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Beyond The Protective Effect: Towards A Theory Of Harm For Information Communication Technologies In Mass Atrocity Response, Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, Nathaniel A. Raymond 2017 University of Oslo

Beyond The Protective Effect: Towards A Theory Of Harm For Information Communication Technologies In Mass Atrocity Response, Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, Nathaniel A. Raymond

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) are now being employed as a standard part of mass atrocity response, evidence collection, and research by non-governmental organizations, governments, and the private sector. Deployment of these tools and techniques occur for a variety of stated reasons, most notably the ostensible goal of “protecting” vulnerable populations. However, these often experimental applications of ICTs and digital data are occurring in the absence of agreed normative frameworks and accepted theory to guide their ethical and responsible use. This article surveys the current state-of-the-art of ICT use in mass atrocity response and research to identify harms and hazards inherent ...


Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield 2017 Illinois State University

Us Aid In The Arab World Fact Checking Us Democratization Rhetoric Against Reality, Nicholas Canfield

Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development

Many factors have been used to explain durable authoritarianism in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and one of the most important external influences of MENA governments’ structure is support from the United States. The US balances security concerns and democratization rhetoric in the region, but much literature promotes that security concerns are the most important factor for US support in MENA. Using US aid as a proxy for US support, this study finds that US aid actually increases democratization in MENA, and counterintuitively, aid to MENA military and police forces seems to have a stronger democratization effect than ...


Information Use And Quality Service Of The Nigerian Police, Olajumoke R. Olawoyin,, Ezinwanyi Madukoma DR., Ugwunwa Chinyere Esse 2017 Covenant University

Information Use And Quality Service Of The Nigerian Police, Olajumoke R. Olawoyin,, Ezinwanyi Madukoma Dr., Ugwunwa Chinyere Esse

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Information use of police force occurs when information acquired by the police to satisfy an information need based on task assigned to them is actually put to use. Information is therefore useful and valuable if after receiving it, it changes things, decisions, behaviour or one’s character and solves the problem for which the information is sought.

Survey research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised 2,305 police officers in Alimosho Local Government Police Division. Stratified random sampling method was used to select 227 police officers. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Data collected ...


Issue 21.1 Endnotes, CISR JMU 2017 James Madison University

Issue 21.1 Endnotes, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Issue 21.1 Endnotes


Developing A Hyperspectral Non-Technical Survey For Minefields Via Uav And Helicopter, Milan Bajic, Tamara Ivelja, Anna Brook 2017 HCR Centre for Testing, Development, Training Ltd.

Developing A Hyperspectral Non-Technical Survey For Minefields Via Uav And Helicopter, Milan Bajic, Tamara Ivelja, Anna Brook

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

The main topic discussed in this paper is the research, development, and implementation of hyperspectral remote sensing technology in humanitarian mine action (HMA), mainly for non-technical survey (NTS) from aerial platforms. NTS should be conducted to determine whether landmines or unexploded ordnance (UXO) exist in considered areas and whether clearance is needed and if so, in what scope. The availability of the hyperspectral sensors (2011–2012) that are suitable for use with multi-engine unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) enabled the development of systems for HMA. While large and costly airborne hyperspectral systems have been available for over two decades, they ...


Effects Of Weather On Detection Of Landmines By Giant African Pouched Rats, Ian McLean, Rebecca Sargisson 2017 University of Waikato

Effects Of Weather On Detection Of Landmines By Giant African Pouched Rats, Ian Mclean, Rebecca Sargisson

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Although APOPO has trained mine detection rats for many years, no published data exist on how weather parameters relate to detection accuracy. Using data taken during routine training, we show that there was little relationship between the detection success of rats and rainfall but find that rates decreased, on average, with increasing temperatures and increased with higher humidities. Individual rats vary in terms of sensitivity to temperature in that


World War Ii Coastal Minefields In The United Kingdom, Roly Evans 2017 Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining

World War Ii Coastal Minefields In The United Kingdom, Roly Evans

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

While not widely appreciated today, there were once 1,997 minefields in the United Kingdom containing between 338,500–350,000 landmines. If you were to walk today on a beach suitable for amphibious landing on either the south or east coasts of the United Kingdom, chances are that you would be walking on a former 1940s minefield. This article briefly explores the story of the United Kingdom’s coastal minefields, from their hasty installation through their costly clearance. Many of the lessons from this period remain relevant today, as countries seek to apply land release principles to reduce the ...


Public, Private, And Civil Sector Partnerships Bolster Humanitarian Demining Efforts, Bob Ebberson, Wendy Hart 2017 Schonstedt Instrument Company

Public, Private, And Civil Sector Partnerships Bolster Humanitarian Demining Efforts, Bob Ebberson, Wendy Hart

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Schonstedt Instrument Company is a small manufacturing company located in the eastern panhandle of West Virginia, about 70 miles (112 km) from Washington, D.C. Schonstedt makes instruments that locate underground objects. These include pipe, cable, and magnetic locators that find and trace underground utilities and ferrous metals such as boundary markers used by surveyors. Magnetic locators have proven to be successful in locating unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other explosive remnants of war (ERW). In looking for ways to grow this market, Schonstedt recognized an opportunity to support humanitarian demining throughout the world. Determining that the sale of a pipe ...


Bosnia And Herzegovina: Itf Enhancing Human Security Perspective 20 Years After The Conflict, Gregor Sancanin 2017 International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance

Bosnia And Herzegovina: Itf Enhancing Human Security Perspective 20 Years After The Conflict, Gregor Sancanin

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

ITF Enhancing Human Security has worked in Southeast Europe’s post-conflict countries since 1998. In states affected by the break-up of Yugoslavia such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, ITF works to support the country’s fulfillment of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention (APMBC).


The Early Years Of Demining In Bosnia And Herzegovina: Transfer To National Ownership, Ian Mansfield 2017 GICHD

The Early Years Of Demining In Bosnia And Herzegovina: Transfer To National Ownership, Ian Mansfield

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

After the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords on 14 December 1995, the newly formed Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina requested that the United Nations set up and manage a mine clearance program. However, it soon became clear that the government should take responsibility and ownership of the program.

The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina took place between April 1992 and October 1995. While the causes of the war and what happened are extremely complicated, Bosnian Serbs encircled Sarajevo and imposed a blockade, while ‘ethnic cleansing’ operations were undertaken by all sides in towns and villages throughout ...


Do No Harm: The Challenge Of Protecting Civilians From The Ied Threat In South-Central Somalia, Abigail Jones 2017 Gender and Mine Action Programme

Do No Harm: The Challenge Of Protecting Civilians From The Ied Threat In South-Central Somalia, Abigail Jones

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

In many countries, improvised explosive devices (IED), including improvised landmines, now constitute more of a threat to civilians than factory-manufactured landmines and other conventional weapons. The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor 2016 reported that the total number of casualties from victim-operated IEDs, which act in a similar manner to anti-personnel mines, increased from 1,075 in 2014 to 1,331 in 2015, the highest annual total of IED casualties recorded since 1999.1 In response to this, humanitarian mine action organizations are expanding their scope of activities to include IED awareness for civilians either as a stand-alone activity or by ...


Mag: Clearing Improvised Landmines In Iraq, Chris Loughran, Sean Sutton 2017 MAG (Mines Advisory Group)

Mag: Clearing Improvised Landmines In Iraq, Chris Loughran, Sean Sutton

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

MAG’s recent experience in the Middle East has shown that clearing improvised landmines can be achieved even in the most complex humanitarian contexts. It is imperative that detail and specificity is given to discussions on improvised devices if we are to avoid negative repercussions for the safety of beneficiaries and humanitarian workers.


Improvised Explosive Devices (Ied): A Humanitarian Mine Action Perspective, Robert Keeley 2017 RK Consulting, Ltd.

Improvised Explosive Devices (Ied): A Humanitarian Mine Action Perspective, Robert Keeley

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Readers of this Journal need no schooling in the acceleration of the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) over the last 20 years. However, what has become obvious in the last few years is the degree to which the spheres of counter-IED (C-IED) and humanitarian mine action (HMA) now overlap. Danish Demining Group (DDG), for example, recently calculated that an estimated 67 percent of the countries where DDG is present also have an IED problem. In countries such as Afghanistan, IEDs are now the major cause of explosive-related casualties among the general population, the very constituents nongovernment organizations (NGO) and ...


From The Director, CISR JMU 2017 James Madison University

From The Director, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

As we endeavor to make The Journal a forum of information and ideas for the conventional weapons destruction community, we look at the threat improvised explosive devices (IED) pose in countries around the world. Increasingly, humanitarian organizations are widening their scope to account for the prevalence of IEDs. The need for clear communication across humanitarian mine action and counter-IED (C-IED) operational lines is evident.


The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 21.1, CISR JMU 2017 James Madison University

The Journal Of Conventional Weapons Destruction Issue 21.1, Cisr Jmu

Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction

Feature: Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) and Pressure Plate IED's

Spotlight: Bosnia and Herzegovina 2- years later

Field Notes

Research and Development


Foreign Policy Brief: North Korean Nuclear Weapons, Jacob Chobanian 2017 Chapman University

Foreign Policy Brief: North Korean Nuclear Weapons, Jacob Chobanian

Political Science Student Papers and Posters

This paper is a brief on the current situation involving the United States and North Korea regarding the nuclear weapon controversy and possible war.


Rethinking Baloch Secularism: What The Data Say, C. Christine Fair, Ali Hamza 2017 Georgetown University

Rethinking Baloch Secularism: What The Data Say, C. Christine Fair, Ali Hamza

Peace and Conflict Studies

Since 1947, Baloch have resisted inclusion into the Pakistan and have waged several waves of ethno-nationalist insurgency against the state. Scholars and Baloch nationalist leaders alike generally assert that Baloch are more secular than other Pakistanis, more opposed to the political Islamist policies pursued by the state, and less supportive of Islamist militancy in the country. However, these claims lack empirical support. We employ data derived from a large national survey of Pakistanis from 2012 to evaluate these conventional wisdoms. Contrary to claims in the literature, we find that Baloch resemble Pakistanis generally with few important exceptions


Enhanced Response Plan For Woodland Primary School, Brian Harper 2017 Concordia University - Portland

Enhanced Response Plan For Woodland Primary School, Brian Harper

HLS 494 Practicum/Capstone Project

The city of Woodland, Washington sits along the very busy north and south railroad line that connects Portland and Vancouver with the Tacoma and Seattle areas and beyond. Each day over a dozen trains carrying a vast assortment of cargo goes rumbling by, some of it is mundane and some are volatile. What is very worrisome is that the Woodland Primary School is only a hundred meters from the tracks. Although remote, there is always the possibility of a train derailment close to the school. The local emergency services have plans for a train derailment, they fall under their standard ...


Practicum: Clark College Emergency Operations Plan 2017, Jesse Tillie 2017 Concordia University - Portland

Practicum: Clark College Emergency Operations Plan 2017, Jesse Tillie

HLS 494 Practicum/Capstone Project

While no one likes to think or talk about anything that is high-risk, low-probability, emergency preparedness has become the new reality check. With the aftermath of disasters like Hurricane Katrina and the Joplin Tornado, it has become imperative that local governments, private companies, everyday citizens and even educational institutions; address these growing concerns. Moving forward, there must be a focus on creating and disseminating effective plans grounded in foundational emergency management techniques. Emergency management is a term sometimes described as a series of transitional phases such as mitigation, preparedness, response, and recover. These management phases were created to create strategies ...


Local/State Emergency Management Relationships, Joshua L. Van Dyke 2017 Concordia University - Portland

Local/State Emergency Management Relationships, Joshua L. Van Dyke

HLS 494 Practicum/Capstone Project

Oregon is challenged with a regional liaison program that is understaffed, underfunded, and not a primary role within the Oregon Office of Emergency Management (OEM). This paper is going to examine what Oregon’s program could look like if the “regional liaison” was stand-alone position for several staff or at least a primary role within Oregon OEM. Programs from other states will be used for comparison in order to help build the picture. There are many challenges to the current program as well as creating a permanent liaison position - those will be briefly looked at. Lastly, some recommendations will be ...


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