders. Dolinko retributive punishment theory provided the theoretical framework for this study. Ten participant judges comprised the study sample from a purposeful and criterion random sampling method. Data were collected from participants through structured interviews and were coded manually, sorted, and analyzed using the ...


2017 American Society Of Criminology Conference, Gary Kowaluk 2017 Lincoln University, Jefferson City Missouri

2017 American Society Of Criminology Conference, Gary Kowaluk

Train-the-Trainer Professional Development

The following blog is a synopsis of my recent trip to the 2017 American Society of Criminology Conference which took place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from November 15th through 19th.


Postmodern Social Control: Dividuals And Surveillance, Ernest M. Oleksy 2017 Cleveland State University

Postmodern Social Control: Dividuals And Surveillance, Ernest M. Oleksy

The Downtown Review

As a society's foundational philosophy changes, so, too, will its forms of social control. By using the works of thinkers like Deleuze and Foucault as pivot points, the dynamic nature of social interactions and the agents to mediate those actions shall be investigated. This article includes findings from archival analysis written in a journalistic prose for simplicity of consumption.


Probation In The United States: A Historical And Modern Perspective, Ryan M. Labrecque 2017 Portland State University

Probation In The United States: A Historical And Modern Perspective, Ryan M. Labrecque

Ryan M. Labrecque

Probation is a court order through which a criminal defendant is placed under the control, supervision, and care of a probation officer in lieu of imprisonment; so long as the probationer maintains certain standards of conduct. This chapter reviews the historical development of probation in the United States, and highlights how the practice is used in the 21st century. Probation has many advantages over imprisonment, including lower operational costs, increased opportunities for rehabilitation, and reduced risk of criminal socialization. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest probation strategies that focus on compliance monitoring and other law enforcement aspects of supervision ...


Fear Of Terrorism In Armenia: Anxiety, Moral Panic And The Role Of The Media, Gurgen Balasanyan 2017 City University of New York (CUNY)

Fear Of Terrorism In Armenia: Anxiety, Moral Panic And The Role Of The Media, Gurgen Balasanyan

Student Theses

In the aftermath of 9/11, terrorism has become a prominent area of research across multiple disciplines. Recent polls and surveys in the USA, Europe, and other countries directly affected by terror attacks show a substantial increase in the level of fear of terrorism. However, there is lack of research on the phenomenon in countries that do not have a recent history of terror attacks, nor are militarily involved in the global war on terror. The findings of this cross-sectional exploratory study are based on an online survey with 419 (N=419) respondents in one such terrorism-neutral country, Armenia. By ...


Roadblocks To The Implementation Of Problem-Oriented Policing In Montevideo, Federico del Castillo 2017 CUNY John Jay College

Roadblocks To The Implementation Of Problem-Oriented Policing In Montevideo, Federico Del Castillo

Student Theses

In the broad context of Uruguay’s police reform, the Ministry of Interior is implementing a pilot Problem-Oriented Policing (POP) program in Montevideo since late 2012. This research examined the obstacles confronted by the program throughout its implementation. Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data was collected through 20 semi-structured interviews with members of the Uruguay National Police (UNP) of different ranks. Findings were analyzed based on the following categories: a) contextual factors; b) theoretical and practical inaccuracies; c) characteristics, skills and actions of project managers; d) resistance and motivational issues; e) resources; f) external support and cooperation. Consistent with ...


Grann's "Killers Of The Flower Moon: The Osage Murders And The Birth Of The Fbi" (Book Review), Roderick Leupp 2017 Indiana Wesleyan University

Grann's "Killers Of The Flower Moon: The Osage Murders And The Birth Of The Fbi" (Book Review), Roderick Leupp

The Christian Librarian

No abstract provided.


Criminal Justice Majors: Are They Tougher On Crime?, Anthony Javornik 2017 Honors College, Pace University

Criminal Justice Majors: Are They Tougher On Crime?, Anthony Javornik

Honors College Theses

The United States of America incarcerates more individuals than any other nation in the world. Therefore, the United States has one of the most active correctional systems and it is imperative to examine the system thoroughly. Generally speaking, there have been 3 accepted models of the correctional system since the 1940’s: custodial, rehabilitation, and reintegration. Although it is possible to find institutions that subscribe to each of these models respectively, the custodial model is the most common in the United States. Therefore, this study seeks to examine college students’ perception of crime, in order to help explain why the ...


'The Environment Says It's Okay': The Tension Between Peer Support And Police Culture, Cindy Hohner 2017 The University of Western Ontario

'The Environment Says It's Okay': The Tension Between Peer Support And Police Culture, Cindy Hohner

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study evaluates the implementation and subsequent operation of a peer support program in a Canadian police service. Data was collected from an online survey, available to the police service for a period of one year, and 16 in-depth interviews with peer support team members. There is very little data on police peer support programs in the literature. Thus, the purpose of the survey was to gain an understanding of what issues members believe a peer support program should address, the circumstances under which they would seek help from the peer support program, and the reasons they may or may ...


In The Crosshairs Of The White Nationalist Movement: Is Bridgewater State Ready?, Carolyn Petrosino 2017 Bridgewater State University

In The Crosshairs Of The White Nationalist Movement: Is Bridgewater State Ready?, Carolyn Petrosino

Bridgewater Review

No abstract provided.


Self-Control And Crime: Theory, Research, And Remaining Puzzles, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick, Alex R. Piquero 2017 Bates College

Self-Control And Crime: Theory, Research, And Remaining Puzzles, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick, Alex R. Piquero

Chad Posick

No abstract provided.


Juvenile Violence, A. J. Fox, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick 2017 Bates College

Juvenile Violence, A. J. Fox, Michael Rocque, Chad Posick

Chad Posick

No abstract provided.


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