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Weathering State And Local Budget Storms: Fiscal Federalism With An Uncooperative Congress, David Gamage, Darien Shanske, Gladriel Shobe, Adam Thimmesch 2022 Indiana University—Bloomington, Maurer School of Law

Weathering State And Local Budget Storms: Fiscal Federalism With An Uncooperative Congress, David Gamage, Darien Shanske, Gladriel Shobe, Adam Thimmesch

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Throughout most of 2020, state and local governments faced severe budget crises as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased demand for state welfare services and rising state expenses related to controlling the spread of COVID-19 stretched state and local budgets to their breaking points. At the same time, layoffs, business closures, and social distancing measures reduced states’ primary sources of tax revenues. The traditional practice of American fiscal federalism is for the federal government to step in to provide aid during a national emergency of this magnitude, because state and local governments lack the federal government’s monetary and ...


Plantain Cultivation In Puerto Rico: Its Inclusion In The National Crop Table Of The United States Department Of Agriculture’S Farm Service Agency, And Its Loss Compensation In Disaster Programs, Javier A. Rivera-Aquino 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Plantain Cultivation In Puerto Rico: Its Inclusion In The National Crop Table Of The United States Department Of Agriculture’S Farm Service Agency, And Its Loss Compensation In Disaster Programs, Javier A. Rivera-Aquino

Journal of Food Law & Policy

If justice is to provide each person what they deserve, it seems plantain producers in Puerto Rico did not relish a just compensation for their farm losses after Hurricane Maria in 2017. The main culprit? Stale data. Farm Service Agency’s (FSA) Wildfire and Hurricanes Indemnity Program (WHIP) utilized plantain production data under the National Crop Table (NCT) 2017, which seemingly did not reflect up-to-date yield averages of Puerto Rico’s plantain farmers at the time of Hurricane Maria.


Revitalizing The Puerto Rican Economy After Hurricane Maria, Aditya Mehta 2022 University of Louisville

Revitalizing The Puerto Rican Economy After Hurricane Maria, Aditya Mehta

The Cardinal Edge

Puerto Rico is an island in the Caribbean that is an unincorporated territory of the U.S. It is naturally beautiful and caters heavily to tourists. However, it is currently in the midst of an economic crisis that has been building for years and is struggling to rebuild in the aftermath of Hurricane Maria. Additionally, popular culture and statistics have demonstrated that many Puerto Ricans are emigrating from the island. Puerto Rico must address these issues to ensure that its citizens can continue to have a good quality of life on the island. To do this, the U.S. government ...


Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru 2022 University of Washington

Toward Informatics-Enabled Preparedness For Natural Hazards To Minimize Health Impacts Of Climate Change, Jimmy Phuong, Naomi O. Riches, Luca Calzoni, Gora Datta, Deborah Duran, Asiyah Yu Lin, Ramesh P. Singh, Anthony E. Solomonides, Noreen Y. Whysel, Ramakanth Kavuluru

Publications and Research

Natural hazards (NHs) associated with climate change have been increasing in frequency and intensity. These acute events impact humans both directly and through their effects on social and environmental determinants of health. Rather than relying on a fully reactive incident response disposition, it is crucial to ramp up preparedness initiatives for worsening case scenarios. In this perspective, we review the landscape of NH effects for human health and explore the potential of health informatics to address associated challenges, specifically from a preparedness angle. We outline important components in a health informatics agenda for hazard preparedness involving hazard-disease associations, social determinants ...


Towards Public Vaccination Data Resilience During Natural Disaster Using Blockchain-Based Decentralized Application, Riri Fitri Sari, Mokhammad Rizqi Herdiawan, Muhammad Hamzah, Muhammad Aljundi, Jauzak Hussaini Windiatmaja 2022 University of Indonesia

Towards Public Vaccination Data Resilience During Natural Disaster Using Blockchain-Based Decentralized Application, Riri Fitri Sari, Mokhammad Rizqi Herdiawan, Muhammad Hamzah, Muhammad Aljundi, Jauzak Hussaini Windiatmaja

Smart City

This paper presents a platform development plan for a public vaccination decentralized data base based on Blockchain technology. Vaccination is a medical practice that allows a human body to produce a specific antibody as a means of developing a preventive measure and reducing the risk of contracting a particular disease. Systematic vaccination data recording is an utmost important system that is required particularly during the Covid-19 pandemic. The recording mechanism should utilize the state-of-the-art information and communication technology (ICT). For faster vaccination data recording, it is common to use digital technology, making the health care process faster thus decreasing time ...


Prevention Countermeasures And Suggestions For Urban Rainstorm Disasters Under Changing Environment, Chuhan ZHANG, Guangqian WANG, Tiejian LI 2022 Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Prevention Countermeasures And Suggestions For Urban Rainstorm Disasters Under Changing Environment, Chuhan Zhang, Guangqian Wang, Tiejian Li

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

On July 20, 2021, an extraordinary rainstorm struck Zhengzhou, Henan Province, marked a new intensity record over China mainland. This rainstorm exceeded the capacity of drainage and flood protection systems in the urban districts and its surrounding rural areas of the city, and thus caused extensive inundation and flooding. This is an extraordinary severe natural disaster with heavy casualties and property loss. To have a broad view over the whole country and to look into the future for rainstorm disaster prevention, we proposed the following suggestions in this study. First, we must recognize the significant impact of the climate change ...


“Tele-Commuting” During The Covid-19 Pandemic And Beyond: Unveiling State-Wide Patterns And Trends Of Telecommuting In Relation To Transportation, Employment, Land Use, And Emissions In Calif, Tianjun Lu, Jian-yu Ke, Fynnwin Prager, Jose N. Martinez 2022 California State University, Dominguez Hills

“Tele-Commuting” During The Covid-19 Pandemic And Beyond: Unveiling State-Wide Patterns And Trends Of Telecommuting In Relation To Transportation, Employment, Land Use, And Emissions In Calif, Tianjun Lu, Jian-Yu Ke, Fynnwin Prager, Jose N. Martinez

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

Telecommuting, the practice of working remotely at home, increased significantly (25% to 35%) early in the COVID-19 pandemic. This shift represented a major societal change that reshaped the family, work, and social lives of many Californians. These changes also raise important questions about what factors influenced telecommuting before, during, and after COVID-19, and to what extent changes in telecommuting have influenced transportation patterns across commute modes, employment, land use, and environment. The research team conducted state-level telecommuting surveys using a crowd-sourced platform (i.e., Amazon Mechanical Turk) to obtain valid samples across California (n=1,985) and conducted state-level interviews ...


Affordable Housing: A National Crisis Fueled By The Coronavirus • A New Jersey Perspective, Latino Action Network Foundation 2022 Kean University

Affordable Housing: A National Crisis Fueled By The Coronavirus • A New Jersey Perspective, Latino Action Network Foundation

Center for Urban Policy Research

The Latino Action Network Foundation [LANF], its sister organization the Latino Action Network [LAN] and longtime ally, the Fair Share Housing Center [FSHC], have collaboratively monitored affordable housing issues in New Jersey for more than a decade. As part of its ongoing work, LANF sponsored a housing roundtable on September 10, 2021, to assess the affordable housing situation in the state and offer policy recommendations. At that time, a coalition of advocates, including the three organizations named above, were fresh from a legislative victory that safeguarded tenants unable to pay their rents during the pandemic and gave them a degree ...


Analyzing The Use And Impacts Of Oakland Slow Streets And Potential Scalability Beyond Covid-19, Gordon Douglas, David Moore 2022 San Jose State University

Analyzing The Use And Impacts Of Oakland Slow Streets And Potential Scalability Beyond Covid-19, Gordon Douglas, David Moore

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

This report presents the results of a mixed-methods study of the 2020-2022 Oakland Slow Streets program. An official response to the Covid-19 pandemic, the program used signs and temporary barricades to limit thru-traffic on 21 miles of city streets to create more and safer space for walking, cycling, and outdoor recreation. Researchers collected data throughout the summer of 2021 on seven designated slow streets plus one cross street and one control street for each – a total of 21 street segments representing conditions in seven different neighborhoods across Oakland. Data collection comprised in-person passerby counts, observations and photographs of local conditions ...


Estimating The Economic Impacts Of Transportation-Related Supply Chain Disruptions In The Post-Earthquake Environment, Divya Chandrasekhar, Sua Kim, John Downen, Joshua Spolsdoff 2022 University of Utah

Estimating The Economic Impacts Of Transportation-Related Supply Chain Disruptions In The Post-Earthquake Environment, Divya Chandrasekhar, Sua Kim, John Downen, Joshua Spolsdoff

TREC Final Reports

Transportation systems play a critical role in maintaining supply chains for effective post-disaster recovery. Modeling the potential economic impact of transportation-related disruptions, therefore, is an important step to promoting pre-event community wide recovery and resilience planning. But existing supply chain and economic impact models are cost prohibitive and overly sophisticated for use by public sector entities with limited resources. There is also limited understanding of how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) adjust to post-disaster transportation disruption and how this experience influences their future preparedness for similar events. This project had two objectives: (1) to analyze the economic impact due to ...


Teacher Development Multi-Year Studies: Impact Of Covid-19 On Teaching Practices In Lao Pdr, Timor-Leste And Vanuatu: A Discussion Paper For Practitioners And Policymakers, Aris Huang, Debbie Wong, Elizabeth Cassity, Jennie Chainey 2022 Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER)

Teacher Development Multi-Year Studies: Impact Of Covid-19 On Teaching Practices In Lao Pdr, Timor-Leste And Vanuatu: A Discussion Paper For Practitioners And Policymakers, Aris Huang, Debbie Wong, Elizabeth Cassity, Jennie Chainey

Education Analytics Service

The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant disruptions to education systems around the world. Many governments responded abruptly, quickly closing schools and transitioning to home learning. This paper explores the impact of extended school closures due to COVID-19 on teaching and student learning in three countries – Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos), Timor-Leste and Vanuatu. This research extends the Australian Government’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT)’s multi-year Teacher Development Studies, which are commissioned under the Evaluation Analytics Service (EAS). This study series involves the investigation of DFAT-funded teacher development initiatives in Laos, Timor-Leste and Vanuatu to understand the ...


A Pandemic Of Separation Of Powers Violations In Texas: The Interrelationship Of The Texas Disaster Act And Texas Gov’T Code Section 22.0035, Ron Beal 2022 Baylor University

A Pandemic Of Separation Of Powers Violations In Texas: The Interrelationship Of The Texas Disaster Act And Texas Gov’T Code Section 22.0035, Ron Beal

St. Mary's Law Journal

This Article is on the interrelationship of the Texas Disaster Act and Texas Government Code Section 22.0035. The author demonstrates that the Governor of Texas and the Texas Supreme Court have grossly violated the separation of powers on a continuing basis since March 29, 2020 by Governor Abbott issuing Executive Order 13, which prohibits the granting of bail to anyone awaiting trial, and the Texas Supreme Court’s unwillingness to invalidate that order administratively or judicially. Finally, the Article addresses the nearly one thousand district and county court judges who are constantly violating the separations of powers by failing ...


Recovery From Minor Tropical Cyclones: The Response Of Faith-Based Organizations And Government Agencies To Minor Tropical Cyclones In Biloxi, Mississippi, Camilla Witherspoon 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Recovery From Minor Tropical Cyclones: The Response Of Faith-Based Organizations And Government Agencies To Minor Tropical Cyclones In Biloxi, Mississippi, Camilla Witherspoon

Master's Theses

The impacts of major hurricanes are extensively researched in Disaster Resilience literature and the field of Human Geography; in contrast, the aftermath of minor tropical cyclones is understudied. Along the Gulf Coast in 2020 and 2021, more minor tropical cyclones made landfall then major hurricanes (NOAA, 2021). Despite the frequency of minor tropical cyclones, few studies have considered the resources and actors involved in recovery from minor tropical cyclones.

This thesis uses qualitative methods, including semi-structured interviews and document collection, to examine how Faith-based Organization (FBO) and government agency leaders in Biloxi, Mississippi provide resources to residents, interact with each ...


A Study Of Improvement In The User Experience Of Unlv's Campus Safety Mobile Application, Mayra Carrera, Mustafa Diallo, Cecilia Garcia-Leon, Khristine Le, Kristine Monsada 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Study Of Improvement In The User Experience Of Unlv's Campus Safety Mobile Application, Mayra Carrera, Mustafa Diallo, Cecilia Garcia-Leon, Khristine Le, Kristine Monsada

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

In 2019, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), reported an average of 28,000 crimes on college campuses across the United States. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has taken measures to address campus safety through their app, RebelSAFE. However, there is little research showing how effective such apps are in aiding students through emergencies. This study aims to evaluate the usability of RebelSAFE through usability testing and surveys.


Desa Mawacara, Negara Mawatata: Bali’S Customary Village-Based State Policies In The Time Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, I Ngurah Suryawan 2022 Warmadewa University

Desa Mawacara, Negara Mawatata: Bali’S Customary Village-Based State Policies In The Time Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, I Ngurah Suryawan

Jurnal Politik

Balinese customary villages are at the center of the state’s strategy for mitigation of Covid-19. Relations between customary villages and the state predate colonial times. The historical dynamics have shown that the traditions and cultures of customary villages (desa mawacara) will always exist within the shadow of the state (negara mawatata). The symbolic narrative of desa mawacara, negara mawatata illustrates the governmentality that the state exercises over the villages. Regional Regulation No. 4/2019 on Customary Villages in Bali and the formation of the customary village-based task force were rational choices made by the Governor of Bali to place ...


Protecting A Woman’S Right To Abortion During A Public Health Crisis, San Juanita Gonzalez 2022 St. Mary's University School of Law

Protecting A Woman’S Right To Abortion During A Public Health Crisis, San Juanita Gonzalez

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

As COVID-19 infected our nation, states were quick to issue executive orders restricting various aspects of daily life under the pretense of public safety. It was clear at the outset that certain civil liberties were going to be tested. Among them, the constitutional right to an abortion.

This comment explores Texas’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the limitations it imposed on abortion access. It will attempt to address the legitimacy of the “public health concerns” listed in executive orders issued throughout numerous states and will discuss the pertinent legal framework and judicial scrutiny to apply.

According to the Fifth ...


Framework For The Priority Actions Of Filipino Physical Therapists In Disaster Risk Reduction And Management, Francis Clarence C. Chua, Cheryll Didi Nellie N. Obra 2022 Mariano Marcos State University

Framework For The Priority Actions Of Filipino Physical Therapists In Disaster Risk Reduction And Management, Francis Clarence C. Chua, Cheryll Didi Nellie N. Obra

Philippine Journal of Physical Therapy

Introduction: The study was conducted to develop a framework where physical therapists could be integrated into the disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) initiatives of a province in the northern Philippines.

Methods: This was a mixed-methods study that utilized a research and development design. A validated questionnaire on the experience and perceptions of DRRM was administered to 20 selected physical therapists. A validated interview guide was administered to 10 local disaster control office head and members. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize and examine the qualitative data.

Results: Physical therapists were ...


What Makes A Cert Program Successful And Effective?, Dempsey Kraft, Wade Aaron Baker 2022 Arkansas Tech University

What Makes A Cert Program Successful And Effective?, Dempsey Kraft, Wade Aaron Baker

ATU Research Symposium

There has been little research conducted about Community Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). Even so, previous research suggests that CERT programs present a viable option for increasing a community's disaster resilience by increasing preparedness education and building interpersonal bonds among community members. Still, additional research indicates that measuring the success of CERT is challenging to quantify. This study seeks to determine what makes a CERT program successful and effective.

Method

The researchers are utilizing purposive sampling and a structured questionnaire to interview CERT Program Coordinators. CERT Program Coordinators identified as potential participants were contacted via an email solicitation. This email ...


Contested Deployment, Bert B. Tussing, John Eric Powell, Benjamin C. Leitzel 2022 US Army War College

Contested Deployment, Bert B. Tussing, John Eric Powell, Benjamin C. Leitzel

Monographs, Collaborative Studies, & IRPs

As indicated in the 2018 National Defense Strategy and evolving Multi-Domain Operations doctrine, the assumption the homeland will provide a secure space for mobilization and deployment is no longer valid. This integrated research project goes beyond affirming this assumption and contributes to efforts to mitigate the concerns a contested deployment entails.

Following the introductory chapter, Chapter 2, “Army Deployments in a Contested Homeland: A Framework for Protection,” explores how current coordination and cooperation mechanisms between the DoD and state and local government may need realignment, with civil authorities preparing themselves to support military mobilization. Chapter 3, “Strategic Seaports and National ...


Trust And Community Contexts: An Integrative Study Of Hazard Preparedness Influences In Hampton Roads, Virginia, Ogechukwu Agim Nwandu-Vincent 2022 Old Dominion University

Trust And Community Contexts: An Integrative Study Of Hazard Preparedness Influences In Hampton Roads, Virginia, Ogechukwu Agim Nwandu-Vincent

College of Business (Strome) Posters

Despite research findings that show the benefits of being prepared for hazard events, studies on hazard preparedness report that individuals, communities, and businesses are often poorly prepared. Several studies have determined that various factors and contexts (individual, environmental, social), social messaging, social influences, and information sources can play an important role in determining how a community prepares for and responds to a hazard (Wachinger et al., 2013; Paton & McClure, 2013; Lindell & Perry, 2012; Paton, 2007).

Higher levels of trust may lead to desired protective behaviors while lower levels may lead to low levels of engagement and compliance in communities. The relationship between trust and ...


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