Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Policy History, Theory, and Methods Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

874 Full-Text Articles 671 Authors 293,170 Downloads 118 Institutions

All Articles in Policy History, Theory, and Methods

Faceted Search

874 full-text articles. Page 1 of 32.

Paradise Found? Food Transportation Regulation: A Detour Through Regulatory Purgatory, William Nash 2020 McGuire Woods

Paradise Found? Food Transportation Regulation: A Detour Through Regulatory Purgatory, William Nash

Journal of Food Law & Policy

On January 31, 2014, the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ("NPRM") that would set requirements for shippers, carriers and receivers of food transported in intrastate and interstate commerce. The NPRM marks a potentially important step in a long history of the (non-)regulation of food transportation. In Parts I and II, this paper will provide some context of the history of food transportation, as well as the major incidents that placed the food transportation industry on the regulatory map. In Parts III and IV, the paper will consider the history of food transportation regulation ...


Democracy Revoked: How Foreign Relations And Domestic Opinion Led To The Internment Of Japanese Americans During World War Ii, Clarisse M. Nakayama 2020 Trinity University

Democracy Revoked: How Foreign Relations And Domestic Opinion Led To The Internment Of Japanese Americans During World War Ii, Clarisse M. Nakayama

The Macksey Journal

This research project aims to explore the internment of Japanese Americans during World War Two through the lens of intersecting pressures from both the American federal government, headed by the War Relocation Authority, and public opinion through media and pop culture. The paper illustrates how these factors culminated in the dissolution and seizure of personal freedoms and constitutional rights of a minority for the sake of national security. Through the discussion of pre-existing scholarship and primary sources ranging from government documents and newspapers to letters and memoirs, my research re-evaluates the causes of American paranoia at the time, as well ...


Deregulatory Deceptions: Reviewing The Trump Administration’S Claims About Regulatory Reform, Cary Coglianese, Natasha Sarin, Stuart Shapiro 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Deregulatory Deceptions: Reviewing The Trump Administration’S Claims About Regulatory Reform, Cary Coglianese, Natasha Sarin, Stuart Shapiro

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

President Donald Trump and his supporters like to point to the positive economic trends the United States experienced prior to the COVID pandemic. They argue that these positive conditions stemmed from the President’s policies, especially his emphasis on deregulation. But what has the Trump Administration really accomplished when it comes to deregulation? The answer is much less than the Administration has claimed—and much less than probably most members of the public would surmise. We compare the claims the Administration has made about its deregulatory accomplishments with what the evidence can sustain. Drawing on an original compilation of data ...


Lessons Learned: Donald Kohn, Maryann Haggerty 2020 Yale University

Lessons Learned: Donald Kohn, Maryann Haggerty

Journal of Financial Crises

Kohn, an economist, is a 40-year veteran of the Federal Reserve System. He served as a member of the Board of Governors, and was vice chair, from 2002-2010, which included the years of the global financial crisis (GFC).


The United Kingdom's Asset Purchase Program (U.K. Gfc), Ariel Smith 2020 Yale University

The United Kingdom's Asset Purchase Program (U.K. Gfc), Ariel Smith

Journal of Financial Crises

On March 5, 2009, in the wake of the fallout from the Global Financial Crisis, the Monetary Policy Committee of the Bank of England announced a new, unconventional policy measure: quantitative easing. The MPC determined that simply cutting the Bank Rate in the face of a recession would not be enough to boost spending and increase inflation to meet the Bank’s goal of a 2% CPI-inflation target in the medium term. Rather, over the course of the next year, the Bank purchased £200 billion of assets—primarily gilts—in reverse auctions through a newly created Asset Purchase Program. After ...


The European Central Bank's Covered Bond Purchase Programs I And Ii (Ecb Gfc), Ariel Smith 2020 Yale University

The European Central Bank's Covered Bond Purchase Programs I And Ii (Ecb Gfc), Ariel Smith

Journal of Financial Crises

In July 2009, the European Central Bank introduced a nonstandard measure to revitalize the European covered bond market, which at the time financed about one-fifth of mortgages in Europe. The market struggled after the collapse of Lehman Brothers as the global financial crisis intensified in 2008. Over the course of the program, which lasted 12 months, European central banks, collectively known as “the Eurosystem,” conducted direct purchases in both primary and secondary markets to a total of €60 billion of covered bonds. The Eurosystem held the purchased covered bonds until maturity and made them eligible for lending to counterparties as ...


The European Central Bank's Securities Markets Programme (Ecb Gfc), Ariel Smith 2020 Yale University

The European Central Bank's Securities Markets Programme (Ecb Gfc), Ariel Smith

Journal of Financial Crises

The Eurozone struggled during the escalation of the sovereign debt crisis in 2010. In order to aid malfunctioning securities markets, restore liquidity, and enable proper functioning of the monetary policy transmission mechanism, the European Central Bank (ECB) instituted the Securities Markets Programme (SMP) on May 9, 2010. This program enabled Eurosystem central banks to purchase securities from entities in Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Italy, and Spain. The program ended on September 6, 2012, and evaluations of its effectiveness are mixed.


The European Central Bank's Three-Year Long-Term Refinancing Operations (Ecb Gfc), Aidan Lawson 2020 Yale University

The European Central Bank's Three-Year Long-Term Refinancing Operations (Ecb Gfc), Aidan Lawson

Journal of Financial Crises

The announcement of the three-year Long-Term Refinancing Operations (LTROs) by the European Central Bank (ECB) on December 8, 2011, signaled the beginning of the largest ECB market liquidity programs to date. Continued and increasing liquidity-related pressures in the form of ballooning financial market credit default swap (CDS) spreads, Euro-area volatility, and interbank lending rates prompted a much more forceful ECB response than what had been done previously. The LTROs, using a repurchase (repo) agreement auction mechanism, allowed any Eurozone financial institution to tap essentially unlimited funding at a fixed rate of just 1%. Because the three-year LTROs were so similar ...


The Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (Talf) (U.S. Gfc), June Rhee 2020 Yale University

The Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (Talf) (U.S. Gfc), June Rhee

Journal of Financial Crises

In the fall of 2008, the securitization market, which was the major provider of credit for consumers and small businesses, came to a near halt. Investors in this market abandoned not only the residential mortgage-backed securities that triggered the financial crisis but also consumer and business asset-backed securities (ABS), which had a long track record of strong performance, and commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS). Also, the unprecedented widening of spreads for these securities rendered new issuance uneconomical, and the shutdown of the securitization market threatened to exacerbate the downturn in the economy.

On November 25, 2008, the Federal Reserve (the Fed ...


The Commercial Paper Funding Facility (U.S. Gfc), Rosalind Z. Wiggins 2020 Yale University

The Commercial Paper Funding Facility (U.S. Gfc), Rosalind Z. Wiggins

Journal of Financial Crises

In mid-September 2008, prime money market mutual funds (MMMFs) began experiencing run-like redemption requests sparked by one fund that had “broken the buck” because of large exposure to Lehman Brothers commercial paper (CP). As a result, MMMFs, which are significant investors in CP, became reluctant to hold CP. Within a week, outstanding CP had been reduced by roughly $300 billion. The CP market experienced severe shortening of maturities and increased rates, making it difficult for issuers to place new paper. When government efforts to assist the MMMFs did not resolve the stresses in the CP market, the Federal Reserve announced ...


Market Liquidity Programs: Gfc And Before, June Rhee, Greg Feldberg, Ariel Smith, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Market Liquidity Programs: Gfc And Before, June Rhee, Greg Feldberg, Ariel Smith, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

The virulence of the Global Financial Crisis of 2007–09 (GFC) was explained in large part by the increased reliance of the global financial system on market-based funding and the lack of preexisting tools to address a disruption in that type of system. This paper surveys market liquidity programs (MLPs), which we define as government interventions in which the key motivation is to stabilize liquidity in a specific wholesale funding market that is under stress. Most of the MLPs surveyed in this paper were launched during and after the GFC, but two pre-GFC MLPs are included. A subsequent survey on ...


Unrules, Cary Coglianese, Gabriel Scheffler, Daniel Walters 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Unrules, Cary Coglianese, Gabriel Scheffler, Daniel Walters

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

At the center of contemporary debates over public law lies administrative agencies’ discretion to impose rules. Yet, for every one of these rules, there are also unrules nearby. Often overlooked and sometimes barely visible, unrules are the decisions that regulators make to lift or limit the scope of a regulatory obligation, for instance through waivers, exemptions, and exceptions. In some cases, unrules enable regulators to reduce burdens on regulated entities or to conserve valuable government resources in ways that make law more efficient. However, too much discretion to create unrules can facilitate undue business influence over the law, weaken regulatory ...


A Century Later: Rural Public Health's Enduring Challenges And Opportunities., Erika C. Ziller PhD, Carly Milkowski MPH 2020 University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center

A Century Later: Rural Public Health's Enduring Challenges And Opportunities., Erika C. Ziller Phd, Carly Milkowski Mph

Population Health

The US public health community has demonstrated increasing awareness of rural health disparities in the past several years. Although current interest is high, the topic is not new, and some of the earliest public health literature includes reports on infectious disease and sanitation in rural places. Continuing through the first third of the 20th century, dozens of articles documented rural disparities in infant and maternal mortality, sanitation and water safety, health care access, and among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color communities. Current rural research reveals similar challenges, and strategies suggested for addressing rural-urban health disparities 100 years ago resonate ...


The Irony Of Health Care’S Public Option, Allison K. Hoffman 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

The Irony Of Health Care’S Public Option, Allison K. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The idea of a public health insurance option is at least a half century old, but has not yet had its day in the limelight. This chapter explains why if that moment ever comes, health care’s public option will fall short of expectations that it will provide a differentiated, meaningful alternative to private health insurance and will spur health insurance competition.

Health care’s public option bubbled up in its best-known form in California in the early 2000s and got increasing mainstream attention in the lead up to the 2010 health reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ...


Public Administration, Methods Approach: History Research--Selected Bibliography, Sue Ann Gardner 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Public Administration, Methods Approach: History Research--Selected Bibliography, Sue Ann Gardner

Faculty Publications, UNL Libraries

Public administration, methods approach: Historical research. Includes a list of bibliographical references pertinent to the topic.


Brave New World: Ethical Considerations And Risks, Rhonda S. Binda 2020 CUNY Medgar Evers College

Brave New World: Ethical Considerations And Risks, Rhonda S. Binda

Open Educational Resources

The trifecta of globalization, urbanization and digitization have created new opportunities and challenges across our nation, cities, boroughs and urban centers. Cities in particular are in a unique position at the center of commerce and technology becoming hubs for innovation and practical application of emerging technology. In this rapidly changing 24/7 digitized world, governments are leveraging innovation and technology to become more effective, efficient, transparent and to be able to better plan for and anticipate the needs of its citizens, businesses and community organizations. This class will provide the framework for how cities and communities can become smarter and ...


Brave New World - Future Of Work And Automation, Rhonda S. Binda 2020 CUNY Medgar Evers College

Brave New World - Future Of Work And Automation, Rhonda S. Binda

Open Educational Resources

The trifecta of globalization, urbanization and digitization have created new opportunities and challenges across our nation, cities, boroughs and urban centers. Cities are in a unique position at the center of commerce and technology becoming hubs for innovation and practical application of emerging technology. In this rapidly changing 24/7 digitized world, city governments worldwide are leveraging innovation and technology to become more effective, efficient, transparent and to be able to better plan for and anticipate the needs of its citizens, businesses and community organizations. This class will provide the framework for how cities and communities can become smarter and ...


Brave New World - “Cmr” Index And The U.S. Congressional Smart Cities Caucus, Rhonda S. Binda 2020 CUNY Medgar Evers College

Brave New World - “Cmr” Index And The U.S. Congressional Smart Cities Caucus, Rhonda S. Binda

Open Educational Resources

The trifecta of globalization, urbanization and digitization have created new opportunities and challenges across our nation, cities, boroughs and urban centers. Cities are in a unique position at the center of commerce and technology becoming hubs for innovation and practical application of emerging technology. In this rapidly changing 24/7 digitized world, city governments worldwide are leveraging innovation and technology to become more effective, efficient, transparent and to be able to better plan for and anticipate the needs of its citizens, businesses and community organizations. This class will provide the framework for how cities and communities can become smarter and ...


Global To Local: Creating 'Glocal' Links For Diplomacy, Rhonda S. Binda 2020 CUNY Medgar Evers College

Global To Local: Creating 'Glocal' Links For Diplomacy, Rhonda S. Binda

Open Educational Resources

Over the past few years, “smart cities” have led in leveraging technology to modernize their services and infrastructure— and have emerged on the global stage on key issues of international concern. In 2017, Hidalgo and Horacio Rodríguez Larreta, Mayor of Buenos Aires, spearheaded the Urban 20 (U20), a platform for major cities in G20 countries to bring their “urban perspective” to the G20 member states in tackling common problems, showcasing their innovative approaches leveraging emerging technologies at the local level to tackle global issues. In April 2018, mayors from 20 cities signed the U20’s first Joint Declaration; six months ...


Exploring Approaches To Effective Evaluation For Public Diplomacy Exchange Programs, Alison Opoku Donyina 2020 SIT Graduate Institute/SIT Study Abroad

Exploring Approaches To Effective Evaluation For Public Diplomacy Exchange Programs, Alison Opoku Donyina

Capstone Collection

This study explores what factors have limited strategic measurement of outcomes for ‘mutual understanding’ across U.S. government-funded public diplomacy exchange programs by conducting a thorough desk review of available materials, completing a meta-review of twelve existing evaluation reports, and coupling this with interviews with eight evaluation practitioners. The sample of programs included were selected based on the criteria that ‘mutual understanding’ was an explicit goal in the program design. Programs included: Fulbright Student Program, Fulbright Scholar Program, International Visitors Leadership Program (IVLP), Youth Exchange and Study Program (YES), Future Leaders Exchange (FLEX) Program, and the Peace Corps.

This paper ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress