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Assessing National Policies To Support Software In Europe, Timo Leimbach, Michael Friedewald 2009 Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research

Assessing National Policies To Support Software In Europe, Timo Leimbach, Michael Friedewald

Michael Friedewald

Software and Software Based Services (SSBS) are a major domain of the European ICT industry and is recognised as a key element in developing the Information Society. This article aims to shed light on the various strategies, policies and activities pursued by the EU and their member states. It is based upon a survey of national programmes that are aimed specifically or in substantial part at the software sector. This analysis and assessment usually face two challenges: (1) Unlike other technologies that have the same significance and/or the same attractiveness, the SSBS industry is a very dy- namic one ...


Supporting “Everyday Analysts” In Safety- And Time-Critical Situations, Leysia Palen, Sarah Vieweg, Kenneth Anderson 2009 University of Colorado at Boulder

Supporting “Everyday Analysts” In Safety- And Time-Critical Situations, Leysia Palen, Sarah Vieweg, Kenneth Anderson

Sarah E. Vieweg

No abstract provided.


Aproximaciones A La Evaluación Del Impacto Social De La Ciencia, La Tecnología Y La Innovación, Yusnelkis Milanés Guisado, Francisco Solis Cabrera, Jose Navarrete Cortés 2009 Selected Works

Aproximaciones A La Evaluación Del Impacto Social De La Ciencia, La Tecnología Y La Innovación, Yusnelkis Milanés Guisado, Francisco Solis Cabrera, Jose Navarrete Cortés

Yusnelkis Milanés Guisado

Se revisa el estado del arte de la evaluación del impacto de la ciencia, la tecnología y la innovación en la sociedad. Se exponen los problemas identificados sobre la medición de impactos, así como las principales aproximaciones metodológicas realizadas con este propósito. Se identifican dimensiones de análisis, alcance y limitaciones del campo social en el contexto de los estudios de evaluación. Los resultados contribuyen a una mejor comprensión de la problemática; así como al hallazgo de los indicadores necesarios para la medición de este tipo de impacto en la sociedad, cuyo tratamiento y normalización se encuentra en proceso de formación.


Strengthening Capacity For Sustainable Livelihoods And Food Security Through Urban Agriculture Among Hiv And Aids Affected Households In Nakuru, Kenya, Nancy Karanja, Fiona Yeudall, Mary Njenga, Samwel Mbugua, Gordon Prain, Donald Cole, Aimee Webb, Jennier Levy, Christopher Gore, Daniel Sellen 2009 University of Nairobi

Strengthening Capacity For Sustainable Livelihoods And Food Security Through Urban Agriculture Among Hiv And Aids Affected Households In Nakuru, Kenya, Nancy Karanja, Fiona Yeudall, Mary Njenga, Samwel Mbugua, Gordon Prain, Donald Cole, Aimee Webb, Jennier Levy, Christopher Gore, Daniel Sellen

Christopher D Gore

The promotion and support of urban agriculture (UA) has the potential to contribute to efforts to address pressing challenges of poverty, under nutrition and sustainability among vulnerable populations in the growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This may be especially relevant for HIV/AIDS-affected individuals in SSA whose agricultural livelihoods are severely disrupted by the devastating effects of the disease on physical productivity and nutritional well-being. This paper outlines the process involved in the conception, design and implementation of a project to strengthen technical, environmental, financial and social capacity for UA among HIV-affected households in Nakuru, Kenya. Key lessons learned ...


The Limits And Opportunities Of Networks: Municipalities And Canadian Climate Change Policy, Christopher Gore 2009 Ryerson University

The Limits And Opportunities Of Networks: Municipalities And Canadian Climate Change Policy, Christopher Gore

Christopher D Gore

Research on climate change policy and politics has become increasingly focused on the actions and influence of subnational governments. In North America, this attention has been particularly focused on why subnational governments have taken action in the absence of national leadership, what effect action might have on future national climate policy, and whether the collective action of networks of municipal governments are reshaping and challenging the character of national and global climate governance. This paper examines Canadian municipal climate in light of the absence of a comprehensive and effective climate national strategy. The paper considers various reasons why local governments ...


Data Sharing, Latency Variables And The Science Commons, Jorge Contreras 2009 Washington University in St Louis

Data Sharing, Latency Variables And The Science Commons, Jorge Contreras

Jorge L Contreras

Over the past decade, the rapidly decreasing cost of computer storage and the increasing prevalence of high-speed Internet connections have fundamentally altered the way in which scientific research is conducted. Led by scientists in disciplines such as genomics, the rapid sharing of data sets and cross-institutional collaboration promise to increase scientific efficiency and output dramatically. As a result, an increasing number of public “commons” of scientific data are being created: aggregations intended to be used and accessed by researchers worldwide. Yet, the sharing of scientific data presents legal, ethical and practical challenges that must be overcome before such science commons ...


Lost In Translation? A Boundary Work Perspective On Making Climate Change Governable, Robert Hoppe 2009 University of Twente

Lost In Translation? A Boundary Work Perspective On Making Climate Change Governable, Robert Hoppe

Robert Hoppe

No abstract provided.


Inclusión Digital Y Políticas Públicas En Argentina: Un Marco De Análisis, Lucas Jolías, Alejandro Prince 2009 Universidad Nacional de Quilmes

Inclusión Digital Y Políticas Públicas En Argentina: Un Marco De Análisis, Lucas Jolías, Alejandro Prince

Lucas Jolías

La inclusión digital es uno de los principales desafíos de los gobiernos en los próximos años, pero para cumplir con éste objetivo se debe prestar atención a las particularidades de la adopción de TIC en nuestra región, contemplando las diferencias socioeconómicas, culturales y motivacionales. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la inclusión digital en Argentina, prestando atención al contexto latinoamericano. La hipótesis más importante es que los niveles de inclusión digital en la actualidad son en gran medida producto del mercado y la capacidad económica y de consumo de las clases medias y altas, pero que para conectar a ...


Challenging Challenge Questions: An Experimental Analysis Of Authentication Technologies And User Behaviour, Mike Just, David Aspinall 2009 Glasgow Caledonian University

Challenging Challenge Questions: An Experimental Analysis Of Authentication Technologies And User Behaviour, Mike Just, David Aspinall

Dr. Mike Just

To authenticate human users to systems, challenge questions based on personal information are often used, typically when a primary authentication credential, such as a password, is forgotten. This ought to be a trustworthy mechanism, that is both reliable and accurate: personal information should be inherently memorable and not known to others. However, concerns have been raised recently about these assumptions: for example, some commonly used questions may be based on information that is available publicly. A possible improvement, then, is to allow users to choose their own questions. Here we report on an experiment which gathered user chosen questions and ...


Public Policies For Information Society. A Template, Susana Finquelievich, Adrian Rozengardt, Alejandra Maria Davidziuk, Daniel Gustavo Finquelievich 2009 CONICET / Universidad de Buenos Aires / LINKS

Public Policies For Information Society. A Template, Susana Finquelievich, Adrian Rozengardt, Alejandra Maria Davidziuk, Daniel Gustavo Finquelievich

Susana Finquelievich

No abstract provided.


Bibliometric Fingerprints: Name Disambiguation Based On Approximate Structure Equivalence Of Cognitive Maps, Li Tang, John P. Walsh 2009 Georgia Institute of Technology - Main Campus

Bibliometric Fingerprints: Name Disambiguation Based On Approximate Structure Equivalence Of Cognitive Maps, Li Tang, John P. Walsh

Li Tang

Authorship identity has long been an Achilles’ heel in bibliometric analyses at the individual level. This problem appears in studies of scientists’ productivity, inventor mobility and scientific collaboration. Using the concepts of cognitive maps from psychology and approximate structural equivalence from network analysis, we develop a novel algorithm for name disambiguation based on knowledge homogeneity scores. We test it on two cases, and the results show that this approach outperforms other common authorship identification methods with the ASE method providing a relatively simple algorithm that yields higher levels of accuracy with reasonable time demands.


Dissemination Practices In The Spanish Research System: Scientists Trapped In A Golden Cage, Cristobal Torres-Albero, Manuel Fernández-Esquinas, Jesús Rey-Rocha, María José Martín-Sempere 2009 Institute for Advanced Social Studies-IESA, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

Dissemination Practices In The Spanish Research System: Scientists Trapped In A Golden Cage, Cristobal Torres-Albero, Manuel Fernández-Esquinas, Jesús Rey-Rocha, María José Martín-Sempere

Manuel Fernández-Esquinas

The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, it offers a systematic analysis of the data available regarding Spanish scientists’ dissemination activities; on the other, it seeks to shed light on their behaviour and motivations. To do this, we consider the context of Spanish society and the conditions affecting the work and professional promotion of scientists. We present evidence from two surveys of CSIC researchers and of participants in Spain’s main science fair, with the caveat that the data were obtained in a methodologically favourable scenario. A contrast exists between scientists’ vocation to disseminate and the ...


High Tech Indicators: Assessing The Competitiveness Of Selected European Countries, david m. johnson, alan l. porter, david roessner, nils c. newman, xiao-yin jin 2009 Georgia Tech

High Tech Indicators: Assessing The Competitiveness Of Selected European Countries, David M. Johnson, Alan L. Porter, David Roessner, Nils C. Newman, Xiao-Yin Jin

alan l porter

Western European nations, along with the United States and Japan, have been recognized as the world’s most competitive economies. Eastern European nations have generally been considered to lag. This paper explores whether these descriptions remain accurate and the prospects for change over the coming decade. The Georgia Tech “High Tech Indicators” (HTI) contribute to the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Science & Engineering Indicators. We cover 33 highly developed and rapidly industrializing countries. Our model of technological competitiveness contains four components – National Orientation, Socioeconomic Infrastructure, Technological Infrastructure, and Productive Capacity – contributing to “Technological Standing.” We present indicator values, derived ...


Nanotechnology And The International Law Of Weaponry: Towards International Regulation Of Nano-Weapons., Thomas A. Faunce, Hitoshi Nasu 2009 Australian National University

Nanotechnology And The International Law Of Weaponry: Towards International Regulation Of Nano-Weapons., Thomas A. Faunce, Hitoshi Nasu

Thomas A Faunce

The development of nanotechnology for military application is an emerging area of research and development, the pace and extent of which has not been fully anticipated by international legal regulation. Nano-weapons are referred to here as objects and devices using nanotechnology or causing effects in nano-scale that are designed or used for harming humans. Such weapons, despite their controversial human and environmental toxicity, are not comprehensively covered by specific, targeted regulation under international law. This article critically examines current international humanitarian law and arms control law regimes to determine whether significant gaps exist in the regulation of nanotechnology focused on ...


Afterthoughts: Dialogue Between Sugata Mitra And Payal Arora, Sugata Mitra, Payal Arora 2009 Newcastle University

Afterthoughts: Dialogue Between Sugata Mitra And Payal Arora, Sugata Mitra, Payal Arora

Payal Arora

No abstract provided.


Hope-In-The-Wall? A Promise Of Free Learning, Payal Arora 2009 Selected Works

Hope-In-The-Wall? A Promise Of Free Learning, Payal Arora

Payal Arora

Hole-in-the-Wall as a concept has attracted worldwide attention. It involves providing unconditional access to computer-equipped kiosks in playgrounds and out-of-school settings, children taking ownership of their learning and learning driven by the children's natural curiosity. It is posited that this approach, which is being used in India, Cambodia and several countries in Africa, can pave the way for a new education paradigm and be the key to providing literacy and basic education and bridging the digital divide in remote and disadvantaged regions. This paper seeks to establish why two such open access, self-directed and collaborative learning systems failed to ...


Forensic Science Evidence And Judicial Bias In Criminal Cases, Hon. Donald E. Shelton 2009 Eastern Michigan University

Forensic Science Evidence And Judicial Bias In Criminal Cases, Hon. Donald E. Shelton

Hon. Donald E. Shelton

Although DNA exonerations and the NAS report have raised serious questions about the validity of many traditional non-DNA forms of forensic science evidence, criminal court judges continue to admit virtually all prosecution-proferred expert testimony. It is is suggested that this is the result of a systemic pro-prosecution bias by judges that is reflected in admissibility decisions. These "attitudinal blinders" are especially prevalent in state criminal trial and appellate courts.


Impact Of The Australia-Us Free Trade Agreement On Australian Medicines Regulation And Prices, Thomas A. Faunce, James Bai, Duy Nguyen 2009 Australian National University

Impact Of The Australia-Us Free Trade Agreement On Australian Medicines Regulation And Prices, Thomas A. Faunce, James Bai, Duy Nguyen

Thomas A Faunce

The Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) came into force on 1 January 2005. Before and subsequently to the AUSFTA being concluded, controversy surrounded the debate over its impact on Australia ’ s health policy, specifically on regulation of pharmaceutical patents and Australia ’ s cost-effectiveness system relating to prescription medicine prices known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). This article examines the expectations of both parties in the pharmaceutical sector with regard to the AUSFTA, as well as how successfully they were achieved. It seeks to analyse important relevant outcomes for regulators, the public and pharmaceutical industry, as well as ...


The Innovation System And Innovation Policy In The United States, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie 2009 University of Manchester; Georgia Institute of Technology

The Innovation System And Innovation Policy In The United States, Philip Shapira, Jan Youtie

Philip Shapira

The US has a highly decentralized and diverse innovation system, involving multiple actors, including branches of federal and state governments, public agencies, universi-ties, the private sector, and non-profit and intermediary organizations. The system combines a high-level of R&D (with basic research sponsored particularly by federal government agencies) and a strong orientation towards applications and the market. This chapter provides an overview of the US innovation system and policy including a discussion of the components and participants involved in the US innovation system and its trends in innovation governance. The focus of this chapter is primarily on innovation policies with ...


Is There A Shift To ‘Active Nanostructures'?, Vrishali Subramanian, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira 2009 Georgia Institute of Technology

Is There A Shift To ‘Active Nanostructures'?, Vrishali Subramanian, Alan L. Porter, Jan Youtie, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

It has been suggested that an important transition in the long-run trajectory of nanotechnology discovery and application is a shift from passive to active nanostructures. Such a shift could present increased societal impacts and need new approaches for risk assessment. The National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Active Nanostructures and Nanosystems (ANN) grant solicitation defines an active nanostructure as “An active nanostructure changes or evolves its state during its operation.” Active nanostructures examples include nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), nanomachines, self-healing materials, targeted drugs and chemicals, energy storage devices, and sensors. This paper considers two questions: (1) Is there a “shift” to active ...


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