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Credibility And Use Of Scientific And Technical Information In Policy Making: An Analysis Of The Information Bases Of The National Research Council’S Committee Reports, Jan Youtie, Barry Bozeman, Sahra Jabbehdari, Andrew Kao 2016 Arizona State University

Credibility And Use Of Scientific And Technical Information In Policy Making: An Analysis Of The Information Bases Of The National Research Council’S Committee Reports, Jan Youtie, Barry Bozeman, Sahra Jabbehdari, Andrew Kao

Jan Youtie

Often researchers are disappointed by the limited extent to which peer reviewed STEM research seems to contribute directly to high level public policy decision-making. However, does the perception of the limited use of formal scientific and technical information (STI) accord with empirical reality? How does the choice of various types of information relate to the use and impacts of science policy reports and recommendations? While there is a prodigious literature on the use of formal information in decision-making, our focus is on the use of STI in science, technology and innovation (S&T) policy, a domain in which there is ...


The Capacity-Building Support Activities Of The Integrated Support Center For Nuclear Nonproliferation And Nuclear Security Of The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Yosuke Naoi, Kalman A. Robertson, Naoko Noro 2016 Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security, Japan Atomic Energy Agency

The Capacity-Building Support Activities Of The Integrated Support Center For Nuclear Nonproliferation And Nuclear Security Of The Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Yosuke Naoi, Kalman A. Robertson, Naoko Noro

International Journal of Nuclear Security

International cooperation is essential to support states in building the human resources necessary for maintaining and strengthening nuclear security. As the nation’s only comprehensive nuclear research and development institute, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has long-standing experience developing and operating nuclear technology in all steps of the fuel cycle. The Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) was established within the JAEA in December 2010 as Japan’s Center of Excellence for nuclear security. The ISCN provides assistance with capacity building to states throughout Asia and some other regions. The objective of this article is ...


Teaching Agent-Based Computational Economics To Graduate Students, Leigh Tesfatsion 2016 Iowa State University

Teaching Agent-Based Computational Economics To Graduate Students, Leigh Tesfatsion

Leigh Tesfatsion

Agent-based computational economics (ACE) is roughly defined as the computational study of economies modeled as evolving decentralized systems of autonomous interacting agents. A key focus of ACE research is understanding how global regularities' arise from the-bottom^up, through the repeated local interactions-of autonomous agents channeled through socioeconomic institutions, rather than from top down coordination mechanisms such as imposed market clearing constraints or an assumption of single representative agents. This paper discusses how ACE materials have been.introduced into graduate-level courses in macroeconomic theory over the past several years, using an ACE labor market framework for concrete illustration...


Spaceways: Airspace In Outer Space, Scott Haeffelin 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Spaceways: Airspace In Outer Space, Scott Haeffelin

Space Traffic Management Conference

Forecasted future demand in space travel is driving the need for the development of space traffic management. Currently, orbital space traffic is mostly unregulated with internationally agreed upon best practices and self-interest driving space operators to avoid collisions with other spacecraft. This paper explores the future of space travel by presenting a concept of creating “airspace in space” or spaceways to manage the ever growing volumes of space traffic. Spaceways are analogous to airspace for aircraft with the goal of increasing levels of safety and reducing probabilities of collision. These goals can be achieved by creating traffic rules, defining valuable ...


Open Source, Modular Platforms, And The Challenge Of Fragmentation, Christopher S. Yoo 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Open Source, Modular Platforms, And The Challenge Of Fragmentation, Christopher S. Yoo

Faculty Scholarship

Open source and modular platforms represent two powerful conceptual paradigms that have fundamentally transformed the software industry. While generally regarded complementary, the freedom inherent in open source rests in uneasy tension with the strict structural requirements required by modularity theory. In particular, third party providers can produce noncompliant components, and excessive experimentation can fragment the platform in ways that reduce its economic benefits for end users and app providers and force app providers to spend resources customizing their code for each variant. The classic solutions to these problems are to rely on some form of testing to ensure that the ...


Institutional Change And Innovation System Transformation: A Tale Of Two Academies, Maria Karaulova, Oliver Shackleton, Weishu Liu, Abdullah Gok, Philip Shapira 2016 University of Manchester; Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa

Institutional Change And Innovation System Transformation: A Tale Of Two Academies, Maria Karaulova, Oliver Shackleton, Weishu Liu, Abdullah Gok, Philip Shapira

Philip Shapira

This paper investigates interactions between institutional adaptation and the transformation of science and innovation systems by analysing change and adjustment in post-socialist science academies. Two leading examples are examined: the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). A heuristic framework of institutional change markers is applied to the analysis of nanotechnology research in both countries. We draw on bibliometric sources, interviews and secondary sources. We find that while the two Academies share a common past as the dominant research agents in their respective systems, their current positions and trajectories now differ. The nanotechnology case shows ...


The Science Court: Reminiscence And Retrospective, Allan Mazur 2016 University of New Hampshire

The Science Court: Reminiscence And Retrospective, Allan Mazur

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

A self-described "agnostic" on the merits of the Science Court proposal describes how he independently arrived at a similar notion and played a role in efforts to secure a major test of the proposal. Professor Mazur also analyzes university-based experiments structured around that model and concludes that the controversial "judges" are probably unnecessary to achieve his original objectives.


Procedural Choices In Regulatory Science, Sheila Jasanoff 2016 University of New Hampshire

Procedural Choices In Regulatory Science, Sheila Jasanoff

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

This paper compares four approaches to using science in regulatory decision making - one very similar to the Science Court proposal. Professor Jasanoff argues generally that that proposal would be less useful than procedures more sensitive to the distinctive characteristics of regulatory science.


Science Courts, Evidentiary Procedures And Mixed Science-Policy Decisions, Carl F. Cranor 2016 University of New Hampshire

Science Courts, Evidentiary Procedures And Mixed Science-Policy Decisions, Carl F. Cranor

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

This paper analyzes the potential for science courts to address the social need to regulate human carcinogens and concludes that, on balance, it is not high. From this vantage point, Professor Cranor suggests desiderata for application in other areas where science courts might be used.


Elitism Vs. Checks And Balances In Communicating Scientific Information To The Public, Arthur Kantrowitz 2016 University of New Hampshire

Elitism Vs. Checks And Balances In Communicating Scientific Information To The Public, Arthur Kantrowitz

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The "father of the Science Court" describes his objective in proposing the institution as it has come to be known, his efforts to get a major public test of the concept, and insights gained since the initial proposal was made in 1967.


Risk Regulation At The Federal Level: Administrative Procedure Constraints And Opportunities, Jeffrey S. Lubbers 2016 University of New Hampshire

Risk Regulation At The Federal Level: Administrative Procedure Constraints And Opportunities, Jeffrey S. Lubbers

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

An introduction to the legal framework within which employees of the "twigs" on our fourth branch of government must operate. Particular attention is given to research sponsored by the Administrative Conference of the United States which has dealt with, for example, process problems in resolving specific issues and in building consensus on broad policy matters. [Excerpt] “Administrative agencies - the "twigs" on our fourth branch of government - are established to handle the details of administration deemed too painstaking, technically complex or even controversial for direct Congressional or Presidential involvement. In the current government structure, sometimes called the "modem administrative state," these ...


Indigenous Adoption Of Internet Voting: A Case Study Of Whitefish River First Nation, Chelsea Gabel, Nicole Goodman, Karen Bird, Brian Budd 2016 McMaster University

Indigenous Adoption Of Internet Voting: A Case Study Of Whitefish River First Nation, Chelsea Gabel, Nicole Goodman, Karen Bird, Brian Budd

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

Indigenous communities and organizations are increasingly using digital technologies to build community capacity, strengthen community consultation, and improve political participation. In particular, Internet voting is a type of technology to which First Nations have been drawn. This article explores Whitefish River First Nation's (WRFN) experience introducing Internet voting in the course of ratifying a new matrimonial real property law (MRP). Specifically, we examine the implications of Internet voting for political participation and electoral administration at the community level. Although community members’ uptake of Internet voting was very modest, we find the experience of adoption had other subtle impacts on ...


Graphene Research And Enterprise: Mapping Innovation And Business Growth In A Strategic Emerging Technology, Philip Shapira, Abdullah Gok, Fatemeh Salehi 2016 University of Manchester; Georgia Institute of Technology

Graphene Research And Enterprise: Mapping Innovation And Business Growth In A Strategic Emerging Technology, Philip Shapira, Abdullah Gok, Fatemeh Salehi

Philip Shapira

This paper explores enterprise development and commercialization in the field of graphene. Firm characteristics and relationships, value chain positioning, and factors associated with product entry are examined for a set of 65 graphene-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises located in 16 different countries. As well as secondary sources and bibliometric methods to profile developments in graphene, we use computerized data mining and analytical techniques, including cluster and regression modeling, to identify patterns from publicly available online information on enterprise web sites. We identify groups of graphene small and medium-sized enterprises differentiated by how they are involved with graphene, the materials they ...


Social Ecological Food Systems: Sustainability Lessons From Maine Dairy Networks, Julia B. McGuire 2016 University of Maine

Social Ecological Food Systems: Sustainability Lessons From Maine Dairy Networks, Julia B. Mcguire

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Milk production has played an integral role in the culture, landscape, and economy of Maine’s agriculture. Maine dairy farmers have faced numerous sustainability challenges to economic, environmental, and social aspects of their industry. Like many other complex social ecological systems, the Maine dairy industry faces a gap between scientific knowledge and actionable management or policy. A cultural dichotomy exists between conventional and organic farming. Shifting the focus from this binary, metrics such as social capital may play a key role in solving sustainability issues. Difficulties arise in the governance of complex social ecological systems when the scales of assessment ...


Broadband And Mobile Internet Services In Nonmetropolitan Nebraska: 2016 Nebraska Rural Poll Results, Rebecca Vogt, Cheryl Burkhart-Kriesel, Randolph Cantrell, Bradley Lubben, Larry R McElravy Jr 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Broadband And Mobile Internet Services In Nonmetropolitan Nebraska: 2016 Nebraska Rural Poll Results, Rebecca Vogt, Cheryl Burkhart-Kriesel, Randolph Cantrell, Bradley Lubben, Larry R Mcelravy Jr

Publications from the Center for Applied Rural Innovation (CARI)

A recent Pew Research Center survey revealed that home broadband adoption has plateaued in the United States. In addition, there has been an increase in adults who use a smartphone to access the Internet but do not have traditional broadband service in their home. Given these national trends, how do rural Nebraskans access the Internet? Are they accessing the Internet from their cell phones? Are they subscribing to high-speed Internet services at home? How satisfied are they with their Internet services? How important do they feel Internet access is for various items? This paper provides a detailed analysis of these ...


Dawn Or Doom: The Risks And Rewards Of Emerging Technologies, Diana Hancock, Steve Tally, Gerry McCartney, Michele Arthur 2016 Purdue University

Dawn Or Doom: The Risks And Rewards Of Emerging Technologies, Diana Hancock, Steve Tally, Gerry Mccartney, Michele Arthur

Purdue P-12 Networking Summit & Poster Session

Dawn or Doom is a free and open to the public conference at Purdue where we focus on benefits and risks surrounding some of the technologies that are both the most disruptive to current practices and being adopted the fastest. A collection of Purdue faculty experts and some outside speakers showcase their many perspectives related to this technology explosion, explore conditions that will foster innovation and investment into the next generation, and address the big-picture issues where both optimism and pessimism are warranted.


The Development Of U.S. Agricultural Research And Education: An Economic Perspective, Wallace E. Huffman, Robert E. Evenson 2016 Iowa State University

The Development Of U.S. Agricultural Research And Education: An Economic Perspective, Wallace E. Huffman, Robert E. Evenson

Wallace Huffman

This Centennial year of the Hatch Act, which established state agricultural experiment stations in the United States, provides an opportunity to reflect on the beginning, development, growth, and impacts ,of agricultural research and education in the United States. Public sector agricultural research started in the United States in the mid-19th century. Private sector inventive activity started even earlier. Major landmarks in public sector institutions for agricultural research were the establishment of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1862, the Morrill Act of 1862 giving federal land-grants to each state for the support of a college to teach agri culture ...


The Development Of U.S. Agricultural Research And Education: An Economic Perspective, Wallace E. Huffman, Robert E. Evenson 2016 Iowa State University

The Development Of U.S. Agricultural Research And Education: An Economic Perspective, Wallace E. Huffman, Robert E. Evenson

Wallace Huffman

This Centennial year of the Hatch Act, which established state agri cultural experiment stations in the United States, provides an opportunity to reflect on the beginning, development, growth, and impacts of agricultural research and education in the United States, Public sector agricultural research started in the United States in the mid-19th century. Private sector inventive activity started even earlier. Major landmarks in public sector institutions for agricultural research were the establishment of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1862, the Morrill Act of 1862 giving federal land-grants to each state for the support of a college to teach agri ...


Nuclear Waste Burial In Canada? The Political Controversy Over The Proposal To Construct A Deep Geologic Repository, Erika Simpson 2016 Western University

Nuclear Waste Burial In Canada? The Political Controversy Over The Proposal To Construct A Deep Geologic Repository, Erika Simpson

Political Science Publications

Canada’s newly minted federal minister of the environment, Catherine McKenna, decided on February 18, 2016 to delay the federal government’s decision on a proposal to construct a permanent repository for nuclear waste beneath the Bruce nuclear site, little more than a kilometre from Lake Huron. Officially called a ‘deep geologic repository’, or DGR, the facility is the brainchild of Ontario Power Generation. While it would not store fuel rods from nuclear plants, it would take in all other types of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes including concrete, equipment and protective gear from the continued operation and planned refurbishment ...


Power Of Perspective: The Effects Of Public Perceptions Of Police And Fear Of Crime On Attitudes Towards Aerial Drone Use, Olivia G. Tuttle, Miliaikeala S.j. Heen, Mari Sakiyama, Terance D. Miethe, Joel D. Lieberman 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Power Of Perspective: The Effects Of Public Perceptions Of Police And Fear Of Crime On Attitudes Towards Aerial Drone Use, Olivia G. Tuttle, Miliaikeala S.J. Heen, Mari Sakiyama, Terance D. Miethe, Joel D. Lieberman

Graduate Research Symposium (GCUA)

Historically, unmanned aerial systems (UAS; i.e., drones) have largely been used by the military and federal government. As UAS have become more affordable and easier to operate in recent years, state and local law enforcement agencies have become interested in adopting this technology to facilitate a wide range of police activities (e.g., search and rescue, surveillance, tactical operations, etc.). The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has begun to regulate the use of unmanned aerial systems, which will likely lead to the increased use of drone technology by law enforcement agencies across the country in upcoming years. However, previous research ...


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