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Economic Segregation, Inequality, And The New Urban Crisis In The Mountain West, Ember Smith, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Economic Segregation, Inequality, And The New Urban Crisis In The Mountain West, Ember Smith, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown

Housing & Real Estate

This fact sheet highlights economic segregation, inequality, and the effect of the “New Urban Crisis” in the Mountain West region (Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah) as computed and analyzed by Richard Florida in The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class- and What We Can Do About it.


Regulatory Abdication In Practice, Cary Coglianese 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Regulatory Abdication In Practice, Cary Coglianese

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

“Meta-regulation” refers to deliberate efforts to induce private firms to create their own internal regulations—a regulatory strategy sometimes referred to as “management-based regulation” or even “regulation of self-regulation.” Meta-regulation is often presented as a flexible alternative to traditional “command-and-control” regulation. But does meta-regulation actually work? In her recent book, Meta-Regulation in Practice: Beyond Normative Views of Morality and Rationality, Fiona Simon purports to offer a critique of meta-regulation based on an extended case study of the often-feckless process of electricity regulatory reform undertaken in Australia in the early part of this century. Yet neither Simon’s case study nor ...


Social Science And The Analysis Of Environmental Policy, Cary Coglianese, Shana Starobin 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Social Science And The Analysis Of Environmental Policy, Cary Coglianese, Shana Starobin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As much as environmental problems manifest themselves as problems with the natural environment, environmental problems--and their solutions--are ultimately social and behavioral in nature. Just as the natural sciences provide a basis for understanding the need for environmental policy and informing its design, the social sciences also contribute in significant ways to the understanding of the behavioral sources of environmental problems, both in terms of individual incentives and collective action challenges. In addition, the social sciences have contributed much to the understanding of the ways that laws and other institutions can be designed to solve environmental problems. In this paper, we ...


The Looming Crisis In Antitrust Economics, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Looming Crisis In Antitrust Economics, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

As in so many areas of law and politics in the United States, antitrust’s center is at bay. It is besieged by a right wing that wants to limit antitrust even more than it has been limited over the last quarter century. On the left, it faces revisionists who propose significantly greater enforcement.

One thing the two extremes share, however, is denigration of the role of economics in antitrust analysis. On the right, the Supreme Court’s two most recent antitrust decisions at this writing reveal that economic analysis no longer occupies the central role that it once had ...


The Future Of Work In The Mountain West, Ember Smith, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Future Of Work In The Mountain West, Ember Smith, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown

Economic Development & Workforce

This Fact Sheet highlights the potential net job growth in the Mountain West states (Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado) and automation employment implications in each county in the region as detailed in The future of work in America: People and places, today and tomorrow, a report by the McKinsey Global Institute.


How Technology-Based Start-Ups Support U.S. Economic Growth, Mary Blankenship, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

How Technology-Based Start-Ups Support U.S. Economic Growth, Mary Blankenship, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown

Economic Development & Workforce

This Fact Sheet examines the trends of technology-based start-ups within the United States and specific states in the Mountain West (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico) across the top 10 technology industries in 2016, using data provided by a report from the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation.


Lessons Learned: Edwin (Ted) Truman, Yasemin Sim Esmen 2020 Yale University

Lessons Learned: Edwin (Ted) Truman, Yasemin Sim Esmen

Journal of Financial Crises

Insights on fighting financial crises from Ted Truman, an expert in responding to the international dimensions of financial crises. Topics include the initial US response to the Global Financial Crisis of 2008-2009 and the utiltiy of issuing Special Drawing Rights (SDR).


Lessons Learned: Ray Dalio, Andrew Metrick, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Kaleb B. Nygaard 2020 Yale University

Lessons Learned: Ray Dalio, Andrew Metrick, Rosalind Z. Wiggins, Kaleb B. Nygaard

Journal of Financial Crises

Insights from a discussion with Ray Dalio, Founder, Chairman, and Co-Chief Investment Officer of Bridgewater Associates, one of the largest hedge funds in the world. Topics range from monetary policy to communications strategy when responding to a financial crisis.


Basel Iii G: Shadow Banking And Project Finance, Christian M. McNamara, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii G: Shadow Banking And Project Finance, Christian M. Mcnamara, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

The Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR), a liquidity standard introduced by Basel III, seeks to promote a better match between the liquidity of a bank’s assets and the manner in which the bank funds those assets. The NSFR requires banks to maintain a minimum amount of funding deemed “stable” by the Basel framework based on the liquidity of the banks’ assets and activities over a one-year timeframe. One of the areas seen as most affected by this development may be bank participation in project finance for infrastructure development. Since the global demand for infrastructure development remains robust, the shadow ...


Basel Iii F: Callable Commercial Paper, Christian M. McNamara, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii F: Callable Commercial Paper, Christian M. Mcnamara, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

One of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s responses to the global financial crisis of 2007-09 was to introduce the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR), a short-term measure that evaluates whether a bank has enough liquidity to meet expected cash outflows during a 30-day stress scenario. One area in which this incentive has already resulted in changed practices is in the market for commercial paper. Banks often provide backup liquidity facilities to the issuers of commercial paper that the issuers can draw upon to repay a maturing issue of commercial paper if they are unable to sell a new issue ...


Basel Iii D: Swiss Finish To Basel Iii, Christian M. McNamara, Natalia Tente, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii D: Swiss Finish To Basel Iii, Christian M. Mcnamara, Natalia Tente, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III—enhanced requirements applicable to Switzerland’s “too-big-to-fail” banks Credit Suisse and UBS that go beyond the base requirements established by the BCBS. Yet the prominent role played by relatively ...


Basel Iii B: Basel Iii Overview, Christian M. McNamara, Michael Wedow, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii B: Basel Iii Overview, Christian M. Mcnamara, Michael Wedow, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

In the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-09, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) faced the critical task of diagnosing what went wrong and then updating regulatory standards aimed at preventing it from occurring again. In seeking to strengthen the microprudential regulation associated with the earlier Basel Accords while also adding a macroprudential overlay, Basel III consists of proposals in three main areas intended to address 1) capital reform, 2) liquidity standards, and 3) systemic risk and interconnectedness. This case considers the causes of the 2007-09 financial crisis and what they suggest about weaknesses in the Basel regime ...


Basel Iii A: Regulatory History, Christian M. McNamara, Thomas Piontek, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Basel Iii A: Regulatory History, Christian M. Mcnamara, Thomas Piontek, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

From the earliest efforts to mandate the amount of capital banks must maintain, regulators have grappled with how best to accomplish this task. Until the 1980s, regulation had been based largely on discretion and judgment. In the wake of two bank failures, the central bank governors of the G10 countries established the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) and in 1988, the BCBS introduced a capital measurement system, Basel I. The system represented a triumph of the fixed numerical approach, however, critics worried that it was too blunt an instrument. In 1999, the BCBS issued Basel II, a proposal to ...


Jpmorgan Chase London Whale Z: Background & Overview, Arwin G. Zeissler, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick 2020 Yale University

Jpmorgan Chase London Whale Z: Background & Overview, Arwin G. Zeissler, Rosalind Bennett, Andrew Metrick

Journal of Financial Crises

In December 2011, the Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer of JPMorgan Chase (JPM) instructed the bank’s Chief Investment Office to reduce the size of its Synthetic Credit Portfolio (SCP) during 2012, so that JPM could decrease its Risk-Weighted Assets as the bank prepared to adopt the impending Basel III bank capital regulations. However, the SCP traders were also told to minimize the trading costs incurred to reduce Risk-Weighted Assets, while still maintaining the opportunity to profit from unexpected corporate bankruptcies. In an attempt to balance these competing objectives, head SCP derivatives trader Bruno Iksil suggested in January ...


Incorporating Macroprudential Financial Regulation Into Monetary Policy, Aaron Klein 2020 The Brookings Institution

Incorporating Macroprudential Financial Regulation Into Monetary Policy, Aaron Klein

Journal of Financial Crises

This paper proposes two insights into financial regulation and monetary policy. The first enhances understanding the relationship between them, building on the automobile metaphor that describes monetary policy: when to accelerate or brake for curves miles ahead. Enhancing the metaphor, financial markets are the transmission. In a financial crisis, markets cease to function, equivalent to a transmission shifting into neutral. This explains both monetary policy’s diminished effectiveness in stimulating the economy and why the financial crisis shock to real economic output greatly exceeded central bank forecasts.

The second insight is that both excess leverage and fundamental mispricing of asset ...


On The Meaning Of Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

On The Meaning Of Antitrust's Consumer Welfare Principle, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This brief essay addresses the ambiguities in the meaning of “consumer welfare” in antitrust, exploring the differences between the Williamson, Bork, and current understanding of that term. After weighing the alternatives it argues that the consumer welfare principle in antitrust should seek out that state of affairs in which output is maximized, consistent with sustainable competition


Best Performing Cities: Where America's Jobs Are Created And Sustained, Peter Grema, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown 2020 The Lincy Institute and Brookings Mountain West

Best Performing Cities: Where America's Jobs Are Created And Sustained, Peter Grema, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown

Economic Development & Workforce

This Fact Sheet summarizes and expands upon the findings of the Milken Institute’s 2018 Best Performing Cities series report on the top 200 large cities and top 200 small cities in the United States in 2018. For the purposes of this Fact Sheet, the report focuses on 26 metropolitan areas located within the Mountain West region of the United States (Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico).


Brain Drain In The Mountain West, Ember Smith, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Brain Drain In The Mountain West, Ember Smith, Caitlin Saladino, William E. Brown

Economic Development & Workforce

This Fact Sheet highlights the effects of major shifts in geographic mobility patterns of highly-educated citizens in the Mountain West (Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado). The phenomenon, dubbed “brain drain” by experts, is characterized by the out-migration of a group of highly-educated people. “Brain gain” describes the opposite: when a location attracts highly-educated people. Several states are keeping and welcoming more highly-educated adults, while other states are rapidly losing talent. This migration pattern has important implications for social, political, and economic issues facing the country.


Taxing Bitcoin And Blockchains—What The Irs Told Us (And What It Didn’T), David J. Shakow 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Taxing Bitcoin And Blockchains—What The Irs Told Us (And What It Didn’T), David J. Shakow

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The IRS recently issued its second description of how it will treat Bitcoin and other blockchain assets. Some of its analysis leaves open questions that invite further consideration, and important issues remain unresolved. Moreover, because the popular Bitcoin blockchain uses a "proof of work" consensus procedure, issues relating to the alternative "proof of stake" procedure have been neglected.


Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky 2020 Bar-Ilan University - Faculty of Law

Reversing The Fortunes Of Active Funds, Adi Libson, Gideon Parchomovsky

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Recent years have witnessed a considerable growth of passive fund at the expense of active funds. This trend picked in 2019, a year that saw passive funds surpass active funds in terms of assets under management. The continuous decline of active funds is a cause for concern. Active funds engage in monitoring of firms and partake of decision-making in companies in their portfolio. The cost of these activities are born exclusively by active funds; the benefits, by contrast, are spread over all shareholders, including passive funds that freeride on the efforts of active funds. The contraction of active funds threatens ...


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