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Africa: It's Big!, Dennis Barlow 2016 Center for International Stabilization and Recovery

Africa: It's Big!, Dennis Barlow

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The great opera commentator, John Culshaw was once asked to describe the monumental Wagnerian “Ring Cycle” using only one word. After pondering the question for a moment he responded by characterizing it as, “long.” At first, this obvious answer seemed more flippant than serious, but a little thought leads one to conclude that Culshaw was on to something. Many words could describe the Ring: monumental, bombastic, fantastic, convoluted, stirring, mythological, but each limits the scope or makes a judgment which may not be ultimately true. The truth is that someone who wants to tackle the Ring must be prepared to ...


Somalia, Country Profile 2016 CISR

Somalia, Country Profile

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Somalia’s first known inhabitants were Arabs who established trading posts over 1400 years ago. During the 19th century, Britain, France and Italy colonized the area, and it remained three separate colonies until Britain combined the region under one rule in 1941. This unity was sustained until 1950, when the area once colonized by Italy became a UN territory under Italian rule and was named Somalia. In 1960, the nation finally achieved independence from European rule; however, this newfound liberty brought about many conflicts. Clashes with Ethiopia began in the late 1960s and, for the most part, lasted throughout the ...


Rwanda, Country Profile 2016 CISR

Rwanda, Country Profile

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Ethnic conflicts have troubled Rwanda for over 50 years, resulting in nearly continuous warfare and bloodshed. Prior to 1959, a monarchy led by the minority Tutsi ethnic group dominated the region’s politics, persecuting the majority Hutus. That year, the Hutus rebelled and overthrew the Tutsi government before imposing a violent retribution on thousands of Tutsi civilians, driving 150,000 of them into exile. The children of these banished Tutsis formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) and returned to Rwanda in 1990, sparking a civil war. The RPF eventually defeated the Hutu regime, but they first had to endure the ...


Namibia, Country Profile 2016 CISR

Namibia, Country Profile

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Like many countries in southwestern Africa, Namibia has had a troubled military and political history. Germany occupied the nation until 1914, at which point the League of Nations entrusted South Africa with administration and control. This instigated a long period of hostility between Namibia and South Africa. Upon the dissolution of the League of Nations, the newly formed United Nations requested South Africa’s withdrawal from Namibia. In 1966, the United Nations officially withdrew South Africa’s Mandate, but hostilities merely intensified. South Africa did not relinquish control until 1990, after repeated UN requests and years of fighting. In the ...


Mozambique, Country Profile 2016 CISR

Mozambique, Country Profile

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Between the 1890s and 1920, Portugal led a military campaign to colonize Mozambique. After over 40 years of Portuguese rule, nationalist groups in Mozambique united to form the Mozambique Liberation Front (FRELIMO). In 1964, FRELIMO began a movement of guerilla warfare against the Portuguese, starting a trend of civil war that would ravage Mozambique for decades. By the early 1970s, FRELIMO’s 7,000 guerilla fighters controlled most of central and northern Mozambique. In 1974, the Portuguese military overthrew the government and installed leadership that was sympathetic toward Mozambique. Portugal struck a mutual cease-fire agreement with FRELIMO and gave Mozambique ...


Ethiopia And Eritrea, Country Profile 2016 CISR

Ethiopia And Eritrea, Country Profile

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Conflicts existed between Ethiopia and Eritrea from 1935 until 1993, when Eritrea became an independent nation. In 1997, a trade war developed between the two nations, causing further disputes. Hostilities ceased in 2000, and the governments are now working to institute a clear borderline between the two countries. Meanwhile, mine action programs are being established to clear the large number of AT mines, AP mines and UXO that remain scattered along the border and throughout Ethiopia and Eritrea as a result of these and other conflicts.


Chad, Country Profile 2016 CISR

Chad, Country Profile

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

After centuries of domination by several autonomous and constantly warring kingdoms, the land that would eventually make up the nation of Chad was subjugated by France in the 1890s. The French colonized Chad only half-heartedly, using it primarily as a source of raw materials and unskilled labor, never bothering to institute any unifying or modernizing policies. Chad gained its independence from France in 1960 but immediately became ensnared in a morass of ethnic warfare. Like so many other post-independence African nations, internal strife—sporadically punctuated by outside incursions—delayed all national development programs for decades. In Chad, a 1975 military ...


Burundi, Country Profile 2016 CISR

Burundi, Country Profile

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

A monarchy ruled Burundi from the 17th century until it was overthrown in 1966. After this overthrow, the First Republic went into effect, a tumultuous time marked by the 1972 genocide of the Hutu community. In 1976, the First Republic government was overthrown, leading to the Second Republic, headed by Jean Paptiste Bagaza. In 1987, Pierre Buyoya overthrew him and created the Third Republic. Despite Buyoya’s efforts to bring peace and unity to the country, violence similar to that of 1972 erupted in 1988 between the Hutu and the Tutsi. Since 1993, Burundi’s ethnic-based conflicts have reportedly claimed ...


Angola, Country Profile 2016 CISR

Angola, Country Profile

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

During the 13th century, Angola’s first known residents migrated from west Africa. In 1575, imperialism found its way to this nation through Portuguese colonizers. After World War II, Angola became an important coffee supplier, and the colonial population grew to over 80,000. Consequently, clashes began between the Portuguese and the original inhabitants. The Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) and the Capitalist National Union for the Independence of Angola (UNITA) finally gained independence in 1975. Except for a brief period during 1991, UNITA has aggressively rebelled against the established ...


The Landmine Menace: The Great Humanitarian Challenge, Thomas Himmler 2016 Institut Dr. Förster

The Landmine Menace: The Great Humanitarian Challenge, Thomas Himmler

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

On the basis of the conflict scenarios and the resultant threat, it is necessary to develop methods and means to eliminate the threat. Simply using available tools is not always easy. What is necessary is to optimally combine existing detection and clearance methods and, if necessary, to develop new, promising technologies in a targeted manner.


Mechanically Assisted Mine Clearance Operations, Greg Caison 2016 Humanitarian Force

Mechanically Assisted Mine Clearance Operations, Greg Caison

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Force XX1 Solutions International recently developed a separate organization devoted to global humanitarian operations known as Humanitarian Force. Using mechanically assisted methods, the Humanitarian Force team worked with the Namibia Defense Force (NDF) to clear several hundred mined berms in northern Namibia.


Mine Resistant Boots, Jiri Chladek 2016 James Madison University

Mine Resistant Boots, Jiri Chladek

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The task of demining is highly dangerous. Deminers and humanitarian workers are at risk to injury every time they step onto a minefield. Jiri Chladek and the Zeman Company have developed a special boot to reduce risks incurred when stepping on landmines.


Pookie Rides Again, Willie Lawrence 2016 MineTech International

Pookie Rides Again, Willie Lawrence

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Following the buzz caused by sniffer wasps and the scurry from mine-seeking rats, now it seems it is time for the concept of Pookie to come into its own. Mine clearance specialist MineTech International is completing work on a three-year project to transform an abandoned Zimbabwean war relic into a cost-effective mine detection platform for the 21st century. Project leader Willie Lawrence of MineTech International plots the progress of the revival of Pookie.


Technology's Promises, CISR JMU 2016 James Madison University

Technology's Promises, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Every technology under development makes big promises. Here are five projects that may someday impact the world of mine action.


Driving The Hd Machine In The African Bush, Andy Smith 2016 Humanitarian Mine Action Specialist

Driving The Hd Machine In The African Bush, Andy Smith

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Almost every country in Southern Africa has a mine problem and most of these countries have a tradition of solving their own problems. Because the region is famous for its mine-resistant vehicles, this paper concentrates on innovative mechanical technologies—but it could just as easily have concentrated on PPE or testing facilities where Southern Africa also leads the way.


Humanitarian Demining Research: The Future Role Of The European Union, Russell Gasser 2016 GICHD

Humanitarian Demining Research: The Future Role Of The European Union, Russell Gasser

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

This article aims to give an introduction to the information about the European Union’s (EU) Research and Technological Development (RTD) programme which is available on several of the EU websites. The sites are listed below.


The U.S. Humanitarian Demining Research And Development Program, Nicole Kreger 2016 MAIC

The U.S. Humanitarian Demining Research And Development Program, Nicole Kreger

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The U.S. Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (R&D) Program rapidly develops, evaluates and demonstrates equipment for humanitarian demining, hoping to improve the overall safety of the individual deminer and the efficiency of humanitarian demining operations worldwide. By collaborating with a number of different members of the humanitarian demining community, the R&D Program strives to cater to the needs of those in the field and effectively fill any technology gaps as quickly as possible.


Moving Forward: Recommendations For A Landmine Victim Data Collection And Management System The Landmine Casualty Database Workshop At James Madison University (Jmu), May 13–14, 2002, CISR JMU 2016 James Madison University

Moving Forward: Recommendations For A Landmine Victim Data Collection And Management System The Landmine Casualty Database Workshop At James Madison University (Jmu), May 13–14, 2002, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

After discussing ways to develop a systematic and accurate system for the collection of victim data on a global basis, participants developed three sets of recommendations that were presented to the global community.


Data Integrity And Reliability Conference, CISR JMU 2016 James Madison University

Data Integrity And Reliability Conference, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

During a four-day Data Integrity and Reliability Conference, participants discussed data entry problems and presented suggestions for improvement.


The Workshop On Assistance To Landmine Survivors And Victims In Southeastern Europe: Defining Strategies For Success, Ig, Slovenia, July 1-2, 2002, CISR JMU 2016 James Madison University

The Workshop On Assistance To Landmine Survivors And Victims In Southeastern Europe: Defining Strategies For Success, Ig, Slovenia, July 1-2, 2002, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Participants from throughout southeastern Europe and around the world gathered in Ig, Slovenia, just outside the capital city of Ljubljana, to discuss and provide suggestions for improving mine victim assistance (MVA) in the Balkans.


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