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China And Natural Gas: The Importance Of Natural Gas To China With Regard To The South And East China Sea Conflicts, Erin Foelker 2020 University of Mississippi

China And Natural Gas: The Importance Of Natural Gas To China With Regard To The South And East China Sea Conflicts, Erin Foelker

Honors Theses

China has a strong interest in natural gas, as it is a resource of which usage can lead to economic growth, energy security, domestic social stability, and reduced climate change impacts. One of the best ways for China to gain easier access to this resource is to obtain legal rights to what they claim is their territory in the South and East China Seas. In this thesis, I review the situations in these two areas and I argue that natural gas is a significant motivator for the conflicts that are occurring.


Endnotes, CISR JOURNAL 2020 James Madison University

Endnotes, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


To What Extent Could The Development Of An Airborne Thermal Imaging Detection System Contribute To Enhance Detection?, Martin Jebens, Hideyuki Sawada, Ph.D., Junjie Shen, Erik Tollefsen 2020 International Committee of the Red Cross

To What Extent Could The Development Of An Airborne Thermal Imaging Detection System Contribute To Enhance Detection?, Martin Jebens, Hideyuki Sawada, Ph.D., Junjie Shen, Erik Tollefsen

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Over the past two decades, several initiatives that involved research and development on sensor and detection systems have failed to successfully integrate with clearance operations and have not been able to help affected states overcome the humanitarian challenges caused by weapon contamination. Though initial tests were promising, when faced with the reality of the field, the technology often indicates shortcomings.[i] The terrain, dense vegetation, metal clutter, or other obstacles encountered in humanitarian mine action (HMA) pose challenges often greater than reliable target detection. Therefore, understanding the inherent challenges of a task is paramount when discussing the entry of new ...


Automated Uas Aeromagnetic Surveys To Detect Mbrl Unexploded Ordnance, Alex Nikulin, Ph.D., Timothy deSmet, Ph.D., Andrii Puliaiev, Vasyl Zhurakhov, Sofia Fasullo, Gabriel Chen, Isaac Spiegel, Kaylee Cappuccio 2020 Binghamton University - The State University of New York

Automated Uas Aeromagnetic Surveys To Detect Mbrl Unexploded Ordnance, Alex Nikulin, Ph.D., Timothy Desmet, Ph.D., Andrii Puliaiev, Vasyl Zhurakhov, Sofia Fasullo, Gabriel Chen, Isaac Spiegel, Kaylee Cappuccio

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Unguided Multiple Barrel Rocket Launcher (MBRL) systems are limited-accuracy, high-impact artillery systems meant to deliver barrages of explosive warheads across a wide area of attack. High rates of failure of MBRL rockets on impact and their wide area of ballistic dispersion result in a long-term unexploded ordnance (UXO) concern across large areas where these systems have been deployed. We field tested a newly-developed UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle)-based aeromagnetic platform to remotely detect and identify unexploded 122 mm rockets of the widely-used BM-21 MBRL. We developed an algorithm that allows near real-time analysis, mapping, and interpretations of magnetic datasets in ...


Developing A Sustainable National Training Capacity: Non-Technical Survey Training In Colombia, Marc Bonnet, Helen Gray, Giulia Matassa 2020 Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining

Developing A Sustainable National Training Capacity: Non-Technical Survey Training In Colombia, Marc Bonnet, Helen Gray, Giulia Matassa

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In January of 2014, the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) conducted its first non-technical survey (NTS) training course in Colombia with the objective of enabling participants to plan and conduct NTS. At the time, however, Colombia had the second highest number of landmine accidents in the world,[i] with non-state armed groups (NSAGs) producing explosive ordnance (EO) “mostly in the form of victim-activated improvised explosive devices.”[ii]Descontamina,[iii] the National Mine Action Authority (NMAA), planned for fulfilling its Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC) commitments, and national dialogue was initiated on a Plan de Choque, “a plan of ...


Understanding The Logic Of Rebel Restraint On Landmine Use, Henrique Garbino 2020 Uppsala University

Understanding The Logic Of Rebel Restraint On Landmine Use, Henrique Garbino

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Non-state armed groups (NSAGs)2 have become the most frequent users of landmines and the main drivers of new landmine contamination. Often portrayed as the “perfect soldier” due to their low cost, easy availability, and high lethality, landmines have become the weapon of choice of many rebel groups. An initial assessment by Geneva Call reported that, in 2005, at least sixty rebel groups in twenty-four countries had used mines. 3-5 In contrast with state governments, rebels have considerably less incentives to comply with existing humanitarian norms.6 Engaging them in restricting or renouncing the use of landmines remains one of ...


Seventh Mine Action Technology Workshop: A Space For Innovation, Arsen Khanyan, Inna Cruz 2020 Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining

Seventh Mine Action Technology Workshop: A Space For Innovation, Arsen Khanyan, Inna Cruz

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The 7th edition of the Mine Action Technology Workshop, a biennial event organized by the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), took place from 7–8 November 2019 in Basel, Switzerland. Titled Remote Sensing and Robotics in Mine Action, the workshop welcomed 165 participants from forty-nine countries, representing eight-five organizations.1 It offered a platform to discuss and share ideas and experiences that promote the efficient use of innovation and technology in humanitarian mine action (HMA). This unique event is aimed at bringing together mine action professionals, manufacturers, national authorities, operators, and representatives from the United Nations as well ...


The Lethality Index: Re-Conceptualizing Ied Clearance Planning And Delivery In Iraq, Mark Wilkinson 2020 United Nations Mine Action Service

The Lethality Index: Re-Conceptualizing Ied Clearance Planning And Delivery In Iraq, Mark Wilkinson

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Explosive hazard clearance (EH) comes at a cost and, logically, with accountability expected as a quid pro quo both for those conducting and those funding clearance activities.[i] Today’s accountability problem arguably begins with the recognition that EH clearance, particularly in complex environments contaminated with improvised explosive devices (IEDs), differs radically from conventional mine action operations of the past, introducing various new factors that influence costs and cost-effectiveness. This, in turn, begs two questions: “What factors?” and “How are they measured?” Hence, before the mine action community can evaluate cost-effectiveness leading to accountability, it must first re-conceptualize clearance itself ...


A New Approach To Understanding, Achieving, And Demonstrating Imas Compliance, David Hewitson 2020 Fenix Insight, Ltd.

A New Approach To Understanding, Achieving, And Demonstrating Imas Compliance, David Hewitson

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Mine action organizations routinely state that they are “IMAS compliant,” but it isn’t clear exactly what that means, how anyone knows with confidence whether they are compliant or not, or who is authorized to make such statements. This article draws on recent work by Fenix Insight Ltd. to database the requirements and recommendations found in IMAS, setting out a rigorous, evidence-based approach to answering key questions about the compliance status of mine action organizations. It suggests methods for determining which requirements are relevant to which organizations, what different levels of compliance there might be and how to integrate compliance ...


Detonating The Media: Raising The Profile Of Mine Action, Paul McCann 2020 The HALO Trust

Detonating The Media: Raising The Profile Of Mine Action, Paul Mccann

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In January 1997, Diana, Princess of Wales, travelled to Angola with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). She did not travel alone. Around ninety international journalists and TV crews accompanied her. It is unlikely that Angola’s sleepy second city of Huambo saw similar numbers of press until September 2019, when her son, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, walked in her footsteps. The two visits, separated by twenty-two years, produced arguably the greatest amount of media attention ever achieved by humanitarian mine action (HMA). Comparable with the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC) conference in December 1997, such exposure ...


Measuring Behavior Change Resulting From Eore And The Need For Complementary Risk Reduction Activities, Helaine Boyd, Sebastian Kasack, Noe Falk Nielsen 2020 The HALO Trust

Measuring Behavior Change Resulting From Eore And The Need For Complementary Risk Reduction Activities, Helaine Boyd, Sebastian Kasack, Noe Falk Nielsen

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Risk education (RE) in mine action has been around since 1992.[i] However, explosive ordnance risk education (EORE)[ii] operators are still struggling to measure how and whether EORE has resulted in positive behavior change.[iii] Of course, various monitoring and evaluation (M&E) methods have been pursued in the past, predominantly the use of knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs (KAPB) surveys; simpler pre-/post-EORE session surveys; the use of proxy indicators such as number of explosive ordnance (EO) accidents or victims; and number of explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) callouts from the community. However, these methods come with some limitations in accurately capturing behavior change. For example, survey questions linked to behavior would normally be prefaced as “what would ...


Disposal Of Explosive Ordnance And Environmental Risk Mitigation, Roly Evans, Andy Duncan 2020 Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining

Disposal Of Explosive Ordnance And Environmental Risk Mitigation, Roly Evans, Andy Duncan

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Humanitarian mine action (HMA) survey and clearance operations have always focused on the contamination that can be seen. Whether it is anti-personnel (AP) mines, anti-vehicles (AV) mines, or explosive remnants of war (ERW), our efforts focus on removing items that pose an immediate blast and fragmentation hazard to humans. However, in certain circumstances, explosive ordnance (EO) also poses a significant environmental hazard, not least from the toxicity of its components, such as heavy metals and explosives. The understanding of contamination from EO in air, soil, and water has developed significantly in recent decades.[i] [ii] [iii] [iv] This has mainly ...


Confidence-Building Through Mine Action On The Korean Peninsula, Guy Rhodes, Ph.D. 2020 Geneva Centre for Security Policy

Confidence-Building Through Mine Action On The Korean Peninsula, Guy Rhodes, Ph.D.

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The Korean Peninsula is divided by a strip of land, the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), which represents the de facto border between the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), more commonly known as North Korea, and the Republic of Korea (ROK), or South Korea. Contrary to its name, the DMZ is the most militarized zone on earth, and it delineates a stand-off between militaries composed of several million professional and reservist soldiers on both sides. It is the “Cold War’s last divide”[i] and one of the most symbolic barriers between two nations. It is also heavily mined with ...


Whither Hma Policy: Linking Hma And Development Assistance, Lewis Rasmussen, Ph.D. 2020 Tetra Tech

Whither Hma Policy: Linking Hma And Development Assistance, Lewis Rasmussen, Ph.D.

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In 1988 The HALO Trust was credited with coining the term “humanitarian demining” as it differentiated military demining in Afghanistan from efforts designed specifically to reduce the ongoing threat to civilians, livelihoods, communities, and public infrastructure in terms of post-war reconstruction. Since then, many donor governments began to shift policy and programming to reflect this distinction. As but one example, the U.S. established an inter-agency Humanitarian Demining Program in 1993, which included the Agency for International Develop (USAID). Unfortunately, for many years the demining and development assistance communities proceeded more along parallel tracks, acknowledging each other and vectoring off ...


From The Interim Director, Suzanne Fiederlein, Ph.D. 2020 Center for International Stabilization and Recovery

From The Interim Director, Suzanne Fiederlein, Ph.D.

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

We are living in uncertain times as we face an unprecedented global health crisis. In keeping with the tradition of adaptation and creativity in the mine action community, we have read numerous examples of national clearance programs and implementing partner organizations adjusting operations in order to continue survey, clearance, and risk education work in line with required COVID-19 restrictions. As some places begin to resume a greater range of activity, we recognize the threat presented by this new virus remains pronounced, and we wish all of you safety in your daily lives and good health.


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, CISR JOURNAL 2020 James Madison University

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction, Cisr Journal

The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

No abstract provided.


Nongovernmental Organizations And The Global Governance Institutional Gap, Joel J. Weaver 2020 National Intelligence University

Nongovernmental Organizations And The Global Governance Institutional Gap, Joel J. Weaver

Journal of Social Change

Global governance refers to global cooperation through existing and developing structures, groups, and initiatives, yet little academic research focuses on the role of international nongovernmental organizations in promoting global governance. Using Benet’s polarities of democracy as theoretical foundation, the purpose of this qualitative, critical case study was to explore why and how INGOs address the gap in global governance institutions in terms of humanitarian support. Data collection involved open-ended interviews with 12 members of an international, nonprofit service organization providing humanitarian support to a global community. Interview data were inductively coded and subjected to a thematic analysis procedure. Findings ...


The Future Of Wars: Artificial Intelligence (Ai) And Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems (Laws), Stephanie Mae Pedron, Jose de Arimateia da Cruz 2020 Georgia Southern University

The Future Of Wars: Artificial Intelligence (Ai) And Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems (Laws), Stephanie Mae Pedron, Jose De Arimateia Da Cruz

International Journal of Security Studies

Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems (LAWS) are a special class of weapons systems that, once activated, can identify and engage a target without further human intervention. Semi-autonomous weapons are currently in use today, but the transfer of the decision to kill to machines inevitably raises novel ethical, legal, and political concerns. This paper examines the current ethical debate concerning LAWS use during wartime and outlines the potential security benefits and risks associated with the development of LAWS and other autonomous artificial intelligence (AI) technology. Allowing moral considerations to play a role in the development of AI weapons systems is crucial to ...


Literature Review: How U.S. Government Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman 2020 Purdue University

Literature Review: How U.S. Government Documents Are Addressing The Increasing National Security Implications Of Artificial Intelligence, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

This article emphasizes the increasing importance of artificial intelligence (AI) in military and national security policy making. It seeks to inform interested individuals about the proliferation of publicly accessible U.S. government and military literature on this multifaceted topic. An additional objective of this endeavor is encouraging greater public awareness of and participation in emerging public policy debate on AI's moral and national security implications..


The Danger Of Current Rwandan Gender Politics, Amani Briggs 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Danger Of Current Rwandan Gender Politics, Amani Briggs

Women's, Gender and Queer Studies

This critical analysis will investigate whether Rwanda’s glorified representation of women in government positions truly serves the women in their society or rather the agenda of the men in power. Rwanda is frequently hailed as the prime example for African feminism due to their 2008 parliamentary elections. The 2013 Rwandan Parliamentary elections ushered in a record -breaking sixty-four percent of seats for women candidates, making Rwanda the top country for women in politics. In comparison, women make up a global average of 23.8 percent of parliament members as of June 2018 (W.E. Forum, 2017). Their representation of ...


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