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Deconstructing Saudi Arabia’S Foreign Aid Motives To Yemen, Ghita Fadhila Andrini, Taufik Hidayat, Dina Yulianti 2022 Department of International Relations, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Deconstructing Saudi Arabia’S Foreign Aid Motives To Yemen, Ghita Fadhila Andrini, Taufik Hidayat, Dina Yulianti

Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional

This research assesses the motives of Saudi Arabia’s aid to Yemen. Saudi Arabia has been the most significant donor to the country whilst threatening humanitarian conditions in Yemen through its military intervention. Thus, this research aims to unveil the Kingdom’s reasons to provide foreign aid to Yemen whilst doing the military intervention. This research uses the seven foreign aid frames according to Veen (2011) to analyse possible interest implied in the Kingdom’s foreign aid delivery to Yemen. The method used in this research is a literature review by analysing the Kingdom’s official statements published on the ...


Questioning China’S Peaceful Development: A Mahanian Sea Power Analysis Of Blue Water Navy Accumulation, Patricia Patricia, Putu Agung Nara I.P. Satya 2022 Parahyangan Catholic University

Questioning China’S Peaceful Development: A Mahanian Sea Power Analysis Of Blue Water Navy Accumulation, Patricia Patricia, Putu Agung Nara I.P. Satya

Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional

China has been rapidly accumulating naval capabilities for nearly 4 decades with the ambition of pursuing blue-water-navy forces through its People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). With its peaceful development policy, the acquisition of such powers has been interpreted as an anomaly and therefore resulted in an increase of security dilemmas between states. In the quest for explanations behind China’s actions, multiple scholars have examined this phenomenon by utilizing offensive realism, defensive realism, and Tirpitzian non-hegemonic naval theory. Thus, this paper brings another perspective by applying the Mahanian Sea Power approach. Consequently, the analysis established that China’s pursuit ...


Between The Regional And The National Level: East Asian Security Dynamics And Abe's Legacy On Japan's Civil-Military Relations, Januar Aditya Pratama, Arfin Sudirman 2022 Universitas Padjadjaran

Between The Regional And The National Level: East Asian Security Dynamics And Abe's Legacy On Japan's Civil-Military Relations, Januar Aditya Pratama, Arfin Sudirman

Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional

Since Prime Minister Shinzo Abe began his second term in office in 2012, there have been significant changes in the position of the Japanese military in the country's hierarchy. The change that was occurred almost simultaneously with the increasing threat in the East Asian region since the end of the Cold War, made as a pretext by PM Abe to reform Japan's defence structure. Based on the two factors, this study seeks to find out how the influence of the pattern of relations between countries in the East Asian security complex can affect the pattern of Japanese civil-military ...


Bureaucratic Resistance And The Challenge Of Implementing Asean Our Eyes: Case Study Of Jolo Church Bombing 2019, Chaula Rininta Anindya 2022 Ritsumeikan University, Japan

Bureaucratic Resistance And The Challenge Of Implementing Asean Our Eyes: Case Study Of Jolo Church Bombing 2019, Chaula Rininta Anindya

Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional

Arus Foreign Terrorist Fighters (FTF) memicu kekhawatiran dunia, termasuk negara-negara di Asia Tenggara. Pada tahun 2017, Indonesia mengajukan inisiatif “Our Eyes” untuk menciptakan sebuah wadah bagi negara-negara ASEAN untuk bertukar informasi intelijen guna memberantas kegiatan terorisme transnasional. Inisiatif tersebut kemudian diubah menjadi “ASEAN Our Eyes” (AOE). Tetapi, beberapa tahun setelah dibentuknya inisiatif tersebut, terjadi peristiwa pengeboman gereja di Jolo, Filipina. Inisiden tersebut menunjukkan hambatan untuk mengimplementasikan inisiatif AOE. Pelaku diidentifikasi sebagai Warga Negara Indonesia yang berhasil masuk ke Filipina berkat bantuan jaringan teroris lokal di Filipina. Idealnya, inisiatif AOE dapat mencegah serangan tersebut. Artikel ini akan mendiskusikan dinamika domestik di ...


China’S Rare Earth Supply And Demand Pattern And Balanced Utilization Strategy From Perspective Of Elements, Tao DAI, Tianming GAO, Bojie WEN 2022 Research Center for Strategy of Global Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China Institute of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China

China’S Rare Earth Supply And Demand Pattern And Balanced Utilization Strategy From Perspective Of Elements, Tao Dai, Tianming Gao, Bojie Wen

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Rare earth is one of the key minerals in the global competition. At present, the global rare earth resources and supply pattern are changing, and Western countries are actively building a supply chain to replace China. This paper describes the evolution of China's rare earth supply and demand pattern from the perspective of elements, analyzes the dislocation of supply and demand of China's rare earth elements and the challenges it faces under the great changes, and puts forward the balanced utilization strategy of rare earth elements, which provides an optimization plan for promoting the globalization of the industrial ...


Analysis Of Critical Mineral Strategies Of Us And Eu And Their Enlightenment To China, 2022 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Analysis Of Critical Mineral Strategies Of Us And Eu And Their Enlightenment To China

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

As the world's major consumers of critical minerals and China's primary competitors, US and the EU have developed comprehensive and systematic critical mineral strategies, which have significant impact on China's resource security. To assist in developing China's critical mineral strategy, by thoroughly examining the critical mineral strategies of US and EU, this study finds their strategic attempts to slow China's development, summarizes their characteristics in the preparation, implementation mechanism, and main strategic measures, and, based on this, proposes suggestions for raising the safety level of China's critical minerals.


Security Of China’S Strategic And Critical Minerals Under Background Of Great Power Competition, Anjian WANG, Xiaojing YUAN 2022 Global Mineral Resources Strategy Research Center, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China Institute of Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China

Security Of China’S Strategic And Critical Minerals Under Background Of Great Power Competition, Anjian Wang, Xiaojing Yuan

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Strategic and critical minerals are a type of resource that is essential to the country's economic development, indispensable to strategic emerging industries, and closely related to geopolitics. The types of strategic and critical minerals show some laws of spatial-temporal evolution due to the different stages of national economic development, economic structure and global industrial division of labor. Especially since the new century, with the rapid development of strategic emerging industries such as information technology, artificial intelligence and renewable energy, the connotation of strategic critical minerals has been continuously extended and closely connected with the industrial chain, highlighting its important ...


Recycling Of Critical Metals In Green And Low-Carbon Transition: Strategies And Countermeasures, Gang LIU, Litao LIU, Xin OUYANG, Qiance LIU, Xiang LI, Qiang YAN 2022 College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

Recycling Of Critical Metals In Green And Low-Carbon Transition: Strategies And Countermeasures, Gang Liu, Litao Liu, Xin Ouyang, Qiance Liu, Xiang Li, Qiang Yan

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

As green and low-carbon transition has gained world-wide recognition and become the inherent requirement of fully building a modern socialist China, the consumption of critical metals will increase drastically in the next decades. Meanwhile, this will mean a continually increasing potential of critical metals recycling. Facing changes and pandemic unseen in a century and increasing geopolitical conflicts, it has become a strategic consensus on the national security level for Western countries like the United States and Europe Union to acknowledge and enhance the role of recycling in secure provision of critical metals. Here, in this study, we have discussed the ...


Challenges And Security Strategies Of China’S Critical Metals Supply For Carbon Neutrality Pledge, Weiqiang CHEN, Peng WANG, Weiqiong ZHONG 2022 CAS Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China Research Center for Strategy of Global Mineral Resources, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Challenges And Security Strategies Of China’S Critical Metals Supply For Carbon Neutrality Pledge, Weiqiang Chen, Peng Wang, Weiqiong Zhong

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The grand transition to low-carbon energy system is essential to bend the growing carbon emission and further achieve the dual carbon goals. Critical metals such as rare earth elements, lithium, cobalt, nickel, and platinum are widely considered as the material base to support low-carbon technologies. However, given the supply of those metals are scarce and risky, the emerging conflicts between their supply and demand have spurred global attention and competition among countries. This study aims to explore the linkage between critical metals and low-carbon energy systems with a particular focus on the bottlenecks of China's supply chains of those ...


Parameters Winter Issue 2022-23, USAWC Press 2022 US Army War College

Parameters Winter Issue 2022-23, Usawc Press

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

No abstract provided.


Why Do Senior Officers Sometimes Fail In Character? The Leaky Character Reservoir, Everett S.P. Spain, Katie E. Matthew, Andrew L. Hagemaster 2022 US Army War College

Why Do Senior Officers Sometimes Fail In Character? The Leaky Character Reservoir, Everett S.P. Spain, Katie E. Matthew, Andrew L. Hagemaster

The US Army War College Quarterly: Parameters

This article argues senior officers may fail in character because their rate of character development throughout their careers typically decreases as environmental stressors rise. It conceptualizes character as an open system with both gains and leaks over time and integrates existing scholarship on personality and ethical development to create the Leaky Character Reservoir framework, which it then applies to Army officers’ careers. Military leaders will gain a new understanding of character and find specific actions officers, units, and the US Army can undertake to strengthen the character of its senior officers.


What Ukraine Taught Nato About Hybrid Warfare, Sarah J. Lohmann, Chuck Benson, Vytautas Butrimas, Georgios Giannoulis, Gabriel Raicu, Michael Bervell, Milagro Castilleja, Chris Clyde, Christopher J. Eaton, Alex Elmore, Ryan Fisk, Erin Hodges, Frank J. Kuzminski, Vishwa Padigepati, Caitlin Quirk, Brenton M. Riddle, Shuo Zhang, Lucas Cox, Samira Oakes 2022 US Army War College

What Ukraine Taught Nato About Hybrid Warfare, Sarah J. Lohmann, Chuck Benson, Vytautas Butrimas, Georgios Giannoulis, Gabriel Raicu, Michael Bervell, Milagro Castilleja, Chris Clyde, Christopher J. Eaton, Alex Elmore, Ryan Fisk, Erin Hodges, Frank J. Kuzminski, Vishwa Padigepati, Caitlin Quirk, Brenton M. Riddle, Shuo Zhang, Lucas Cox, Samira Oakes

Monographs, Collaborative Studies, & IRPs

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022 forced the United States and its NATO partners to be confronted with the impact of hybrid warfare far beyond the battlefield. Targeting Europe’s energy security, Russia’s malign influence campaigns and malicious cyber intrusions are affecting global gas prices, driving up food costs, disrupting supply chains and grids, and testing US and Allied military mobility. This study examines how hybrid warfare is being used by NATO’s adversaries, what vulnerabilities in energy security exist across the Alliance, and what mitigation strategies are available to the member states.

Cyberattacks targeting the renewable energy ...


Enabling Nato’S Collective Defense: Critical Infrastructure Security And Resiliency (Nato Coe-Dat Handbook 1), Carol V. Evans, Chris Anderson, Malcom Baker, Ronald Bearse, Salih Biçakci, Steve Bieber, Sungbaek Cho, Adrian Dwyer, Geoffrey French, David Harell, Alessandro Lazari, Raymond Mey, Theresa Sabonis-Helf, Duane Verner 2022 US Army War College

Enabling Nato’S Collective Defense: Critical Infrastructure Security And Resiliency (Nato Coe-Dat Handbook 1), Carol V. Evans, Chris Anderson, Malcom Baker, Ronald Bearse, Salih Biçakci, Steve Bieber, Sungbaek Cho, Adrian Dwyer, Geoffrey French, David Harell, Alessandro Lazari, Raymond Mey, Theresa Sabonis-Helf, Duane Verner

Monographs, Collaborative Studies, & IRPs

In 2014 NATO’s Center of Excellence-Defence Against Terrorism (COE-DAT) launched the inaugural course on “Critical Infrastructure Protection Against Terrorist Attacks.” As this course garnered increased attendance and interest, the core lecturer team felt the need to update the course in critical infrastructure (CI) taking into account the shift from an emphasis on “protection” of CI assets to “security and resiliency.” What was lacking in the fields of academe, emergency management, and the industry practitioner community was a handbook that leveraged the collective subject matter expertise of the core lecturer team, a handbook that could serve to educate government leaders ...


Border Orientation In A Globalizing World, Beth A. Simmons, Michael R. Kenwick 2022 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Border Orientation In A Globalizing World, Beth A. Simmons, Michael R. Kenwick

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Border politics are a salient component of high international politics. States are increasingly building infrastructure to ‘secure’ their borders. We introduce the concept of border orientation to describe the extent to which the State is committed to the spatial display of capacities to control the terms of penetration of its national borders. Border orientation provides a lens through which to analyze resistance to globalization, growing populism, and the consequences of intensified border politics. We measure border orientation using novel, geo-spatial data on the built environment along the world’s borders and theorize that real and perceived pressures of globalization have ...


What Motivates Barrier-Crossing Leadership?, Michael D. Buhrmester, Michael A. Cowan, Harvey Whitehouse 2022 Centre for the Study of Social Cohesion, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

What Motivates Barrier-Crossing Leadership?, Michael D. Buhrmester, Michael A. Cowan, Harvey Whitehouse

New England Journal of Public Policy

From large-scale wars, natural disasters, and pandemics to community-level religious and ethnic conflicts, many leaders wield power during crises by championing their group’s goals against those of rivals. But there is also a rarer breed of leader—barrier-crossers who pursue group interests by recognizing rivals’ interests and working with them to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes. Though such leaders have played vital roles in resolving conflicts, little is known about their extraordinary motivation. Here we report survey results contrasting barrier-crossing with barrier-bound leaders from seven communities. In line with new theories from group psychology and anthropology, we found that barrier-crossers ...


Responding To Turbulent Times: Where Does Leadership Come In?, Mike Hardy CMG OBE FRSA 2022 Centre for Trust, Peace and Social Relations, Coventry University, Coventry, UK

Responding To Turbulent Times: Where Does Leadership Come In?, Mike Hardy Cmg Obe Frsa

New England Journal of Public Policy

Leadership is a major twenty-first-century concern because of the need to make sense of an increasingly complex context and to make choices between options for the positive changes that are deemed required. Reviewing the success of leadership responses to challenges of violent conflict and health pandemics as well as the extent to which we see futures through fragmented or solidarity lenses has created real interest in global perspectives in leadership and a new research agenda that is associated with this imperative. The article concludes by identifying work in progress, that is, by assessing the universality of characteristics that have been ...


Enter The Age Of Csywar: Some Reflections On An Emergent Trend, Kumar Ramakrishna 2022 S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Enter The Age Of Csywar: Some Reflections On An Emergent Trend, Kumar Ramakrishna

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article uses the current Russian-Ukrainian conflict as a jumping-off point for a broader, preliminary reflection on the continuing evolution of war in the digital age. It is the contention here that we are witnessing an emergent phenomenon of what we might call csywar. Intervening states engaged in csywar—best understood as an indirect, hybrid strategy—seek to attain data, infrastructural, and epistemic dominance over the target state. This article discusses various defensive counter-csywar strategies that target states could pursue, such as fostering data, infrastructural, and epistemic resilience internally, and makes the case for developing deterrent counter-csywar capabilities against hostile ...


Twenty-One Years Later: Reflections On 9/11, Bessie Blackburn, Shaddi Spencer, Hayden O'Connor 2022 Liberty University

Twenty-One Years Later: Reflections On 9/11, Bessie Blackburn, Shaddi Spencer, Hayden O'Connor

Liberty University Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy

Twenty-one years ago, one of the greatest attacks on the American republic occurred. On September 11, 2001, American Airlines Flights 11, 77, 93, and 177 were hijacked by Islamic extremists and crashed in New York City, Washington D.C., and Pennsylvania. The atrocity of these incidents and the extensive loss of life impacted not only the United States but the entire world. Nevertheless, in light of this tragedy the American people found unity in patriotism, rekindling a sense of national purpose in the form of the “Global War on Terrorism.” This document is a compilation of reflection articles written by ...


Full Volume 13, Issue 1, Seyma Tufan 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Full Volume 13, Issue 1, Seyma Tufan

Space and Defense

No abstract provided.


Developing Indonesian Perspectives In International Relations: The Argument For “Depok School”, Evi Fitriani 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Developing Indonesian Perspectives In International Relations: The Argument For “Depok School”, Evi Fitriani

Global: Jurnal Politik Internasional

This article lies arguments to build a “Depok School” in International Relations. The gap between developed and developing countries is visible in practice and the paradigm for understanding the phenomenon of international relations dominated by the perspective of major (Western) countries. Through an analysis of empirical and theoretical developments in the study of International Relations, this paper examines the need for non-Western perspectives.. The mandate from the Preamble to the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia provides the axiological basis for a more suitable analytical framework that can capture the unique phenomena of Indonesia and developing countries, which is ...


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