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Weathering State And Local Budget Storms: Fiscal Federalism With An Uncooperative Congress, David Gamage, Darien Shanske, Gladriel Shobe, Adam Thimmesch 2022 Indiana University—Bloomington, Maurer School of Law

Weathering State And Local Budget Storms: Fiscal Federalism With An Uncooperative Congress, David Gamage, Darien Shanske, Gladriel Shobe, Adam Thimmesch

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Throughout most of 2020, state and local governments faced severe budget crises as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased demand for state welfare services and rising state expenses related to controlling the spread of COVID-19 stretched state and local budgets to their breaking points. At the same time, layoffs, business closures, and social distancing measures reduced states’ primary sources of tax revenues. The traditional practice of American fiscal federalism is for the federal government to step in to provide aid during a national emergency of this magnitude, because state and local governments lack the federal government’s monetary and ...


A Pandemic Of Separation Of Powers Violations In Texas: The Interrelationship Of The Texas Disaster Act And Texas Gov’T Code Section 22.0035, Ron Beal 2022 Baylor University

A Pandemic Of Separation Of Powers Violations In Texas: The Interrelationship Of The Texas Disaster Act And Texas Gov’T Code Section 22.0035, Ron Beal

St. Mary's Law Journal

This Article is on the interrelationship of the Texas Disaster Act and Texas Government Code Section 22.0035. The author demonstrates that the Governor of Texas and the Texas Supreme Court have grossly violated the separation of powers on a continuing basis since March 29, 2020 by Governor Abbott issuing Executive Order 13, which prohibits the granting of bail to anyone awaiting trial, and the Texas Supreme Court’s unwillingness to invalidate that order administratively or judicially. Finally, the Article addresses the nearly one thousand district and county court judges who are constantly violating the separations of powers by failing ...


Recovery From Minor Tropical Cyclones: The Response Of Faith-Based Organizations And Government Agencies To Minor Tropical Cyclones In Biloxi, Mississippi, Camilla Witherspoon 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Recovery From Minor Tropical Cyclones: The Response Of Faith-Based Organizations And Government Agencies To Minor Tropical Cyclones In Biloxi, Mississippi, Camilla Witherspoon

Master's Theses

The impacts of major hurricanes are extensively researched in Disaster Resilience literature and the field of Human Geography; in contrast, the aftermath of minor tropical cyclones is understudied. Along the Gulf Coast in 2020 and 2021, more minor tropical cyclones made landfall then major hurricanes (NOAA, 2021). Despite the frequency of minor tropical cyclones, few studies have considered the resources and actors involved in recovery from minor tropical cyclones.

This thesis uses qualitative methods, including semi-structured interviews and document collection, to examine how Faith-based Organization (FBO) and government agency leaders in Biloxi, Mississippi provide resources to residents, interact with each ...


A Study Of Improvement In The User Experience Of Unlv's Campus Safety Mobile Application, Mayra Carrera, Mustafa Diallo, Cecilia Garcia-Leon, Khristine Le, Kristine Monsada 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Study Of Improvement In The User Experience Of Unlv's Campus Safety Mobile Application, Mayra Carrera, Mustafa Diallo, Cecilia Garcia-Leon, Khristine Le, Kristine Monsada

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

In 2019, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), reported an average of 28,000 crimes on college campuses across the United States. The University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) has taken measures to address campus safety through their app, RebelSAFE. However, there is little research showing how effective such apps are in aiding students through emergencies. This study aims to evaluate the usability of RebelSAFE through usability testing and surveys.


Desa Mawacara, Negara Mawatata: Bali’S Customary Village-Based State Policies In The Time Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, I Ngurah Suryawan 2022 Warmadewa University

Desa Mawacara, Negara Mawatata: Bali’S Customary Village-Based State Policies In The Time Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, I Ngurah Suryawan

Jurnal Politik

Balinese customary villages are at the center of the state’s strategy for mitigation of Covid-19. Relations between customary villages and the state predate colonial times. The historical dynamics have shown that the traditions and cultures of customary villages (desa mawacara) will always exist within the shadow of the state (negara mawatata). The symbolic narrative of desa mawacara, negara mawatata illustrates the governmentality that the state exercises over the villages. Regional Regulation No. 4/2019 on Customary Villages in Bali and the formation of the customary village-based task force were rational choices made by the Governor of Bali to place ...


Protecting A Woman’S Right To Abortion During A Public Health Crisis, San Juanita Gonzalez 2022 St. Mary's University School of Law

Protecting A Woman’S Right To Abortion During A Public Health Crisis, San Juanita Gonzalez

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

As COVID-19 infected our nation, states were quick to issue executive orders restricting various aspects of daily life under the pretense of public safety. It was clear at the outset that certain civil liberties were going to be tested. Among them, the constitutional right to an abortion.

This comment explores Texas’ response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the limitations it imposed on abortion access. It will attempt to address the legitimacy of the “public health concerns” listed in executive orders issued throughout numerous states and will discuss the pertinent legal framework and judicial scrutiny to apply.

According to the Fifth ...


Framework For The Priority Actions Of Filipino Physical Therapists In Disaster Risk Reduction And Management, Francis Clarence C. Chua, Cheryll Didi Nellie N. Obra 2022 Mariano Marcos State University

Framework For The Priority Actions Of Filipino Physical Therapists In Disaster Risk Reduction And Management, Francis Clarence C. Chua, Cheryll Didi Nellie N. Obra

Philippine Journal of Physical Therapy

Introduction: The study was conducted to develop a framework where physical therapists could be integrated into the disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) initiatives of a province in the northern Philippines.

Methods: This was a mixed-methods study that utilized a research and development design. A validated questionnaire on the experience and perceptions of DRRM was administered to 20 selected physical therapists. A validated interview guide was administered to 10 local disaster control office head and members. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize and examine the qualitative data.

Results: Physical therapists were ...


What Makes A Cert Program Successful And Effective?, Dempsey Kraft, Wade Aaron Baker 2022 Arkansas Tech University

What Makes A Cert Program Successful And Effective?, Dempsey Kraft, Wade Aaron Baker

ATU Research Symposium

There has been little research conducted about Community Emergency Response Teams (CERTs). Even so, previous research suggests that CERT programs present a viable option for increasing a community's disaster resilience by increasing preparedness education and building interpersonal bonds among community members. Still, additional research indicates that measuring the success of CERT is challenging to quantify. This study seeks to determine what makes a CERT program successful and effective.

Method

The researchers are utilizing purposive sampling and a structured questionnaire to interview CERT Program Coordinators. CERT Program Coordinators identified as potential participants were contacted via an email solicitation. This email ...


Contested Deployment, Bert B. Tussing, John Eric Powell, Benjamin C. Leitzel 2022 US Army War College

Contested Deployment, Bert B. Tussing, John Eric Powell, Benjamin C. Leitzel

Monographs, Collaborative Studies, & IRPs

As indicated in the 2018 National Defense Strategy and evolving Multi-Domain Operations doctrine, the assumption the homeland will provide a secure space for mobilization and deployment is no longer valid. This integrated research project goes beyond affirming this assumption and contributes to efforts to mitigate the concerns a contested deployment entails.

Following the introductory chapter, Chapter 2, “Army Deployments in a Contested Homeland: A Framework for Protection,” explores how current coordination and cooperation mechanisms between the DoD and state and local government may need realignment, with civil authorities preparing themselves to support military mobilization. Chapter 3, “Strategic Seaports and National ...


Trust And Community Contexts: An Integrative Study Of Hazard Preparedness Influences In Hampton Roads, Virginia, Ogechukwu Agim Nwandu-Vincent 2022 Old Dominion University

Trust And Community Contexts: An Integrative Study Of Hazard Preparedness Influences In Hampton Roads, Virginia, Ogechukwu Agim Nwandu-Vincent

College of Business (Strome) Posters

Despite research findings that show the benefits of being prepared for hazard events, studies on hazard preparedness report that individuals, communities, and businesses are often poorly prepared. Several studies have determined that various factors and contexts (individual, environmental, social), social messaging, social influences, and information sources can play an important role in determining how a community prepares for and responds to a hazard (Wachinger et al., 2013; Paton & McClure, 2013; Lindell & Perry, 2012; Paton, 2007).

Higher levels of trust may lead to desired protective behaviors while lower levels may lead to low levels of engagement and compliance in communities. The relationship between trust and ...


Pandemics And The Protection Of Privacy And Personal Information: Issues With Regard To The Use And Protection Of Information On The Basis Of Improving Public Health In The Fight Against Infectious Diseases, Fumio Shimpo 2022 Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University

Pandemics And The Protection Of Privacy And Personal Information: Issues With Regard To The Use And Protection Of Information On The Basis Of Improving Public Health In The Fight Against Infectious Diseases, Fumio Shimpo

Japanese Society and Culture

In order to make use of the response to the new the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) for pandemic countermeasures due to infectious diseases that may have a serious impact on the lives and health of the people, which may occur in the future, the handling of personal information and the protection of privacy necessary to ensure the effectiveness of countermeasures against infectious diseases will be examined. This paper intends to establish to comprehensively understand the systems for the collection and publication of information related to infectious diseases based on the Infectious Diseases Control Law, and to clarify the structure and issues ...


Commemorating Disorder In After Action Reports: Rhetorics Of Organizational Trauma After The Las Vegas Shooting, Rebecca M. Rice, Emma Frances Bloomfield 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Commemorating Disorder In After Action Reports: Rhetorics Of Organizational Trauma After The Las Vegas Shooting, Rebecca M. Rice, Emma Frances Bloomfield

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

After-action reports are important texts that make sense of moments of crisis and restore organizational order. We add to existing research on these reports by incorporating the rhetorical concepts of terministic screens and the pentad to understand how reports commemorate disorder and organizational trauma. Analyzing the multiple reports created after the 2017 Las Vegas Shooting, we find that reports from different professional fields commemorate crises in disparate ways that select and deflect memories of trauma. This study extends risk and crisis studies of crisis documentation by highlighting the emotional role reports play in making sense of organizational trauma and considering ...


Covid-19 Dialogue On Facebook: Crisis Communication Relationship Between Ghanaian Authorities And Citizens, Patrick O. Ansah 2022 George Mason University

Covid-19 Dialogue On Facebook: Crisis Communication Relationship Between Ghanaian Authorities And Citizens, Patrick O. Ansah

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

The paper explored how the Ministry of Information (M.O.I.), the official mouthpiece of the government of Ghana, interacted with citizens during the COVID-19 outbreak within the context of crisis communication as a tool for authority-citizen engagement on Facebook. Content analysis of COVID-19 comments on the Ministry of Information’s official Facebook page showed higher participation in the discussion from citizens. However, authorities only provided information by being inactive participants in the interaction. The dominant issues focused on Ghanaian authorities and their actions, the course of events surrounding the pandemic, infected cases and deaths, and Ghana’s recovery efforts ...


“I Lose” “I Gain” Vs. “They Lose” “They Gain”: The Influence Of Message Framing On Donation Intentions In Disaster Fundraising, Yuan Wang, Jiyoun Kim, Allison Chatham, Lingyan Ma 2022 The University of Maryland

“I Lose” “I Gain” Vs. “They Lose” “They Gain”: The Influence Of Message Framing On Donation Intentions In Disaster Fundraising, Yuan Wang, Jiyoun Kim, Allison Chatham, Lingyan Ma

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

Grounded in the 2018 California Camp Fire context, this study explores how message framing in charitable appeals influences individuals’ donation intentions. A 2 (firstperson imagery perspective vs. third-person imagery perspective) × 2 (gain frame vs. loss frame) between-subject online experiment was conducted via Amazon’s MTurk. Results showed that gain/loss framing and imagery perspectives interactively influenced participants’ donation intentions. Specifically, when a message is lossframed, a first-person imagery perspective (“I lose”) message is more effective than a third-person imagery perspective (“they lose”) message in enhancing participants’ perceived issue relevance, induced empathy, and donation intention. In addition, when the message is ...


“I Thought About It And I May Follow What You Said”: Three Studies Examining The Effects Of Elaboration And Source Credibility On Risk Behavior Intentions, Xialing Lin, Kenneth A. Lachlan, Patric R. Spence 2022 Penn State University, Scranton Campus

“I Thought About It And I May Follow What You Said”: Three Studies Examining The Effects Of Elaboration And Source Credibility On Risk Behavior Intentions, Xialing Lin, Kenneth A. Lachlan, Patric R. Spence

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

The induction of cognitive elaboration on information concerning risks may facilitate compliance with messages encouraging audiences to mitigate against risks. Nevertheless, cognitive elaboration and its relationship with other key variables in risk information processing have been largely understudied. Revisiting data from three experiments, this study examined how cognitive elaboration influences behavioral intentions associated with a risk, and the relationship between cognitive elaboration and behavioral intentions, as mediated by perceptions of source credibility. Results consistently found that cognitive elaboration directly predicted increases in both source credibility perceptions and behavioral intentions, along with an indirect effect of cognitive elaboration on behavioral intentions ...


Editorial Essay: A Reflection On Methodological Diversity In The Journal Of International Crisis And Risk Communication Research, Audra Diers-Lawson, Florian Meissner 2022 Kristiania University College, School of Communication, Leadership and Marketing, Norway

Editorial Essay: A Reflection On Methodological Diversity In The Journal Of International Crisis And Risk Communication Research, Audra Diers-Lawson, Florian Meissner

Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research

This is the Editor's essay for Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of International Crisis and Risk Communication Research.


Hajj Pilgrims’ Perceptions Of Trust And Internet Use For (Emergency) Information, Sudha Arlikatti, Hassan A. Taibah, Praveen Maghelal, Simon A. Andrew, Saad A. Alkhurayyif 2022 Rabdan Academy

Hajj Pilgrims’ Perceptions Of Trust And Internet Use For (Emergency) Information, Sudha Arlikatti, Hassan A. Taibah, Praveen Maghelal, Simon A. Andrew, Saad A. Alkhurayyif

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

This empirical study examines the patterns of internet use during Hajj, with the broader aim of providing suggestions on how organisations can improve risk communication at crowded religious venues using traditional and new media. The research team adopted a convenience sampling strategy to conduct in-person surveys of 348 Hajj pilgrims in the vicinity of the Grand Mosque in Madinah, Saudi Arabia during the October 2013 season. Of these, 150 pilgrims used the internet and their responses were analysed using simple descriptive statistics and binary regression analyses. The findings of this study suggest that Hajj pilgrims prefer accessing the internet through ...


Understanding The Effect Of News Media And Social Media On First Responders, Jane M. Tucker, Michele P. Bratina, Briana Caprio 2022 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Understanding The Effect Of News Media And Social Media On First Responders, Jane M. Tucker, Michele P. Bratina, Briana Caprio

Criminal Justice Faculty Publications

Over the last twenty years, technological advances have created the opportunity to disseminate information to millions of end users within seconds. Empirical studies have indicated that this engagement with technology (particularly through social networking sites) has an influence on individual stress. Terms such as “technostress” and “social networking stress” have been invented to describe these conditions. Most studies, however, have not taken into consideration the occupation of the user. The current study investigates the influence of media, news media and social media, on first responders (firefighters, emergency medical personnel, police officers, dispatchers) and their self-reported stress levels. Findings from completed ...


Answering The Call: A History Of The Emergency Power Doctrine In Texas And The United States, P. Elise McLaren 2022 St. Mary's University School of Law

Answering The Call: A History Of The Emergency Power Doctrine In Texas And The United States, P. Elise Mclaren

St. Mary's Law Journal

During times of emergency, national and local government may be allowed to take otherwise impermissible action in the interest of health, safety, or national security. The prerequisites and limits to this power, however, are altogether unknown. Like the crises they aim to deflect, courts’ modern emergency power doctrines range from outright denial of any power of constitutional circumvention to their flagrant use. Concededly, courts’ approval of emergency powers has provided national and local government opportunities to quickly respond to emergency without pause for constituency approval, but how can one be sure the availability of autocratic power will not be abused ...


Seeds Of Resilience: Learning From Covid-19 To Strengthen Seed Systems In Vermont, Ali Brooks, Carina V. Isbell, Daniel Tobin Ph.D., Travis Reynolds Ph.D., Eric Bishop Von Wettberg Ph.D., David Conner Ph.D., Evie Wolfe 2022 The University of Vermont

Seeds Of Resilience: Learning From Covid-19 To Strengthen Seed Systems In Vermont, Ali Brooks, Carina V. Isbell, Daniel Tobin Ph.D., Travis Reynolds Ph.D., Eric Bishop Von Wettberg Ph.D., David Conner Ph.D., Evie Wolfe

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Seeds are central to crop-based production systems, yet in the United States seeds have been largely overlooked in both research and local and regional food systems initiatives. This report seeks to address the gap in seed-related research by assessing current strengths and vulnerabilities of Vermont’s seed systems. In particular, the findings presented in this report illuminate how seed systems can maintain function in the face of external shocks such as the COVID-19 pandemic, and how we can apply the lessons learned toward building resilience for an uncertain future due to factors such as climate change. Despite the turmoil caused ...


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