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Sharing Stress With A Robot: What Would A Robot Say?, Honson Y. Ling, Elin A. Björling 2020 University of Washington

Sharing Stress With A Robot: What Would A Robot Say?, Honson Y. Ling, Elin A. Björling

Human-Machine Communication

With the prevalence of mental health problems today, designing human-robot interaction for mental health intervention is not only possible, but critical. The current experiment examined how three types of robot disclosure (emotional, technical, and by-proxy) affect robot perception and human disclosure behavior during a stress-sharing activity. Emotional robot disclosure resulted in the lowest robot perceived safety. Post-hoc analysis revealed that increased perceived stress predicted reduced human disclosure, user satisfaction, robot likability, and future robot use. Negative attitudes toward robots also predicted reduced intention for future robot use. This work informs on the possible design of robot disclosure, as well as ...


Building A Stronger Casa: Extending The Computers Are Social Actors Paradigm, Andrew Gambino, Jesse Fox, Rabindra A. Ratan 2020 Penn State University

Building A Stronger Casa: Extending The Computers Are Social Actors Paradigm, Andrew Gambino, Jesse Fox, Rabindra A. Ratan

Human-Machine Communication

The computers are social actors framework (CASA), derived from the media equation, explains how people communicate with media and machines demonstrating social potential. Many studies have challenged CASA, yet it has not been revised. We argue that CASA needs to be expanded because people have changed, technologies have changed, and the way people interact with technologies has changed. We discuss the implications of these changes and propose an extension of CASA. Whereas CASA suggests humans mindlessly apply human-human social scripts to interactions with media agents, we argue that humans may develop and apply human-media social scripts to these interactions. Our ...


The Balance Of Personality, Chris Allen 2020 Portland State University

The Balance Of Personality, Chris Allen

PDXOpen: Open Educational Resources

This open access textbook was developed as an upper division undergraduate textbook for theories of personality. Its intended audience are students from Portland State University enrolled in Psychology 432 Personality course. The chapters are shorter than some personality textbooks and in this particular course Psy 432 the textbook is combined with other readings including scientific articles on personality. This open access textbook may be of interest to other courses interested in teaching about theory and research on personality.

If you are an instructor adopting or adapting this PDXOpen textbook, please help us understand your use by filling out this form ...


Parents As Pimps: Survivor Accounts Of Trafficking Of Children In The United States, Jody Raphael 2020 DePaul University College of Law

Parents As Pimps: Survivor Accounts Of Trafficking Of Children In The United States, Jody Raphael

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

This article discusses four survivor accounts of survivors of being sold for sexual exploitation by their parents for monetary gain. These narratives, supplemented by other accounts from 100 newspaper stories between 2012 and 2018, reveal the fact that many survivors were sold as very young children, and the abuse continued through their teen years, blurring distinctions between pedophilia and the sex trade industry. In their accounts, survivors described the motivations of their parents as well as the buyers, who used excessive force and violence. Some researchers are beginning to document the existence of parental pimping and its prevalence, which ranges ...


Psychology Of Racism And Prejudice, Emel Taskakan 2020 CUNY City College

Psychology Of Racism And Prejudice, Emel Taskakan

Open Educational Resources

No abstract provided.


Research Methods In Psychology: A Feminist Exercise To Facilitate Students’ Understanding Of Operational Definitions, Observation, And Inter-Rater Reliability, Amy C. Moors 2020 Chapman University

Research Methods In Psychology: A Feminist Exercise To Facilitate Students’ Understanding Of Operational Definitions, Observation, And Inter-Rater Reliability, Amy C. Moors

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

"As an illustrative example of how I use a feminist-centered approach to teach core research methods concepts, below, I outline the aims and details of how to replicate one of my students’ favorite activities. This activity ties together concepts of operational definitions, observation, and inter-rater reliability through coding of “creepy” behaviors in a Saturday Night Live short video produced by The Lonely Island, featuring Nicki Minaj and John Waters (2011; see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tLPZmPaHme0). In the first part of the exercise, students are instructed to code observations of creepy behaviors without an operational definition. In the ...


The Nature Of Informal Roles In Interdependent Sport Teams, Jeemin Kim 2020 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Nature Of Informal Roles In Interdependent Sport Teams, Jeemin Kim

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The degree to which athletes understand and execute their formal role responsibilities (i.e., prescribed by coaches) is important for individual and group functioning (Eys, Schinke, Surya, & Benson, 2014). Recent literature suggested that informal roles can emerge within sport teams more naturally without coaches’ explicit assignments (e.g., team comedians, distracters), and have significant influences on team functioning (Cope, Eys, Beauchamp, Schinke, & Bosselut, 2011). This doctoral dissertation examined the nature of informal roles within interdependent sport teams, focusing on their antecedents and outcomes. Three separate projects were conducted. Project One examined athletes’ personality in the big five dimensions (McCrae & Costa ...


Integrating Social Emotional Skill Development Throughout College Access Program Activities: A Profile Of The Princeton University Preparatory Program, Catherine M. Millett, Marisol J. C. Kevelson 2020 Educational Testing Service

Integrating Social Emotional Skill Development Throughout College Access Program Activities: A Profile Of The Princeton University Preparatory Program, Catherine M. Millett, Marisol J. C. Kevelson

Journal of College Access

In a prior study we demonstrated that college access program participants have positive views of the extent to which the program supports the development of their social and emotional skills and related college help-seeking behaviors in college. In this follow-up study, we explore the extent to which participant views vary by length of participation in the program in high school (i.e., dosage) and the extent to which alumni enrolled in college differ from college graduate alumni in their perceptions of the influences of the college access program. Results reveal that a multi-year college access program may influence different social ...


Effects Of Illness Type And Empathy Induction On Illness-Related Stigma In Undergraduate Students, Karlie Hill 2020 Central Washington University

Effects Of Illness Type And Empathy Induction On Illness-Related Stigma In Undergraduate Students, Karlie Hill

All Master's Theses

The current study investigated if increasing empathy would decrease stigma toward populations with illness. One hundred and seventy-nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) sexually transmitted infections (STIs), 2) mental illness, or 3) cancer. Participants were primed with either a high-empathy prompt or low-empathy prompt. After reading the prompt, participants read a vignette detailing the experience of being diagnosed with the illness in their condition. Participants then responded to three stigma measures to assess their stigmatizing attitudes toward the person in the vignette with the illness. To test the experimental hypothesis, a multivariate analysis of covariance ...


Bad Boys, Bad Boys: Masculinity, Performance Theory, And Prisoner Re-Entry, Jannae D. Bratcher 2020 University of Denver

Bad Boys, Bad Boys: Masculinity, Performance Theory, And Prisoner Re-Entry, Jannae D. Bratcher

Graduate School of Professional Psychology: Doctoral Papers and Masters Projects

Men and boys commit more crime, are more violent, and are more likely to be involved in the criminal justice system than women and girls (Cohen & Harvey, 2006; Carson, 2018; Zimmerman & Messner, 2010). Within the past two decades, criminal studies have begun to consider masculinity as a social construct to explain the gender gap in crime rates. However, more research is needed to understand its relationship to reentry and recidivism. The lens of masculinity as a performance is valuable and has a proud scholarly history, including the works of Judith Butler and Erving Goffman. This paper conceptualizes prisoner reentry through the lens ...


How News Media Coverage Of Crises Promotes Conspiracy Beliefs, Richard L Kornrumpf 2020 University of Louisville

How News Media Coverage Of Crises Promotes Conspiracy Beliefs, Richard L Kornrumpf

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

While scholars of conspiracy theories have recently made great strides in understanding the basic nature and correlates of conspiratorial thinking, we still know little about how conspiracy beliefs are disseminated and communicated, especially when it comes to traditional media. Here we use a unique experiment to investigate whether media coverage of mass shootings – complete with the uncertainty, conflicting reports, and dubious official narratives that characterize such coverage – provides the raw material for conspiracy theories and promotes conspiracy beliefs among viewers. We find that implicit conspiratorial information – that which causes confusion and foments uncertainty – does not enflame conspiracy beliefs. However, more ...


A Praise-Based Intervention Does Not Increase The Honest Reports Of Children, Adam David Moline 2020 University of the Pacific

A Praise-Based Intervention Does Not Increase The Honest Reports Of Children, Adam David Moline

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Although lying is a major concern for many caregivers (Alwin, 1989; Gervais et al., 2000), there is little behavior analytic research on effective, practical interventions. Studies have shown that a moral story, instruction, or rule implying praise for honesty produced statistically significant improvements in children admitting a transgression (Lee et al., 2014; Talwar et al., 2015; Talwar et al., 2016). Although praise has been shown to function as a reinforcer (Dozier et al., 2012; Hall et al., 1968; Polick et al., 2012), it is unknown if an intervention package including praise for telling the truth would compete with reinforcement contingencies ...


Factors And Alleviation Of Learned Helplessness In The Elderly, Ashley Eckett 2020 Arcadia University

Factors And Alleviation Of Learned Helplessness In The Elderly, Ashley Eckett

Capstone Showcase

Learned helplessness is a condition caused by maladaptive thinking related to a sense of powerlessness. It can result from lack of control in the face of life challenges leading to a loss of hope, motivation, and an inability to take action. Learned helplessness can have negative effects on an individual both mentally and physically. In regards to the elderly population, it can cause premature death. Gaining a better understanding of learned helplessness can play a lead role in preventing it and its negative effects in the geriatric population. The aim of the literature review was to answer how to recognize ...


Play's Role In The Development Of Antisocial Behavior, Cheyenne Vazquez 2020 The University of Akron

Play's Role In The Development Of Antisocial Behavior, Cheyenne Vazquez

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This paper is a literature review which examines the relationship between play and prosocial behavior. More specifically, it examines its inverse, questioning whether a lack of play in early childhood may be correlated to the development of antisocial behavior later in life. Comparing research from an abundance of psychologists, criminologists, and sociologists, this paper answers various questions pertaining to play and prosocial behavior: What happens if play is inhibited in childhood? Would different reasons for play to be inhibited result in different results (i.e. abusive childhoods, desperate situations such as homelessness and poverty, chronic illness, etc.)? Is a lack ...


Adapting Implicit Stereotype Expectation Through Perspective Distancing, Cheyenne Perez 2020 Arcadia University

Adapting Implicit Stereotype Expectation Through Perspective Distancing, Cheyenne Perez

Capstone Showcase

Investigated within this study is how stereotype expectations might be affected when violated or reinforced, and how distancing the self from the expectation via a different perspective can allow for recognition that it can be wrong and even changed. This research is motivated by an interest in how stereotype expectations develop throughout life and experiences, and how the tendency to defend them when challenged can hinder understanding of other views. In a real world setting, placing a person in a distanced perspective could allow for change in their personal expectations and become less prejudiced/more accepting. Within the lab setting ...


The Effects Of Sexual Advertisements On Women’S Mental Health And Marketing, Kaitlyn Jones 2020 Arcadia University

The Effects Of Sexual Advertisements On Women’S Mental Health And Marketing, Kaitlyn Jones

Capstone Showcase

The following study analyzed the effects of sexually objectifying advertisements on self esteem, self objectification, affect, and restrictive eating behaviors. Previous literature supports the claim that sexual media can negatively impact the mental health of women, which includes variables such as lowered self esteem, higher levels of self objectification and higher levels of restrictive eating behaviors. Purchase intent was also analyzed in regards to objectifying advertisements and neutral advertisements. Forty-two female undergraduate students were recruited and were asked to answer purchase intent questions about six advertisements (either objectifying or neutral). After the advertisement section, questionnaires and an ice cream “taste ...


Cyberbullying: School Administrators' Perceptions Of Law And Prevalence, And Their Roles In Prevention, Intervention And Discipline, Suzan Gragg Denby 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Cyberbullying: School Administrators' Perceptions Of Law And Prevalence, And Their Roles In Prevention, Intervention And Discipline, Suzan Gragg Denby

Theses and Dissertations

This study was aimed at investigating secondary school administrators’ experiences with and their perceptions of cyberbullying, as well as their intervention and prevention procedures. As technology has become ubiquitous in our society, students’ use has increased and impacted the school environment. Given the potential for cyberbullying and the negative effects of such, schools harbor the responsibility to prevent and intervene in such occurrences. This can be a tricky process.

This study included 12 administrators of secondary schools across eight school divisions in Virginia. Through an interview process, administrators spoke of their experiences with technology and cyberbullying incidents, and how they ...


Empathic Anger And Personal Anger In Response To Fairness Violations: Relations To Self And Other-Oriented Motivation And Behavior, Athena H. Cairo 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Empathic Anger And Personal Anger In Response To Fairness Violations: Relations To Self And Other-Oriented Motivation And Behavior, Athena H. Cairo

Theses and Dissertations

Prosocial behavior research has shown that empathy-elicited compassionate concern often motivates actions performed with an ultimate goal of helping others even at cost to oneself, whereas empathic distress motivates low-cost help with an ultimate goal of helping oneself. Less is known about the motivational outcomes of empathic anger felt when witnessing injustice or harm to others. Though empathic anger predicts third-party compensation and punishment, it is unclear whether this motivation is ultimately self or other-oriented. Three experimental studies examined the empathic anger-altruism hypothesis, that empathic anger evoked when witnessing another being treated unjustly would evoke altruistic motivation to help the ...


The Effects Of Ingroup Threat On The Anchoring And Adjustment Heuristic, Mattie V. Hedgebeth 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Effects Of Ingroup Threat On The Anchoring And Adjustment Heuristic, Mattie V. Hedgebeth

Theses and Dissertations

Since its introduction in 1974, the anchoring and adjustment heuristic has been a topic of interest within the field of decision making. Although much work has examined factors that affect the process of the anchoring and adjustment heuristic, very little has been studied about the self-processes that may influence how individuals anchor. More specifically, self and ingroup motivations have yet to be explored. This research sought to identify whether an individual’s magnitude of adjustment from an anchor can be affected by either an enhancement or threat of the individual’s ingroup. I hypothesized that ingroup enhancing information would induce ...


Political Centrism, Perspective Taking, And Outgroup Derogation: An Integrated Model, David Kesler 2020 Murray State University

Political Centrism, Perspective Taking, And Outgroup Derogation: An Integrated Model, David Kesler

Murray State Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

The relationship between perspective taking abilities, political centrism, and outgroup derogation is not defined at this time. While previous research has demonstrated a negative relationship between political centrism and outgroup derogation (Van Prooijen, Krouwel, Boiten, & Eendebak, 2015), the relationship between the other variables is unclear. Therefore, the current study sought to measure the relationship between (1) perspective taking abilities and political centrism, (2) perspective taking and outgroup derogation, (3) political centrism and outgroup derogation and lastly, (4) whether the relationship between perspective taking abilities and political outgroup derogation would be mediated by an individual's level of political centrism.


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