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Pharmacist-Prescribed Birth Control: A Policy Analysis, Brianna Full 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Pharmacist-Prescribed Birth Control: A Policy Analysis, Brianna Full

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Although unintended pregnancy in the United States has steadily decreased from 2008, rates are still unacceptably high as almost half (42%) of all pregnancies are not wanted or timed correctly (Finer & Zolna). In 2011, 2.8 million of the 6.1 million pregnancies in the United States each year were unintended. Public health professionals are worried about unintended pregnancy because research shows that unwanted or mistimed pregnancies come with associations to adverse maternal and child health outcomes, such as delayed prenatal care, premature birth, and negative physical and mental health effects for children (Frost, Frohwirth & Zolna, 2016). Also, two-thirds (68 ...


Impacting Agriculture And Natural Resource Policy: County Commissioners’ Decision-Making Behaviors And Communication Preferences, Kati Lawson, Kevin Kent, Shelli Rampold, Ricky W. Telg, Ashley McLeod-Morin 2020 University of Florida

Impacting Agriculture And Natural Resource Policy: County Commissioners’ Decision-Making Behaviors And Communication Preferences, Kati Lawson, Kevin Kent, Shelli Rampold, Ricky W. Telg, Ashley Mcleod-Morin

Journal of Applied Communications

Elected officials at the local, state, and national levels play key roles in shaping the agriculture and natural resources (ANR) sectors through the development and implementation of ANR policies and regulations. As such, it has become necessary for members of the ANR community to understand the policy formation process and how to communicate effectively with elected officials about ANR policies and issues. However, little research has been conducted at the local level to examine how local elected officials (LEOs) interact with information specific to ANR policies to make decisions. This study was designed to assess the communication and information-seeking preferences ...


Regulatory Abdication In Practice, Cary Coglianese 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Regulatory Abdication In Practice, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

“Meta-regulation” refers to deliberate efforts to induce private firms to create their own internal regulations—a regulatory strategy sometimes referred to as “management-based regulation” or even “regulation of self-regulation.” Meta-regulation is often presented as a flexible alternative to traditional “command-and-control” regulation. But does meta-regulation actually work? In her recent book, Meta-Regulation in Practice: Beyond Normative Views of Morality and Rationality, Fiona Simon purports to offer a critique of meta-regulation based on an extended case study of the often-feckless process of electricity regulatory reform undertaken in Australia in the early part of this century. Yet neither Simon’s case study nor ...


The Proof Is In The Process: Self-Reporting Under International Human Rights Treaties, Cosette D. Creamer, Beth A. Simmons 2020 University of Minnesota Law School

The Proof Is In The Process: Self-Reporting Under International Human Rights Treaties, Cosette D. Creamer, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Recent research has shown that state reporting to human rights monitoring bodies is associated with improvements in rights practices, calling into question earlier claims that self-reporting is inconsequential. Yet little work has been done to explore the theoretical mechanisms that plausibly account for this association. This Article systematically documents—across treaties, countries, and years—four mechanisms through which reporting can contribute to human rights improvements: elite socialization, learning and capacity building, domestic mobilization, and law development. These mechanisms have implications for the future of human rights treaty monitoring.


Social Science And The Analysis Of Environmental Policy, Cary Coglianese, Shana Starobin 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Social Science And The Analysis Of Environmental Policy, Cary Coglianese, Shana Starobin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As much as environmental problems manifest themselves as problems with the natural environment, environmental problems--and their solutions--are ultimately social and behavioral in nature. Just as the natural sciences provide a basis for understanding the need for environmental policy and informing its design, the social sciences also contribute in significant ways to the understanding of the behavioral sources of environmental problems, both in terms of individual incentives and collective action challenges. In addition, the social sciences have contributed much to the understanding of the ways that laws and other institutions can be designed to solve environmental problems. In this paper, we ...


A Truce In The Criminal Law Distributive Principle Wars?, Paul H. Robinson 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

A Truce In The Criminal Law Distributive Principle Wars?, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Crime-control utilitarians and retributivist philosophers have long been at war over the appropriate distributive principle for criminal liability and punishment, with little apparent possibility of reconciliation between the two. In the utilitarians’ view, the imposition of punishment can be justified only by the practical benefit that it provides: avoiding future crime. In the retributivists’ view, doing justice for past wrongs is a value in itself that requires no further justification. The competing approaches simply use different currencies: fighting future crime versus doing justice for past wrongs.

It is argued here that the two are in fact reconcilable, in a fashion ...


Methodological Dilemma In Microfinance Research: Applicability Of A Qualitative Case Study Design, Shahjahan Chowdhury, Faisal Ahmmed, Md. Ismail Hossain 2020 Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh

Methodological Dilemma In Microfinance Research: Applicability Of A Qualitative Case Study Design, Shahjahan Chowdhury, Faisal Ahmmed, Md. Ismail Hossain

The Qualitative Report

This paper sheds light on the methodological dilemma in microfinance research and examines the feasibility of conducting a qualitative case study. Microfinance research is dominated by quantitative impact studies. However, the issues of process and implementation are critical to make an impact. The paper argues that a qualitative case study method can be used as a supplement or an alternative to quantitative methodology, because it is context-specific and naturally enquires research problem. The in-depth and in-detail inquiry make the findings more robust, and readers can understand the meaning holistically by reading stories and quotes. The case study can be used ...


The Expansive Reach Of Pretrial Detention, Paul Heaton 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Expansive Reach Of Pretrial Detention, Paul Heaton

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Today we know much more about the effects of pretrial detention than we did even five years ago. Multiple empirical studies have emerged that shed new light on the far-reaching impacts of bail decisions made at the earliest stages of the criminal adjudication process. The takeaway from this new generation of studies is that pretrial detention has substantial downstream effects on both the operation of the criminal justice system and on defendants themselves, causally increasing the likelihood of a conviction, the severity of the sentence, and, in some jurisdictions, defendants’ likelihood of future contact with the criminal justice system. Detention ...


Global Corporate Social Responsibility And Policy Evolution In The Garment Industry: A Case Study From Bangladesh Using A Multiple-Streams Approach And Punctuated Equilibrium Theory, Tamar Maisashvili 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Global Corporate Social Responsibility And Policy Evolution In The Garment Industry: A Case Study From Bangladesh Using A Multiple-Streams Approach And Punctuated Equilibrium Theory, Tamar Maisashvili

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This research offers a new way to show how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) policy decisions are made in complex international settings. A theoretical framework based on Baumgartner and Jones’ Punctuated Equilibrium Theory and John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Approach is used to explore the development of the Accord on the Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh as a proposed independent and legally binding agreement governing garment factory conditions in that country. The Accord led to a series of audits aimed at reforming a large part of Bangladesh’s garment industry, hence there has been a shift in a working environment ...


Health Care Use And Access Among Rural And Urban Nonelderly Adult Medicare Beneficiaries, Erika T. Ziller PhD, Amanda Burgess MPPM, Deborah Thayer 2020 University of Southern Maine, Muskie School of Public Service, Maine Rural Health Research Center

Health Care Use And Access Among Rural And Urban Nonelderly Adult Medicare Beneficiaries, Erika T. Ziller Phd, Amanda Burgess Mppm, Deborah Thayer

Access / Insurance

Little is known about the characteristics and health care use of rural residents with disabilities. Using the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (2009-2013), we compared access to and use of health services among rural and urban nonelderly Medicare beneficiaries with a disability, and examined their health and functional status along with sociodemographic characteristics. We found that the characteristics of nonelderly Medicare beneficiaries with a disability reflected the differences observed between rural and urban populations overall: rural recipients were more likely than their urban peers to be older, non-Hispanic white, and have a lower level of educational attainment. Although self-reported access to ...


The Looming Crisis In Antitrust Economics, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Looming Crisis In Antitrust Economics, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As in so many areas of law and politics in the United States, antitrust’s center is at bay. It is besieged by a right wing that wants to limit antitrust even more than it has been limited over the last quarter century. On the left, it faces revisionists who propose significantly greater enforcement.

One thing the two extremes share, however, is denigration of the role of economics in antitrust analysis. On the right, the Supreme Court’s two most recent antitrust decisions at this writing reveal that economic analysis no longer occupies the central role that it once had ...


Incorporating Macroprudential Financial Regulation Into Monetary Policy, Aaron Klein 2020 The Brookings Institution

Incorporating Macroprudential Financial Regulation Into Monetary Policy, Aaron Klein

Journal of Financial Crises

This paper proposes two insights into financial regulation and monetary policy. The first enhances understanding the relationship between them, building on the automobile metaphor that describes monetary policy: when to accelerate or brake for curves miles ahead. Enhancing the metaphor, financial markets are the transmission. In a financial crisis, markets cease to function, equivalent to a transmission shifting into neutral. This explains both monetary policy’s diminished effectiveness in stimulating the economy and why the financial crisis shock to real economic output greatly exceeded central bank forecasts.

The second insight is that both excess leverage and fundamental mispricing of asset ...


On The Meaning Of Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

On The Meaning Of Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This brief essay addresses the ambiguities in the meaning of “consumer welfare” in antitrust, exploring the differences between the Williamson, Bork, and current understanding of that term. After weighing the alternatives it argues that the consumer welfare principle in antitrust should seek out that state of affairs in which output is maximized, consistent with sustainable competition


Taxing Bitcoin And Blockchains—What The Irs Told Us (And What It Didn’T), David J. Shakow 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Taxing Bitcoin And Blockchains—What The Irs Told Us (And What It Didn’T), David J. Shakow

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The IRS recently issued its second description of how it will treat Bitcoin and other blockchain assets. Some of its analysis leaves open questions that invite further consideration, and important issues remain unresolved. Moreover, because the popular Bitcoin blockchain uses a "proof of work" consensus procedure, issues relating to the alternative "proof of stake" procedure have been neglected.


Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky 2020 Bar-Ilan University - Faculty of Law

Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Recent years have witnessed a considerable growth of passive fund at the expense of active funds. This trend picked in 2019, a year that saw passive funds surpass active funds in terms of assets under management. The continuous decline of active funds is a cause for concern. Active funds engage in monitoring of firms and partake of decision-making in companies in their portfolio. The cost of these activities are born exclusively by active funds; the benefits, by contrast, are spread over all shareholders, including passive funds that freeride on the efforts of active funds. The contraction of active funds threatens ...


The Uncertain Stewardship Potential Of Index Funds, Jill E. Fisch 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Uncertain Stewardship Potential Of Index Funds, Jill E. Fisch

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Regulators and commentators around the world are increasingly demanding that institutional investors engage in stewardship with respect to their portfolio companies. Further, the demand for stewardship has broadened from an expectation that investors engage to reduce agency costs and promote economic value to a call for investors to demand that companies serve a broader range of societal interests and objectives. This chapter considers calls for stewardship in the context of the U.S. capital markets specifically as applied to index funds. It argues that, irrespective of the merits of institutional stewardship generally, the structure of index funds and the business ...


Towards A Resilient Future: Federal Policies For Adapting The U.S. Coasts To Climate Change, Samuel Horowitz 2020 Pitzer College

Towards A Resilient Future: Federal Policies For Adapting The U.S. Coasts To Climate Change, Samuel Horowitz

Pitzer Senior Theses

Climate change is projected to have a devastating impact on the American coast, yet coastal communities and states have largely failed to prepare for projected impacts. This is in large part due to a lack of resources. This thesis analyzes innovative federal policy mechanisms that will address the current gap between actions and forecasted impacts, and will make U.S. coastal communities more resilient in the face of climate change.


Spillover Effects In Police Use Of Force, Justin E. Holz, Roman G. Rivera, Bocar A. Ba 2019 University of Chicago

Spillover Effects In Police Use Of Force, Justin E. Holz, Roman G. Rivera, Bocar A. Ba

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

We study the link between officer injuries-on-duty and the force-use of their peers using a network of officers who, through a random lottery, began the police academy together. We find that peer injuries-on-duty increase the probability of using force by 7%. The effect is concentrated in a narrow time window near the event and is not associated with significantly lower injury risk to the officer. Complaints of improper searches and failure to provide service also increase after peer injuries, suggesting that the increase in force might be driven by heightened risk aversion.


Examining Racial & Ethnic Disparities In The Reach Of The Medicare Shared Savings Program, Lindsey Arneson 2019 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Examining Racial & Ethnic Disparities In The Reach Of The Medicare Shared Savings Program, Lindsey Arneson

Capstone Experience

It is important to understand the quality of health care for racial and ethnic minorities covered under the largest U.S. government-run insurance program, Medicare, because the demographics of the U.S. are becoming older and more diverse. A new value-based program under Medicare is the Shared Savings Program (MSSP), which creates incentives to improve care quality and health outcomes for Medicare beneficiaries with a specific focus on increasing the provision of preventive care services. This capstone project aims to understand the representation of racial/ethnic minority Medicare beneficiaries, namely African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics/Latinxs, that receive care from ...


Stakeholder Input To The Development Of The Santa Clara County Lqbtq-Focused Shelter: A Process And Policy Analysis, Anthony Montalvo 2019 San Jose State University

Stakeholder Input To The Development Of The Santa Clara County Lqbtq-Focused Shelter: A Process And Policy Analysis, Anthony Montalvo

Master's Projects

Due to elevated homelessness and growing hate crimes, an LGBTQ-focused shelter was developed and implemented by Office of Supportive Housing (OSH), along with the OLGBTQ (Office of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer). The following research investigated whether the process to design the LGBTQ-focused shelter program in Santa Clara county took the necessary steps to ensure that the program represents the community it intends to serve. Using process evaluation to identify the problem and proposed solutions, and policy analysis to examine the alternative solutions, the research answered the question: Did the approved design of the LGBTQ-focused shelter represent the stakeholder planning ...


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