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Finland: Government Guarantee Fund, Blanket Guarantee, 1992, Anmol Makhija 2022 Yale School of Management

Finland: Government Guarantee Fund, Blanket Guarantee, 1992, Anmol Makhija

Journal of Financial Crises

Following a period of rapid financial liberalization and a record credit boom in the 1980s, Finland’s financial system suffered steadily increasing loan losses and falling earnings beginning in 1990. The Finnish Parliament created the Government Guarantee Fund (GGF) in April 1992 to support banks with loans, capital, and guarantees. In a press release issued on August 6, 1992, the government said the GGF would “secure the stable functioning of the banking system under any circumstances [emphasis added]”. Six months later, the Parliament of Finland specifically required the GGF to guarantee that all Finnish banks could meet their commitments. The government …


Denmark: General Guarantee Scheme, 2008, Benjamin Hoffner 2022 Yale School of Management

Denmark: General Guarantee Scheme, 2008, Benjamin Hoffner

Journal of Financial Crises

As foreign credit in Denmark dried up during the summer of 2008, Danish banks became increasingly reliant on short-term borrowing. The government took over the failing Roskilde Bank, the country’s eighth-largest bank, in late August. On October 5, 2008, the government announced a voluntary General Guarantee Scheme to fully insure deposits and other senior liabilities of participating banks. Banks could participate in the scheme by becoming members of the financial sector’s banking consortium, Det Private Beredskab, or in English, the Private Contingency Association (PCA), before October 13, 2008. The General Guarantee Scheme fully insured all depositors and senior unsecured creditors …


Blanket Guarantees Survey, Christian M. McNamara, Carey K. Mott, Greg Feldberg, Andrew Metrick 2022 Yale School of Management

Blanket Guarantees Survey, Christian M. Mcnamara, Carey K. Mott, Greg Feldberg, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

This paper surveys 10 blanket guarantee (BG) programs across 13 Key Design Decisions. The defining characteristics of these programs in terms of their inclusion in our BG series are (a) that they guaranteed a broader range of liabilities beyond deposit accounts and (b) that the guarantees covered existing liabilities in addition to newly issued ones. Each case represents an effort to eliminate creditors’ incentive to withdraw funding from institutions by guaranteeing that the funding will be paid back even if the institutions are unable to do so themselves. The main themes that emerge are: (a) the inability of blanket guarantees …


Reserve Requirements Survey, June Rhee, Carey K. Mott, Greg Feldberg, Andrew Metrick 2022 Yale School of Management

Reserve Requirements Survey, June Rhee, Carey K. Mott, Greg Feldberg, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

Banks have a private motive to hold some level of cash and liquid reserves, but the negative externalities of bank runs create a public interest in setting a regulatory level higher than the privately optimal level. We can think of such reserve requirements (RRs) as the original form of liquidity regulation. In this paper, we focus on 14 cases in which central banks adjusted RRs after crises hit, typically to deal with liquidity shortages in the banking system. We observe that RR adjustments have several advantages in a crisis: (1) such changes require little process, and the change for banks …


The Financialization Of Recession Response, Aaron Klein 2022 Economic Studies, the Brookings Institution

The Financialization Of Recession Response, Aaron Klein

Journal of Financial Crises

This paper analyzes economic policy responses to the COVID-19-induced recession, focusing on the American policy response. Despite widespread political distrust between the two parties sharing control of the government and the timing of the upcoming presidential election, America’s political system was able to enact a massive policy response that reduced the severity of the recession. This political response happened faster than any automatic policy response would have, based on the delays in data reporting. The economic policies enacted continued America’s trend toward financialization of fiscal policy. The Federal Reserve and America’s private banking and financial systems were heavily relied upon …


Digital Technology Enables Construction Of National Governance Modernization, Yue HAO, Kaihua CHEN, Jin KANG, Xiaoguang YANG, Chao ZHANG, Xiaolong ZHENG 2022 Xidian University, Xi'an 710126, China

Digital Technology Enables Construction Of National Governance Modernization, Yue Hao, Kaihua Chen, Jin Kang, Xiaoguang Yang, Chao Zhang, Xiaolong Zheng

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

As digital technologies continue to be integrated into the whole process of economic and social development, promoting the modernization of digital technology-enabled national governance systems and capabilities has become an important way to seize the strategic initiative in the future world competitive landscape, and has attracted the attention of countries around the world. The rapid development of digital technologies such as big data collection, storage, processing, and analysis is constantly optimizing the organizational system structure of national governance, upgrading and perfecting the quality and methods of national governance personnel, and accelerating the process of making national governance efficient, scientific, intelligent …


Deepening Digital Technologies To Enable Modernization Of China’S Governance Of Health, Tara Qia SUN, Xia FENG, Yuntao LONG, Zongben XU 2022 School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Chin

Deepening Digital Technologies To Enable Modernization Of China’S Governance Of Health, Tara Qia Sun, Xia Feng, Yuntao Long, Zongben Xu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

One significant goal of science and technology innovation is to set our sights on the health and safety of the people. The rapid development of digital technologies provides multiple potentials and path to achieve the modernization of China's health governance. the role of digital technologies on enabling multiple stakeholders (i.e., hospitals, doctors, government, and social groups) to improve the supply capacity, the inclusiveness, fairness, friendliness, and convenience of health service. Second, we explore the four key issues of using digital technologies to enable the governance of health construction of digital health infrastructures, the factors affecting the adoption of digital technologies, …


Strengthen Fundamental Role Of Data Element Governance In National Governance Modernization, Kaihua CHEN, Zhuo FENG, Rui GUO, Yue HAO, Jin KANG, Xiaoguang YANG, Chao ZHANG, Binbin ZHAO 2022 School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China

Strengthen Fundamental Role Of Data Element Governance In National Governance Modernization, Kaihua Chen, Zhuo Feng, Rui Guo, Yue Hao, Jin Kang, Xiaoguang Yang, Chao Zhang, Binbin Zhao

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Data element governance is a key factor to promote the modernization of national governance in the digital era. By strengthening the deep integration of data factors and national governance, a new model of data-driven national governance can be formed, and the national governance can be made more scientific, refined, intelligent, and efficient. The US and European countries have continuously strengthened the top-level system design, technological innovation application, collaborative governance mechanism, and global governance cooperation of data element governance, which has effectively improved the level of data element governance and provided experience for China. Nevertheless, due to the virtuality of data …


Strategic Perspective Of Leveraging New Generation Information Technology To Enable Modernization Of Emergency Management, Haibo ZHANG, Xinyu DAI, Depei QIAN, Jian LYU 2022 School of Government, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China

Strategic Perspective Of Leveraging New Generation Information Technology To Enable Modernization Of Emergency Management, Haibo Zhang, Xinyu Dai, Depei Qian, Jian Lyu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The application and development of the new generation information technology is a vital support to realize the modernization of emergency management. At present, the new generation information technology such as big data and artificial intelligence has been widely used in natural disasters, safe production, and other fields. It has improved the monitoring and early warning, regulation and law enforcement, command and decision support, rescue, and social mobilization capabilities of governments, promoted the level of intrinsic safety of enterprises, provided important support for the precise prevention and control of the COVID-19, and increased the efficiency of China’s emergency management and sense …


Digital Technology Enables Modernization Of National Statistics, Zongben XU, Yanyun ZHAO, Liping ZHU, Guang CHEN, Hongyun ZHANG 2022 School of Mathematics and Statistics, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China

Digital Technology Enables Modernization Of National Statistics, Zongben Xu, Yanyun Zhao, Liping Zhu, Guang Chen, Hongyun Zhang

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The modernization of national statistics is part of the modernization of national governance. Digital technology has provided power for the transformation of statistical production mode, the improvement of statistical productivity, and the reconstruction of statistical production relations. Digital technology has become an important prerequisite for the promotion of statistical modernization reform. This study summarizes the international experience of digital technology enabling government statistics, the top-level design of national statistical legal system, and the importance of digital technology in promoting the modernization of statistics. This study also analyzes the main challenges existing in the current national statistics and data work. Finally, …


Frequently Asked Questions: 2022 Public Access Policy Guidance, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Frequently Asked Questions: 2022 Public Access Policy Guidance, White House Office Of Science And Technology Policy

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Includes a list of frequently asked questions and answers for the 2022 White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Public Access Policy guidance, including answering questions such as "What is meant by public access to federally funded research?" and "What impact will the policy guidance have on specific business models for scholarly publishing?"


Manufactured Homes In Nevada Counties, Joshua Padilla, Annie Vong, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Manufactured Homes In Nevada Counties, Joshua Padilla, Annie Vong, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Housing & Real Estate

This fact sheet presents data on the share of manufactured homes in each of Nevada’s 17 counties, as reported in the June 2022 The Daily Yonder article, “With Housing Shortage Still Ongoing, Manufactured Homes are Gaining Ground,” by Kristi Eaton. The original report includes data made available by the Housing Assistance Council (HAC) for each county in the United States from 2009 and 2018.


Unwilling Gamblers And Loaded Dice: Considering Recession And Crisis As A Natural Effect Of Financial Capitalism, Darlene N. Moorman 2022 Cleveland State University

Unwilling Gamblers And Loaded Dice: Considering Recession And Crisis As A Natural Effect Of Financial Capitalism, Darlene N. Moorman

The Downtown Review

Under financial capitalism, ordinary people are increasingly becoming 'unwilling gamblers' of a risky and unstable system. This paper explores the social and institutional change behind the neoliberal movement and considers how the politics and policies of neoliberalism have contributed to a certain environment of financial instability. Looking at the changing nature of the economy, the rapid expansion of the financial sector, and the persisting issue of moral hazard underlying risky and speculative behaviors among other items, reveals a financial system in which recessions and crises can be considered a natural, although not inevitable, effect.


Examining The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Violent Crime In The City Of Pittsburgh, Brittany Urban 2022 Duquesne University

Examining The Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Violent Crime In The City Of Pittsburgh, Brittany Urban

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to examine patterns of Part I crimes [including Part I Person/Violent: Homicide, Rape, Aggravated Assault, and Robbery, and Part I Property: Burglary, Larceny-Theft, Motor Vehicle Theft, and Arson, as defined by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Standards] in The City of Pittsburgh, framing the COVID-19 pandemic as a major stressor that Robert Agnew’s General Strain Theory suggests may lead to increased opportunity for crime, due to the perceived unjustness of the associated lockdown orders and potential incentive for criminal coping (Agnew 1992). This descriptive analysis is based primarily upon …


A Program Evaluation Of The Project Roomkey In Santa Clara, San Francisco, And Alameda Counties, Louella Sevegan 2022 San Jose State University

A Program Evaluation Of The Project Roomkey In Santa Clara, San Francisco, And Alameda Counties, Louella Sevegan

Master's Projects

During the early months of 2020, the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) had a significant impact on the homeless population. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Community Planning and Development defines a homeless person as someone who "lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence" (Henry, et al., 2020, page 2). According to a report conducted by Culhane et al. (2020), the homeless population has a higher chance of being infected by COVID-19 than the general population. Issues such as inadequate access to sanitation or proper hygiene, and the inability to isolate, especially in a congregate …


Prevent Violence, Strengthen Democracy: Electoral Codes Of Conduct For The United States, Cathy Buerger, Tonei Glavinic 2022 Dangerous Speech Project

Prevent Violence, Strengthen Democracy: Electoral Codes Of Conduct For The United States, Cathy Buerger, Tonei Glavinic

Peace and Conflict Studies

As the events of 2020 and January 2021 demonstrated, the United States is not immune from election-related violence, yet efforts to reduce such violence are typically only used in the international development context rather than domestically. One strategy the U.S. advocates for in fledgling democracies is electoral codes of conduct – agreements in which politicians and parties agree to refrain from certain types of harmful speech and behavior, such as targeted harassment of marginalized groups, disinformation, and incitement to violence. In this paper, the authors analyze electoral codes of conduct around the world that restrict political speech in various contexts, …


Payday Loans In The Mountain West, 2022, Issac Hernandez-Alcaraz, Vanessa M. Booth, Katie M. Gilbertson, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Payday Loans In The Mountain West, 2022, Issac Hernandez-Alcaraz, Vanessa M. Booth, Katie M. Gilbertson, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Economic Development & Workforce

This fact sheet examines data on payday loans, produced by the Pew Charitable Trusts. We examine payday lending costs, most common loan type, and the average annual percentage rate in the Mountain West (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah), and include specific analysis on differences between the states by regulatory category.


Births In The Mountain West, 2016-2020, Corryn Richardson, Hira Ahmed, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Births In The Mountain West, 2016-2020, Corryn Richardson, Hira Ahmed, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Health

This fact sheet examines state-level data on births and health indicators from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), a government health statistics unit of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This fact sheet presents data related to births in the Mountain West states of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah.


Drought Levels In Nevada Counties, 2022, Julianna Jovillar, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr. 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Drought Levels In Nevada Counties, 2022, Julianna Jovillar, Caitlin J. Saladino, William E. Brown Jr.

Environment

This fact sheet synthesizes data on drought levels within Nevada counties from the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) in 2022. The information presented in this document focuses on the breakdown of the number of Nevada residents affected by the droughts within each county and the drought experience in each county.


The Relationship Between Residential Land-Use Regulations And Regional Air Pollutants, Caren Royce Yap 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Relationship Between Residential Land-Use Regulations And Regional Air Pollutants, Caren Royce Yap

Student Papers / Brookings Minor Culminating Projects

As cities continue to grow at exponential rates, land use regulations, specifically density restrictions, have been implemented to mitigate economic effects, from increasing housing prices to difficult public transportation construction. These regulations range in type, taking into account factors regarding the most effective urban form for cities and recently the presence of COVID-19. Land use effects on housing prices are also adjacent to tackle the climate crisis. Two of the most common air pollutants, PM 2.5 and Ozone, are run in a comparative analysis to areas with varying measures of density restrictions to detect a possible association using multiple regression …


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