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Interactions Between Sex And Pet Ownership On Attitudes Toward Children, Aya Dudin, Mayra Linne Almanza-Sepulveda, Katherine T. Cost, Geoffrey B. Hall, Alison S. Fleming, Jonathan Freedman 2022 McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Interactions Between Sex And Pet Ownership On Attitudes Toward Children, Aya Dudin, Mayra Linne Almanza-Sepulveda, Katherine T. Cost, Geoffrey B. Hall, Alison S. Fleming, Jonathan Freedman

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

Background: Many people are attached to their pets. This attachment shares characteristics with the parental attachment to children. Previous studies have established a sex difference in attitudes about children; women compared to men report more positive attitudes about children. However, whether this sex difference is attenuated by owning and caring for pet(s) has not been investigated. Methods: In a sample of non-parents, we investigated the following: (1) whether the established main effect of sex on attitudes about children was moderated by pet ownership using a 2 (male, female) x 2 (pet owner, non–pet owner) design; and (2) whether the established …


I Am Kind, I Am Smart, I Am Important: The Effects Of Self- Affirmation On Women’S Confrontational Responses To Sexism, Kathryn L. Roderick 2022 University of Maine

I Am Kind, I Am Smart, I Am Important: The Effects Of Self- Affirmation On Women’S Confrontational Responses To Sexism, Kathryn L. Roderick

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The present research sought to examine the effects of self-affirmation on women’s confrontation approaches following exposure to sexism. However, before examining the effects of self-affirmation, we needed a way to measure confrontation approaches. In Study 1, participants read either prototypical HATE or CARE confrontations and assessed the response. Researchers then conducted an exploratory factor analysis to create a novel scale that can assess approaches to confrontation. Study 1 also established the reliability of the HATE and CARE subscales (α = .956 and α = .929, respectively). Study 2 sought to establish the construct validity of the new measure. Study 2 …


Differential Evaluation Of Straight And Gay Men For Nonverbal Effeminate Behavior, Art D. Marsden 2022 Syracuse University

Differential Evaluation Of Straight And Gay Men For Nonverbal Effeminate Behavior, Art D. Marsden

Theses - ALL

The purpose of this study was to determine how violation of gender-based expectancies might influence attitudes toward men who differ by sexual orientation (i.e., straight or gay). While other studies have examined attitudes toward gay and straight men who differ by gender expression, their designs may have been susceptible to demand effects; this study was specifically designed to avoid such methodological issues. This research was informed by Expectancy-Violation Theory (EVT) and the Black Sheep Effect, which together suggest that an effeminate straight man should be evaluated by other straight men more negatively than an effeminate gay man because the former …


The Psychological Empowerment Impact Of Twitter Microblogging: The Case Of #Stopasianhate During Covid-19 Pandemic, Natnaree Wongmith 2022 Syracuse University

The Psychological Empowerment Impact Of Twitter Microblogging: The Case Of #Stopasianhate During Covid-19 Pandemic, Natnaree Wongmith

Theses - ALL

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a surge in anti-Asian hate incidents across the US (Misra et al., 2020). As a response to the alarming escalation in xenophobia and racism resulting from the pandemic, #StopAsianHate and #StopAAPIHate have been employed to shed light on the issues. Twitter can effectively assist protestors to participate in the movement by facilitating collective effort, efficiently disseminating the information, and encouraging the discussion about a topic (Chon & Park, 2020). Social media has been recognized for its contribution to one's empowerment in various domains, allowing the marginalized group to regain their sense of power …


Emotional Experiences Of Muslim Americans Regarding The Intolerance Displayed By Non-Muslims, Munder Abderrazzaq 2022 Walden University

Emotional Experiences Of Muslim Americans Regarding The Intolerance Displayed By Non-Muslims, Munder Abderrazzaq

Journal of Sustainable Social Change

Muslims in the United States report experiencing unequal treatment and racial profiling from non-Muslims. Recent literature (Simon et al., 2018) suggests the need for further research on the intolerance displayed by majority members from the point of view of minority members in the United States. The unwillingness or refusal to respect or tolerate individuals from a different social group or minority groups, who hold beliefs that are contrary to one’s own, is referred to as intolerance. The display of intolerance among members of different cultural and religious backgrounds can hinder the discovery of new information needed to promote positive social …


She’S Just Not That Into Me: Sexual Self-Concept Among Heterosexual Men Who Identify As Involuntary Celibates, Kyle J. Justin, Dustin K. Shepler, Joseph R. Kinel 2022 Michigan School of Psychology

She’S Just Not That Into Me: Sexual Self-Concept Among Heterosexual Men Who Identify As Involuntary Celibates, Kyle J. Justin, Dustin K. Shepler, Joseph R. Kinel

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Emerging adult men experiencing involuntary celibacy are increasingly self-identifying as “incels.” Popular culture has painted a negative view of incel men. Nonetheless, almost no research has addressed the experiences of incels or systematically compared incels to their peers to identify whether actual differences exist in psychological functioning. In this study, we surveyed a total of 129 emerging adult men (75 incels and 54 non-incels) to determine if and how incels differ from their non-incel peers. MANOVA results indicated that incels disproportionately struggled with low self-esteem, social anxiety, difficulty approaching women, and optimism about partnered sexual experiences compared to their non-incel …


Algorithmic Manipulation: How Social Media Is Shaping Our Theology, Ethan Jago 2022 Liberty University

Algorithmic Manipulation: How Social Media Is Shaping Our Theology, Ethan Jago

Eleutheria

The average individual in Generation Z spends nine hours a day on social media and derives over 62% of the information retained from social applications such as YouTube and Instagram. Social media applications are designed to track and adapt a user's activity to custom-tailor their internet experience resulting in a controlled, one-sided view of the information flow custom-tailored to an individual's usage, which subtly changes the disposition concerning the interpretation of theological and biblical truths. The algorithm of social media responds adapts and directly impacts individuals in what they think, purchase, and places they visit. Social media is not neutral …


Co-Rumination In Social Networks, Samantha M. Jones 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Co-Rumination In Social Networks, Samantha M. Jones

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although co-rumination is associated with positive relationship perceptions, individuals that engage in this behaviour often report fewer friends and peer difficulties. Those with a tendency to co-ruminate also report elevated levels of internalizing symptoms. Thus, the tendency to co-ruminate may put individuals at risk of depressive and anxious symptoms as well as social problems as they make the challenging transition to university and build new social networks. I analyzed social network data from 458 first year undergraduate students during their first university semester. Co-rumination within a particular relationship was associated with greater tie strength and socio-emotional multiplexity. Co-rumination was positively …


Comparing Crime Scene Trajectories: Sexual Versus Nonsexual Serial Homicides, Jonathan T. Dixon 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Comparing Crime Scene Trajectories: Sexual Versus Nonsexual Serial Homicides, Jonathan T. Dixon

Student Theses

When faced with a possible serial offender, crime linkage analysis is crucial in identifying which crime scenes belong to the same offender. Thus, when analyzing behavioral consistency to link crimes, it is essential to use a classification model that is empirically tested and is based on the type of crime being investigated. Several classification models examine patterns of consistency and change using a combination of thematic and behavioral subgroups; however, they are tested using sexual and nonsexual crime scenes, which some recent literature argues are two distinct types of homicide and should be examined separately. The present study tests the …


Masculinity Instability And Ideologies As Predictors Of Ipv Perpetration: The Mediating Role Of Relationship Power, Emma Christine Marioles O'Connor 2022 Portland State University

Masculinity Instability And Ideologies As Predictors Of Ipv Perpetration: The Mediating Role Of Relationship Power, Emma Christine Marioles O'Connor

Dissertations and Theses

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is considered to be a pervasive and devastating social issue and is disproportionately perpetrated by men (CDC, 2017). Masculinity ideologies, which are comprised of male role norm expectations, inform boys and men about what it means to be and to not be "a man" and have been established as a predictive factor of men's IPV perpetration (Levant, 1996; Levant, 2011; David & Brannon, 1976). These ideologies serve to maintain existing social hierarchies that entitle men to seek socially dominant and powerful positions in society, as well as within their intimate relationships (Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005; Jewkes, …


Successful Women Majoring In Stem Have Higher Optimism And Lower Stigma Consciousness, Bridget Muise, Bettina Casad 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Successful Women Majoring In Stem Have Higher Optimism And Lower Stigma Consciousness, Bridget Muise, Bettina Casad

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education. We had 607 women majoring in STEM complete an online questionnaire reporting levels of coping, rejection sensitivity, stigma consciousness, and optimism and grade point average (GPA) was collected from school records. Results showed that higher rejection sensitivity predicts lower GPA even with higher coping skills. This indicates that even with good coping skills, higher fear of rejection for one's gender had a stronger effect on the academic performance of women in STEM. Additionally, higher optimism predicts higher GPA, but only for women with lower gender stigma consciousness. Optimism seems …


Sociability Moderates The Negative Association Between Covid-Related Disruptions And Life Satisfaction, Amna Khan, Katherine L. Fiori 2022 Adelphi University

Sociability Moderates The Negative Association Between Covid-Related Disruptions And Life Satisfaction, Amna Khan, Katherine L. Fiori

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Disruptions in individuals’ lives during the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with increased mental health problems and decreases in life satisfaction, although recent research indicates that these effects are not uniform across individuals. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of sociability in moderating the association between COVID-related disruptions and life satisfaction in a sample of adults. Using data from an online survey given to N = 166 adults, COVID-19 disruptions related to conflicts with household members or roommates and disruptions in care during the pandemic were negatively associated with life satisfaction. Sociability was found to …


Migraine And Anxiety In The Context Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Emma Gray 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Migraine And Anxiety In The Context Of The Covid-19 Pandemic, Emma Gray

Honors Theses

Migraine and anxiety are common health conditions that are highly comorbid. In this study, I examined the relationship between migraine and anxiety in the context of migraine triggers and the COVID-19 pandemic. 188 participants (mean age = 34.18 years; 10.63% male, 85.63% female, 3.72% other) who were recruited online completed two measures of state-level anxiety and two measures of migraine disability. The first two measures prompted participants to report the anxiety and migraine disability they experienced before the COVID-19 pandemic. The second two measures prompted participants to report the anxiety and migraine disability they experienced during what they personally believed …


Sexual Objectification Of Women: What Can Ancient Rome And Modern Psychology Teach Us?, Noa Raskin 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Sexual Objectification Of Women: What Can Ancient Rome And Modern Psychology Teach Us?, Noa Raskin

Honors Theses

Sexual objectification (SO) is an omnipresent experience for women that decreases their quality of life. Researching why SO occurs and is perpetuated can help us understand how to decrease the interpersonal, mental health, and safety consequences women face from being sexually objectified. This presentation looks at sexual objectification through the lenses of two different disciplines: psychology and classics. The psychology component involved an empirical study aimed at better comprehending women’s perceptions of their own SO and the connection SO has to Greek life. Nineteen men from Union College completed two scales to assess their direct and indirect SO of women, …


Future Parents: Associations Between Social Media Use, Parenting Styles, And Parenthood Desires, Kennedy Evins 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Future Parents: Associations Between Social Media Use, Parenting Styles, And Parenthood Desires, Kennedy Evins

Honors Theses

Research suggests that college students without children have opinions about parenting styles and practices, which may influence future parenting intentions and behaviors. In addition, research indicates that media exposure affects fertility desires in women. The present study explored how pre-parent college students view parenthood by examining the impact of social media use on perceptions of parenting, parenthood intentions, and anticipated parenting styles. One hundred nineteen (N = 119) college students completed measures that assessed social media use, perceptions of parenting, parenthood intentions, and anticipated parenting styles. Demographic variables such as parental status, race, age, and gender were also collected. …


Debunking & Prebunking: Strategies For Librarians To Eradicate Misinformation, Evan Meszaros, Mandi Goodsett 2022 Case Western Reserve University

Debunking & Prebunking: Strategies For Librarians To Eradicate Misinformation, Evan Meszaros, Mandi Goodsett

Michael Schwartz Library Publications

No abstract provided.


Examining The Effectiveness Of Misinformation Warnings To Alter Stereotypes For Public Figures And Memories For Public Events, Madalyn P. Prince 2022 CUNY John Jay College

Examining The Effectiveness Of Misinformation Warnings To Alter Stereotypes For Public Figures And Memories For Public Events, Madalyn P. Prince

Student Theses

Social media allows individuals to share, receive and engage with information and content on an international scale, often with other likeminded individuals and relatively few restrictions (Carr & Hayes, 2015). However, with this access comes the likelihood of engaging with and disseminating misinformation (Allcott et al., 2019), a form of information that may seem true initially but is later revealed as false (Cook et al., 2015). Misinformation is often disseminated by those whose political ideology matches that of the misinformation (Kahan, 2017; Kahan, 2013). The current study aims to expand on the extant literature to examine how misinformation warnings impact …


Unraveling The Double-Bind: An Investigation Of Black And Latina Women In Stem, Katlyn L. Milless 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Unraveling The Double-Bind: An Investigation Of Black And Latina Women In Stem, Katlyn L. Milless

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Civil rights activist Robert P. Moses was a driving force in defining equitable dissemination of quality science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education as an act of social justice. My work borrows this frame to highlight access to STEM education as a civil rights issue and to emphasize the importance of taking a social justice approach to interventions for those who experience intersecting systems of oppression (i.e., Black and Latina women), and for whom previous intervention efforts have not adequately addressed. Ameliorating racial and gender disparities through fostering psychological safety (e.g., belonging) in STEM fields has been a substantive focus …


Helping-Seeking Tendencies And Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Of The United States And Japan, Verity Yu Qing LUA, Nadyannam N. MAJEED, Andree HARTANTO, Angela K. Y. LEUNG 2022 Singapore Management University

Helping-Seeking Tendencies And Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-Cultural Comparison Of The United States And Japan, Verity Yu Qing Lua, Nadyannam N. Majeed, Andree Hartanto, Angela K. Y. Leung

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

Help-seeking is commonly conceived as an instrumental behavior that improves people’s subjective well-being. However, most findings supporting a positive association between help-seeking and subjective well-being are observed in independence-preferring countries. Drawing from research demonstrating that the pathways to subjective well-being are culturally divergent, we posit that help-seeking tendencies may be detrimental to subjective well-being for members in interdependence-preferring countries where norms for preserving relational harmony and face concerns are prevalent. This study tested the moderating role of country in the relationship between help-seeking tendencies and subjective well-being using data from 5,068 American and Japanese participants. Results revealed that although help-seeking …


Trans Men: Precarious Manhood And The Paradox Of Hegemonic Masculinity, Alexander-Lee K. Kinmore 2022 Portland State University

Trans Men: Precarious Manhood And The Paradox Of Hegemonic Masculinity, Alexander-Lee K. Kinmore

University Honors Theses

This thesis utilizes existing literature on gender essentialism, gender socialization, precarious manhood theory, and transphobic discrimination in order to examine the ways in which transgender men conceptualize their internal male identity and respond to threats like discrimination and violence. Transgender men have an essential male identity that does not depend on their sense of masculinity and develops during childhood while they are living in a body considered biologically female. Their experience of early gender socialization allows them to understand masculinity and femininity as concepts that exist in different levels within us all, and does not rely on hegemonic masculine ideals …


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