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Revisiting Equity: The Hud Sustainable Communities Initiative, Lisa K. Bates, Marisa Zapata 2017 Portland State University

Revisiting Equity: The Hud Sustainable Communities Initiative, Lisa K. Bates, Marisa Zapata

Marisa A. Zapata

In 1974, Norman Krumholz boldly called on planners to advocate for equity in public resource allocation and administrative practices. In 2010, the Obama administration’s HUD-DOT-EPA Sustainable Communities Initiative—specifically in the form of the Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant (SCRPG)—renewed this call for equity. But our review of the responses by thirteen grantees proved disappointing. The plans put forth by award winners recycle many of the activities from the Cleveland Policy Plan (CPP) without employing its overarching mission. Instead of boldness, we are left with a stark reminder about the lack of progress made since the City of ...


Drivers' Attitudes And Behaviors Toward Bicyclists: Intermodal Interactions And Implications For Road Safety, Tara Beth Goddard 2017 Portland State University

Drivers' Attitudes And Behaviors Toward Bicyclists: Intermodal Interactions And Implications For Road Safety, Tara Beth Goddard

Dissertations and Theses

Road safety concerns are a legitimate concern when promoting increased bicycle use. Currently, the share of bicyclist traffic fatalities and injuries is not proportional to its mode share, and presents both a public health concern and a disincentive to people taking up or continuing to bicycle for transportation. Bicycling is not an inherently a dangerous activity; automobile drivers pose the most risk of harm in crashes with bicyclists. Despite that, drivers' attitudes and behaviors toward bicyclists have not enjoyed much systematic study, particularly in the United States. This research explored the dimensions of drivers' attitudes toward bicyclists, including implicit bias ...


Measuring The Impacts Of Social Media On Advancing Public Transit, Jenny H. Liu, Xuegang Ban 2017 Portland State University

Measuring The Impacts Of Social Media On Advancing Public Transit, Jenny H. Liu, Xuegang Ban

Jenny Liu

This project is a collaboration between Portland State University (PSU) and the Center for Infrastructure Transportation & Environment (CITE) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute seeking to develop performance measures for assessing the impacts of social media on promoting public transit. Revolutionary changes have occurred in the communication landscape, and there has been a rapid diffusion of social media use as a means of communicating transit information to the public. Significant resources are being directed to the use of social media in communication, yet little effort exists that measures the impacts of these popular vehicles of communication. Rarely studied is the role of social media in achieving the overarching goals of advancing the mission of transit agencies through increasing recruitment and retention of transit riders; increasing resources and customer satisfaction; addressing system issues, performance efficiency and effectiveness; and improving employee productivity and morale. There is a need to measure the impacts of social media and account for the cost effectiveness of its wide use as a means of communication in public transit agencies. This research intends to extend understanding about whether investments in social media tools effectively achieve their intended purposes. The goal of this project is to identify social media-related measures for public transit agencies that can comprehensively ...


Understanding Social Media Program Usage In Public Transit Agencies, Jenny H. Liu, Wei Shi, O. A. Elrahman, Xuegang Ban, Jack M. Reilly 2017 Portland State University

Understanding Social Media Program Usage In Public Transit Agencies, Jenny H. Liu, Wei Shi, O. A. Elrahman, Xuegang Ban, Jack M. Reilly

Jenny Liu

Social media has been gaining prominence in public transit agencies in their communication strategies and daily management. This study aims to better understand recent trends in social media usage in public transit agencies, to examine which agencies use what kind of social media programs for what purposes, and how they measure their programs. A survey was conducted of the top transit agencies in the nation, and results are examined through descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis and regression modeling. We found that while most agencies still lack clearly-defined goals and performance metrics to guide their social media development, many are increasing ...


China's Motorization Wave And The Place Of Emerging Technologies, Christopher Cherry 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

China's Motorization Wave And The Place Of Emerging Technologies, Christopher Cherry

TREC Friday Seminar Series

E-bikes, E-Cars, Carshare, Bikeshare, and Micro-EVs in China have shaken up the traditional motorization pathways that have occurred in developing countries in the past. The combination of emerging vehicle technologies, urban and environmental constraints, and heavy-handed policy make China's motorization processes unique in the world—but how China motorizes has far-reaching impacts based on sheer volume of vehicles and population.

This seminar discusses the results of a six-year NSF CAREER project to explore China's motorization processes, combining behavioral and environmental modeling approaches to assess the impacts of emerging vehicle technologies on motorization and ultimately environmental sustainability. The focus ...


Focusing On Equity In Regional Plans, Kristine M. Williams 2017 University of South Florida

Focusing On Equity In Regional Plans, Kristine M. Williams

TREC Project Briefs

Metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) have long been required to consider the equity implications of their regional transportation plans and processes.


Measuring The Impacts Of Social Media On Advancing Public Transit, Jenny H. Liu, Xuegang Ban 2017 Portland State University

Measuring The Impacts Of Social Media On Advancing Public Transit, Jenny H. Liu, Xuegang Ban

TREC Final Reports

This project is a collaboration between Portland State University (PSU) and the Center for Infrastructure Transportation & Environment (CITE) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute seeking to develop performance measures for assessing the impacts of social media on promoting public transit. Revolutionary changes have occurred in the communication landscape, and there has been a rapid diffusion of social media use as a means of communicating transit information to the public. Significant resources are being directed to the use of social media in communication, yet little effort exists that measures the impacts of these popular vehicles of communication. Rarely studied is the role of social media in achieving the overarching goals of advancing the mission of transit agencies through increasing recruitment and retention of transit riders; increasing resources and customer satisfaction; addressing system issues, performance efficiency and effectiveness; and improving employee productivity and morale. There is a need to measure the impacts of social media and account for the cost effectiveness of its wide use as a means of communication in public transit agencies. This research intends to extend understanding about whether investments in social media tools effectively achieve their intended purposes.

The goal of this project is to identify social media-related measures for public transit agencies that can comprehensively ...


Breaking Barriers To Bike Share: Insights From Residents Of Traditionally Underserved Neighborhoods, Nathan McNeil, Jennifer Dill, John MacArthur, Joseph Broach, Steven Howland 2017 Portland State University

Breaking Barriers To Bike Share: Insights From Residents Of Traditionally Underserved Neighborhoods, Nathan Mcneil, Jennifer Dill, John Macarthur, Joseph Broach, Steven Howland

TREC Final Reports

Evidence has shown that higher income and white populations are overrepresented in both access to and use of bike share. Efforts to overcome underserved communities’ barriers to access and use of bike share have been initiated in a number of cities, including those working with the Better Bike Share Partnership (BBSP) to launch and test potentially replicable approaches to improve the equity outcomes. This report describes findings from a survey of residents living near bike share stations placed in underserved communities of select BBSP cities: Philadelphia, Chicago, and Brooklyn. These were neighborhoods targeted for focused outreach related to BBSP programs ...


The Inward Turn Of Chicago Drill Rap, Benjamin M. Levey 2017 Northwestern University

The Inward Turn Of Chicago Drill Rap, Benjamin M. Levey

Undergraduate Research and Arts Exposition

Drill rap, a subgenre of hip-hop intimately connected to Chicago street life and brought into the nation’s musical mainstream by Chicago rapper Chief Keef, sounds and means differently than traditional forms of hip-hop. Unlike most hip hop, drill is outwardly unconcerned with mobility. This project explores drill’s departure from hip-hop’s traditional aesthetics and messaging, considering what about Chicago gave rise to this departure, the extent to which the departure categorizes the subgenre, and what the departure says about the counter-public of young people that create and consume drill rap in the city. This project is highly interdisciplinary ...


Understanding Transportation In Urban China - Local Residents Vs Migrant Workers, Jenny H. Liu 2017 Portland State University

Understanding Transportation In Urban China - Local Residents Vs Migrant Workers, Jenny H. Liu

Jenny Liu

With rapid urbanization in China and other developing economies around the world, it has become imperative to understand household transportation behavior and expenditures in these urban areas. The objective of this study is to examine the differences in the determinants of household transportation expenditures within two very distinct populations in Chinese cities: local residents and migrant workers.

In order to craft policies or strategies promoting sustainable transportation or livability, it is essential to understand whether the drivers that push the migrant population towards spending more on transportation or owning bikes or motorbikes are similar to drivers for the rest of ...


Transportation Cost Index: A Comprehensive Performance Measure For Transportation And Land Use Systems And Its Application In Or, Fl, And Ut, Liming Wang, Jenny H. Liu 2017 Portland State University

Transportation Cost Index: A Comprehensive Performance Measure For Transportation And Land Use Systems And Its Application In Or, Fl, And Ut, Liming Wang, Jenny H. Liu

Jenny Liu

MAP-21 and state laws are placing increasing emphasis on using comprehensive transportation performance measures that include mobility, safety, economy, livability, equity, and environmental to guide transportation decision-making. One of the toughest challenges keeping DOTs and MPOs from adopting comprehensive measures in the decision process is the lack of performance measures allowing consistent comparison of multimodal performance over time and across geographic areas. This project advances a transportation cost index (TCI) initially proposed by Oregon DOT from a proof-of-concept stage to implementation and operational use at the state, MPO, and community levels. After pilot tests and early adoption in Oregon, we ...


Webinar: Economic Impacts From Bicycle And Pedestrian Street Improvements, Jenny H. Liu 2017 Portland State University

Webinar: Economic Impacts From Bicycle And Pedestrian Street Improvements, Jenny H. Liu

Jenny Liu

As many cities are investing in street improvements to provide better biking and walking experiences, the economic value and impacts of these active transportation facilities remain areas where many practitioners, planners and policy makers are seeking more conclusive evidence. With various modes competing for scarce resources, planners and transportation agencies often struggle with how to justify infrastructure investments for non-motorized modes, particularly when driving is still the predominant mode of transportation in most cities. In this project we assess property value impacts of Portland’s “Green Loop” signature bike infrastructure concept, illustrating the importance of considering both accessibility and extensiveness ...


Transportation Cost Index As A Performance Measure For Transportation And Land Use Systems: New Approaches And Applications, Liming Wang, Huajie Yang, Jenny H. Liu 2017 Portland State University

Transportation Cost Index As A Performance Measure For Transportation And Land Use Systems: New Approaches And Applications, Liming Wang, Huajie Yang, Jenny H. Liu

Jenny Liu

This research aims to fill gaps in existing multi-modal performance measures for transportation and land use systems:

  1. As a supplement/replacement of traffic-centric measures such as LOS, travel delay;
  2. Recent federal and state legislations put more emphases on using of performance measures in transportation planning & operation: MAP-21, Oregon Job and Transportation Act (OJTA);
  3. Existing performance measures for transportation and land use systems, although now numerous, have their own limitation (Table 1), and leave important aspects and policy areas uncovered, for example, the balance of transportation investment between different modes and across geographical areas as mandated by OJTA


The Economics Of Residential Building Deconstruction In Portland, Or, Mike Paruszkiewicz, Jenny H. Liu, Rebecca Hanes, Eric Hoffman, Peter Hulseman, Emma Willingham 2017 Portland State University

The Economics Of Residential Building Deconstruction In Portland, Or, Mike Paruszkiewicz, Jenny H. Liu, Rebecca Hanes, Eric Hoffman, Peter Hulseman, Emma Willingham

Jenny Liu

Impact analysis of the nascent deconstruction industry, in light of recent legislation.


Retail Rent With Respect To Distance From Light Rail Transit Stations In Dallas And Denver, Arthur C. Nelson, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Shima Hamidi, Susan J. Petheram, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing 2017 University of Utah

Retail Rent With Respect To Distance From Light Rail Transit Stations In Dallas And Denver, Arthur C. Nelson, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Shima Hamidi, Susan J. Petheram, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing

Jenny Liu

A growing body of recent research is challenging the assumptions underlying the half-mile-circle in planning for development around transit stations. In this article we review this literature and extend it to include retail land uses. We estimate the rent premium conferred on retail properties in metropolitan Dallas and metropolitan Denver, both of which have extensive light rail transit systems. We find that consistent with half-mile-circle assumptions, retail rent premiums extend only to about 0.30 mile from transit stations with half the premium dissipating after a few hundred feet and three quarters within the first 0.10 mile. We offer ...


Transit And Economic Resilience, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Joanna P. Ganning, Philip Stoker, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing 2017 University of Utah

Transit And Economic Resilience, Arthur C. Nelson, Matt Miller, Joanna P. Ganning, Philip Stoker, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing

Jenny Liu

Do fixed-guideway transit systems facilitate resilience with metropolitan areas? There is little literature making this connection theoretically and none testing it empirically. This paper helps close this gap in both respects. In evaluating metropolitan areas with light rail transit systems the authors find evidence that transit corridors on the whole performed better than control corridors during the recovery period of two recessions: that of the early 2000s and the so-called Great Recession. In particular, during the Great Recession transit corridors outperformed control corridors among many economic sectors. Outcomes were more impressive during recoveries from both the recession of the early ...


Portland’S Food Economy: Trends And Contributions, Jamaal Green, Greg Schrock, Jenny H. Liu 2017 Portland State University

Portland’S Food Economy: Trends And Contributions, Jamaal Green, Greg Schrock, Jenny H. Liu

Jenny Liu

The primary goal of this report is to document the scope, growth, and contribution of the food economy to the city of Portland and the region. Specifically, this report addresses the following research questions: What is the "food economy," and how is it defined? What is the size of Portland’s food economy, and how has it changed in recent years? How is the food economy distributed spatially within the city and the region? How is this changing? What kind of employment opportunities does Portland’s food economy offer? How do they compare to the broader economy? Who works in ...


Oregon Property Tax Capitalization: Evidence From Portland, Jenny H. Liu, Jeff Renfro 2017 Portland State University

Oregon Property Tax Capitalization: Evidence From Portland, Jenny H. Liu, Jeff Renfro

Jenny Liu

The passage of Measures 5 and 50 drastically changed the way property taxes were assessed in Oregon. The measures were intended to limit the ability of government to raise property taxes, while achieving other goals such as equalizing school funding across the state. The property tax system that resulted is complex and has introduced inequities into the system based on differing rates of changes between assessed value (AV) and real market value (RMV). The League of Oregon Cities (LOC) asked the Northwest Economic Research Center (NERC) to investigate the effect of the tax structure on residential sale prices as part ...


Office Rent Premiums With Respect To Distance From Light Rail Transit Stations In Dallas And Denver, Arthur C. Nelson, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Shima Hamidi, Susan J. Petheram, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing 2017 University of Utah

Office Rent Premiums With Respect To Distance From Light Rail Transit Stations In Dallas And Denver, Arthur C. Nelson, Dejan Eskic, Joanna P. Ganning, Shima Hamidi, Susan J. Petheram, Jenny H. Liu, Reid Ewing

Jenny Liu

It seems an article-of-faith that real estate markets respond more favorably to location within one-half mile of transit stations. Planning and public decision-makers have thus drawn half-mile (or smaller) circles around rail transit stations assuming larger planning areas would not be supported by the evidence. Recent research, however, has shown market-responsiveness well beyond one-half mile. We contribute to this literature by evaluating the distance-decay function of office rents in metropolitan Dallas and Denver with respect to light rail transit (LRT) station distance. Using a quadratic transformation of distance we find office rent premiums extending in the range of two miles ...


Economic And Emissions Impacts Of A Clean Air Tax Or Fee In Oregon (Sb306), Jenny H. Liu, Jeff Renfro, Christopher Butenhoff, Mike Paruszkiewicz 2017 Portland State University

Economic And Emissions Impacts Of A Clean Air Tax Or Fee In Oregon (Sb306), Jenny H. Liu, Jeff Renfro, Christopher Butenhoff, Mike Paruszkiewicz

Jenny Liu

Analysis on how a carbon pricing policy would affect different Oregon industry sectors and regions.


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