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The Year 2014: A Banner Year For Institutional Racism, Andrew I.E. Ewoh 2017 Barbara Jordan Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs, Texas Southern University

The Year 2014: A Banner Year For Institutional Racism, Andrew I.E. Ewoh

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

The Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs is dedicating this special issue to the profound and pervasive effects of institutional racism that were prominent in 2014. The year 2014 might be viewed as a remarkable year for institutional racism. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Section IV of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 is no longer necessary.


Examining The Impact Of Institutional Racism In Black Residentially Segregated Communities, Brandi Blessett, Vanessa Littleton 2017 Rutgers University - Camden

Examining The Impact Of Institutional Racism In Black Residentially Segregated Communities, Brandi Blessett, Vanessa Littleton

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

This article examines the impact of public policies in inner city communities. Using Ferguson, MO as an exemplar, the authors offer a contextual analysis of a community recently in the spotlight for the killing of an unarmed black man by a law enforcement officer. Through the lens of the social determinants of health, we examine “place” as a powerful determinant of health and community outcomes. We consider the implications of public policies and the subsequent impact on social and economic context. The authors highlight the existence of social, economic, environmental, political, and cultural factors experienced by Blacks in Ferguson, MO ...


When Perceptions Are Deadly: Policing, Given The Summer In Ferguson, Missouri And Other Similar Stories, Before And Since, Julian Scott, Camille Gibson, Lakisha Alomaja, Ashley Minter, Leanna Davis 2017 Prairie View A&M University

When Perceptions Are Deadly: Policing, Given The Summer In Ferguson, Missouri And Other Similar Stories, Before And Since, Julian Scott, Camille Gibson, Lakisha Alomaja, Ashley Minter, Leanna Davis

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

When law enforcement officers, regardless of race and ethnicity, are exposed to messages of Black violence, these perceptions of danger can become deadly. In 2014, the Michael Brown case in Ferguson, Missouri elevated this concern; but, there were many other cases previously publicized in the media such as Amadou Diallo, and Sean Bell. Using a content analysis of news reports from 1994 to summer 2015, this paper offers an assessment of media influence in the construction of public perceptions of Black dangerousness that seems to impact Black male and law enforcement interactions that become deadly for the former. The study ...


Race And Justice Outcomes: Contextualizing Racial Discrimination And Ferguson, Jason M. Williams 2017 Montclair State University

Race And Justice Outcomes: Contextualizing Racial Discrimination And Ferguson, Jason M. Williams

Ralph Bunche Journal of Public Affairs

While scores of literature may hint at the tumultuous relationship between the criminal justice system and Blacks, such literature, however, fail to assess, comprehensively, the intersectional purpose of present criminal justice processes and race. This paper will examine contemporary applications of justice along racial lines. It is argued that current justice outcomes are advantageous to the status quo. It is no secret that the American system of justice has a race problem; however, if the goal is to administer justice then, as this paper argues, the current system needs to be seriously examined and rebuilt. The paper also argues that ...


The Intentional Student: Strategies To Help Students Of Low-Socioeconomic Status Succeed At Post-Secondary Institutions, Patrick L. Phillips 2017 Educational Empowerment Group, LLC

The Intentional Student: Strategies To Help Students Of Low-Socioeconomic Status Succeed At Post-Secondary Institutions, Patrick L. Phillips

National Youth-At-Risk Conference Savannah

The Intentional Student: Strategies to Help Students of Low Socioeconomic Status Succeed at Post-Secondary Institutions, is structured in three phases: The Prerequisites, The Process and The Exodus. Attendees will take a journey in the same manner students navigate the college experience. (The Prerequisites)-areas that are completed and mastered before college, (The Process)-tasks and areas that are mastered while in college and (The Exodus)-areas mastered upon conclusion of college to obtain gainful employment. The target audience is educators, school counselors, mentors, therapist, and school social workers.


Access To Taxicabs For Unbanked Households: An Exploratory Analysis In New York City, David A. King, Juan Francisco Saldarriaga 2017 Columbia University

Access To Taxicabs For Unbanked Households: An Exploratory Analysis In New York City, David A. King, Juan Francisco Saldarriaga

Journal of Public Transportation

Taxicabs are critical complements to public transit systems. In New York City, ubiquitous yellow cabs are as iconic as the city’s subway system, and the city recently added green taxicabs to improve taxi service in areas outside of the Central Business Districts and airports. In this paper, we used multiple datasets to explore taxicab fare payments by neighborhood and examine how paid taxicab fares are associated with use of conventional banking services. There are clear spatial dimensions of the propensity of riders to pay cash, and we found that both immigrant status and being “unbanked” are strong predictors of ...


Identifying Key Factors Of Rail Transit Service Quality: An Empirical Analysis For Istanbul, Erkan Isikli, Nezir Aydin, Erkan Celik, Alev Taskin Gumus 2017 Istanbul Technical University

Identifying Key Factors Of Rail Transit Service Quality: An Empirical Analysis For Istanbul, Erkan Isikli, Nezir Aydin, Erkan Celik, Alev Taskin Gumus

Journal of Public Transportation

Providing a high quality of service in public transportation is essential to reduce dissatisfactions stemming from traffic congestion and noise. Public transport providers need to find ways to dilute the effects of immoderate use of private cars in big cities while maintaining a sufficient level of customer satisfaction. This study aimed to identify the key service quality (SQ) factors that drive passenger satisfaction in Istanbul’s rail transit (RT) system using data obtained from an extensive survey conducted by the Istanbul Public Transportation Co. A total of 11,116 passengers who used rail transport from May 15–June 3, 2012 ...


The Causal Effect Of Bus Rapid Transit On Changes In Transit Ridership, Orion T. Stewart, Anne Vernez Moudon, Brian E. Saelens 2017 University of Washington

The Causal Effect Of Bus Rapid Transit On Changes In Transit Ridership, Orion T. Stewart, Anne Vernez Moudon, Brian E. Saelens

Journal of Public Transportation

Numerous studies have reported ridership increases along routes when Bus rapid transit (BRT) replaces conventional bus service, but these increases could be due simply to broader temporal trends in transit ridership. To address this limitation, we compared changes in ridership among routes where BRT was implemented to routes where BRT was planned or already existed in King County, Washington. Ridership was measured at 2010, 2013, and 2014. Ridership increased by 35% along routes where BRT was implemented from 2010 to 2013 compared to routes that maintained conventional bus service. Ridership increased by 29% along routes where BRT was implemented from ...


Community-Engaged Operations Research: Trends, New Frontiers And Opportunities, Michael P. Johnson Jr. 2017 University of Massachusetts - Boston

Community-Engaged Operations Research: Trends, New Frontiers And Opportunities, Michael P. Johnson Jr.

Michael P. Johnson

Scholars in multiple disciplines intersecting operations research have developed theory and applications to address the question, how can the decision sciences develop new ways to solve problems of special interest to organizations and individuals situated in geographically, economically and socially circumscribed communities? The motivation for this work is the belief that mission-driven and resource-constrained nonprofit organizations, and underrepresented, underserved, or vulnerable populations may have special needs for analytic and empirical problem-solving methods that have traditionally received less emphasis in traditional operations research and management science research and teaching. Scholarship in this area, alternatively labeled ‘community operational research’ (mostly in the ...


Overpopulation And The Impact On The Environment, Doris Baus 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Overpopulation And The Impact On The Environment, Doris Baus

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In this research paper, the main focus is on the issue of overpopulation and its impact on the environment. The growing size of the global population is not an issue that appeared within the past couple of decades, but its origins come from the prehistoric time and extend to the very present day. Throughout the history, acknowledged scientists introduced the concept of “overpopulation” and predicted the future consequences if the world follows the same behavioral pattern. According to predictions, scientists invented the birth control pill and set population control through eugenics. Despite that, population continued to increase and fight with ...


Webinar: Improving Walkability At Signalized Intersections With Signal Control Strategies, Edward J. Smaglik, Sirisha Murthy Kothuri 2017 Northern Arizona University

Webinar: Improving Walkability At Signalized Intersections With Signal Control Strategies, Edward J. Smaglik, Sirisha Murthy Kothuri

TREC Webinar Series

The goal of signal timing at an intersection should be to maximize efficiency for all users. In many jurisdictions, however, traffic signals are timed mostly with the goal of reducing vehicular delay.

Other road users, such as pedestrians, deserve similar focus. In legacy transportation systems, pedestrians experience delays much in excess of those that would be deemed acceptable for a motor vehicle at the same location.

Excessive delay can lead to pedestrian frustration, non-compliance and ultimately decreased safety.

In the North American context, implementation of strategies to address pedestrian service varies greatly across jurisdictions, and there has been limited research ...


A Pathway Linking Smart Growth Neighborhoods To Home-Based Pedestrian Travel, Steven R. Gehrke 2017 Portland State University

A Pathway Linking Smart Growth Neighborhoods To Home-Based Pedestrian Travel, Steven R. Gehrke

TREC Friday Seminar Series

Land development patterns, urban design, and transportation system features are inextricably linked to pedestrian travel. Accordingly, planners and decision-makers have turned to integrated transportation-land use policies and investments to address the pressing need for improvements in physical activity levels via the creation of walkable communities. However, policy questions regarding the identification of smart growth indicators and their connection to walking remain unanswered, because most studies of the built environment determinants of pedestrian travel: (a) represent the built environment with isolated metrics instead of as a multidimensional construct and (b) model this transportation-land use relationship outside of a multidirectional analytic framework ...


Measuring Stress Levels For Real-World On-Road Cyclists: Do Bicycle Facilities, Intersections And Traffic Levels Affect Cyclists' Stress?, Álvaro Caviedes 2017 Portland State University

Measuring Stress Levels For Real-World On-Road Cyclists: Do Bicycle Facilities, Intersections And Traffic Levels Affect Cyclists' Stress?, Álvaro Caviedes

TREC Friday Seminar Series

This research effort presents a novel approach to measure cyclists’ stress: real-world, on-road measurements of physiological stress as cyclists travel across different types of bicycle facilities in various traffic volumes. This study addresses the question of how the characteristics of a bicycle trip affect stress levels using physiological data, specifically GSR. As detailed in the next section, GSR-based studies have been successfully employed for many years in the psychological field to recognize and associate emotions and behaviors to physiological responses. The three research questions examined in this study are: i) Does peak traffic impact cyclists’ stress levels? ii) Do intersections ...


Emerging Trends And New Frontiers In Community Operational Research, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Gerald Midgley, George Chichirau 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston

Emerging Trends And New Frontiers In Community Operational Research, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Gerald Midgley, George Chichirau

Michael P. Johnson

Community operational research (COR), and its disciplinary relation, community-based operations research, have an increasingly high profile within multiple domains that benefit from empirical and analytic approaches to problem solving. Many of these areas, as represented by papers in this special issue, are concentrated in human services, community and economic development, education and other non-profit services, and the nature of inquiry tends to be motivated by action research and systems thinking as much as traditional decision modeling. However, there are many other areas of inquiry in which COR has had only a modest presence to date. This paper identifies a number ...


Improving Walkability Through Control Strategies At Signalized Intersections, Sirisha Murthy Kothuri, Andrew Kading, Edward J. Smaglik, Christopher Sobie 2017 Portland State University

Improving Walkability Through Control Strategies At Signalized Intersections, Sirisha Murthy Kothuri, Andrew Kading, Edward J. Smaglik, Christopher Sobie

TREC Final Reports

As cities and communities nationwide seek to develop Complete Streets that foster livability and accommodate all modes, signal timing control strategies that include pedestrians in the operational decision process are gaining importance. This research tested several efficiency-focused pedestrian treatments – coordination, actuated-coordination, free operation, short cycle lengths – and safety-focused treatment including leading pedestrian intervals and Barnes Dance. Using a software-in-the-loop simulation, the operational impacts of these treatments on all users (vehicles, heavy vehicles, bicyclists and pedestrians) at an intersection were evaluated. Results showed that among the efficiency-based treatments, free operation was most beneficial for reducing minor-street pedestrian delays. Both safety treatments ...


Social Sustainability: The Role Of Ecotourism In Regenerating Cultural And Environmental Histories In Rio De Janeiro, Nia McAllister 2017 Pomona College

Social Sustainability: The Role Of Ecotourism In Regenerating Cultural And Environmental Histories In Rio De Janeiro, Nia Mcallister

Pomona Senior Theses

Ecotourism is a rapidly growing global export industry that aims to uphold the ethics of responsible tourism by engaging with local communities and encouraging environmentally conscious travel. With existing critiques of the greenwashing of ecotourism and the tendency for tourism agencies to exploit host communities, I advocate for participatory community-based models of ecotourism. This thesis explores both the material and conceptual benefits of community-based ecotourism through the critical examination of community-based ecotourism projects in Rio de Janeiro Brazil. Focusing on the implementation of ecotourism in of some of Rio de Janeiro’s peripheral communities, areas that are impacted by social ...


Growing Portland: Not Whether, But How, Richard Barringer, Joseph McDonnell 2017 University of Southern Maine

Growing Portland: Not Whether, But How, Richard Barringer, Joseph Mcdonnell

Muskie School of Public Service

In the 400 years since European settlement, Portland has survived the ravages of war, invasion, pestilence, conflagration, and economic depression and recession. Once a renowned manufacturing, trade, and shipping center, it now enjoys what might be called a post-industrial renaissance as a vibrant center for the arts, education, entertainment, and banking, legal, and medical services; and is frequently cited as one of America’s best small cities. As a result, Portland is growing today and is positioned for more growth.

The question, then, is not whether Portland will grow, but how well it will grow; or, how best to manage ...


The Effects Of Frequency Of Social Interaction, Social Cohesion, Age, And The Built Environment On Walking, Gretchen Allison Luhr 2016 Portland State University

The Effects Of Frequency Of Social Interaction, Social Cohesion, Age, And The Built Environment On Walking, Gretchen Allison Luhr

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore, through a social ecological framework, the multifaceted effects of the neighborhood environment by investigating how dimensions of both the built environment and the neighborhood social context may interact to influence walking. Aesthetics, land use mix, crime, and pedestrian infrastructure were considered with respect to built environment walkability, and the neighborhood social context was conceptualized using measures of both social cohesion and social interaction with neighbors. This research used data from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-funded study of 748 adults (18 years of age and older) residing in the Lents neighborhood in ...


History In Collaboration: Equalizing The Arts And The Humanities In San Francisco, Nicole C. Meldahl 2016 University of San Francisco

History In Collaboration: Equalizing The Arts And The Humanities In San Francisco, Nicole C. Meldahl

Master's Projects

Historically, there has been a critical imbalance in the way history and preservation organizations are civically supported in comparison with the amount of funding that is available to arts organizations in the United States. To correct this imbalance in San Francisco, I propose the creation of a San Francisco Department of Culture that would place the San Francisco Arts Commission equally alongside a San Francisco History Commission within a department that absorbs responsibilities currently managed by other divisions with in city government, such as the Planning Department and the Office and Economic and Workforce Development. City government necessarily takes time ...


Solar Urban Planning: Addressing Barriers And Conflicts Specific To Renewable Energy Policy And The Current Field And Practice Of Urban Planning Within The Context Of A Changing Climate, Toryl P. Hanna 2016 SIT Graduate Institute

Solar Urban Planning: Addressing Barriers And Conflicts Specific To Renewable Energy Policy And The Current Field And Practice Of Urban Planning Within The Context Of A Changing Climate, Toryl P. Hanna

Capstone Collection

The world is in a period of rapid urbanization while experiencing unprecedented rise in global temperature as a result of climate change. Questions have been raised as to how strategies for urbanization will be able to address the fetish for energy, while halting carbon emissions produced by traditional energy sources for urban inhabitants around the world. First, this paper seeks to look to cities, at the intersection of solar energy and the field of urban planning, looking into the opportunities and challenges that are currently surfacing. Conflicts and barriers in traditional urban land use patterns emerge as a topic of ...


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