Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Personality and Social Contexts Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1481 Full-Text Articles 1701 Authors 1287996 Downloads 168 Institutions

All Articles in Personality and Social Contexts

Faceted Search

1481 full-text articles. Page 1 of 48.

Prompting Deliberation About Nanotechnology: Information, Instruction, And Discussion Effects On Individual Engagement And Knowledge, Lisa M. PytlikZillig, Myiah J. Hutchens, Peter Muhlberger, Alan J. Tomkins 2017 University of Nebraska

Prompting Deliberation About Nanotechnology: Information, Instruction, And Discussion Effects On Individual Engagement And Knowledge, Lisa M. Pytlikzillig, Myiah J. Hutchens, Peter Muhlberger, Alan J. Tomkins

Journal of Public Deliberation

Deliberative (and educational) theories typically predict knowledge gains will be enhanced by information structure and discussion. In two studies, we experimentally manipulated key features of deliberative public engagement (information, instructions, and discussion) and measured impacts on cognitive-affective engagement and knowledge about nanotechnology. We also examined the direct and moderating impacts of individual differences in need for cognition and gender. Findings indicated little impact of information (organized by topic or by pro-con relevance). Instructions (prompts to think critically) decreased engagement in Study 1, and increased it in Study 2, but did not impact post-knowledge. Group discussion had strong positive benefits for ...


Decision Making: Do People With Dark Triad Traits Utilize Advice?, Elizabeth D. McNamara, Alexander T. Jackson, Aneeqa T. Thiele, Stacey M. Stremic, Satoris S. Howes Dr., Michael Hein, Mark C. Frame 2017 Middle Tennessee State University

Decision Making: Do People With Dark Triad Traits Utilize Advice?, Elizabeth D. Mcnamara, Alexander T. Jackson, Aneeqa T. Thiele, Stacey M. Stremic, Satoris S. Howes Dr., Michael Hein, Mark C. Frame

River Cities Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference

This research study seeks to gain a better understanding of the effects of the dark triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) on advice taking. This research examined whether or not the dark triad traits result in working professionals being more or less likely to accept advice when making a decision. Past research has shown that outcomes are generally more favorable when the person who is making the decision takes the advice of another person into consideration. Despite this fact, I hypothesized that people with higher narcissistic or psychopathic traits will not accept advice when making a decision. Additionally, I hypothesized that Machiavellians ...


Empathy And Its Effect On Religious Opinion Regarding Homosexuality, Melissa Borah 2017 Eastern Illinois University

Empathy And Its Effect On Religious Opinion Regarding Homosexuality, Melissa Borah

The Eastern Illinois University Political Science Review

This article examines shifts in opinion, and the reasoning behind these shifts, among Christian-identified Americans regarding their views of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. After conducting interviews with several Christian-identified Americans, the author finds that when a family member or close friend “comes out” as LGBT, individuals are more likely to change their opinion of those who identify as LGBT, and their change in opinion is more likely to be dramatic. Moreover, the author finds that empathy is the most powerful factor that facilitates an individual’s change in opinion.


The Pleasure Of Resistance: Jouissance And Reconceiving "Misbehavior", Peter Taubman 2017 Brooklyn College

The Pleasure Of Resistance: Jouissance And Reconceiving "Misbehavior", Peter Taubman

Occasional Paper Series

Taubman offers an alternative to resistance theory through Lacanian psychoanalysis and Lacan's concept of jouissance - a term associated with intense pleasure. Through this perspective, it is important to understand why children resist on an individual level. An appreciation of the jouissance in schools would work against the impulse to domesticate, to control or to appropriate the subjectivities of students and children.


Introduction: Rethinking Resistance In Schools, Jonathan G. Silin 2017 Bank Street Graduate School

Introduction: Rethinking Resistance In Schools, Jonathan G. Silin

Occasional Paper Series

This issue of Occasional Papers began as a Graduate School seminar honoring Steven Schultz, a much beloved and respected faculty member whose untimely death greatly impacted the Bank Street community. In 1989, Steve’s work was on the cutting edge of attempts to see acts of individual and collective resistance in preschool classrooms as potential precursors of political resistance among adults. The essays in Rethinking Resistance reflect a broad range of experiences and perspectives that prompt us to rethink the meaning and importance of resistance.


Coping In Context: Dispositional And Situational Coping Of Navy Divers And Submariners, Charles H. Van Wijk 2017 Institute for Maritime Medicine

Coping In Context: Dispositional And Situational Coping Of Navy Divers And Submariners, Charles H. Van Wijk

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Specialists working in isolated, confined, and extreme environments may need to negotiate unique combinations of potentially stressful circumstances. This paper reports on three studies using the Brief COPE to examine some of the dispositional and situational coping strategies reported by navy divers and submariners.

The first study investigated whether individual members of these specialist groups would favor similar coping response styles, and found that divers (N = 174) and submariners (N = 195) generally report similar coping styles, with some context appropriate nuances in their reports. Further, they share much of their profiles with other high-demand occupational settings, making their coping style ...


Grandmothers As Child Caregivers: A Unique Child Care Arrangement, Kathy L. Reschke, Susan K. Walker 2017 Ohio State University

Grandmothers As Child Caregivers: A Unique Child Care Arrangement, Kathy L. Reschke, Susan K. Walker

Occasional Paper Series

This paper draws attention to grandmothers who provide child care and the parents and children they serve, by sharing the results of a study of a group of employed mothers from rural, low-income families who used grandmother care on a regular basis. Although their experiences cannot represent those of all mothers who use grandmother care, they are valuable in understanding the perspective of many women with few feasible options who depend on this type of care.


Coping With The Subterranean Environment: A Thematic Content Analysis Of The Narratives Of Cave Explorers, Raymond R. MacNeil, Jelena Brcic 2017 Queen’s University

Coping With The Subterranean Environment: A Thematic Content Analysis Of The Narratives Of Cave Explorers, Raymond R. Macneil, Jelena Brcic

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

In addition to various physical obstacles, the cave environment presents numerous psychological stressors that challenge human explorers. Sources of psychological stress include logistic issues (e.g., limitations to access, communication, and the availability of equipment), a lack of normal sensory stimuli, isolation and confinement, high performance demands, and social conflict associated with team coordination and requirements for cooperation. Thus, the success and safety of caving expeditions depend on the ability of explorers to effectively cope with highly stressful conditions and task demands. This was the first study to investigate coping within the context of caving and cave exploration. Utilizing scoring ...


The New American Slavery: Capitalism And The Ghettoization Of American Prisons As A Profitable Corporate Business, David A. Liburd 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The New American Slavery: Capitalism And The Ghettoization Of American Prisons As A Profitable Corporate Business, David A. Liburd

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The labor of enslaved Africans and Black Americans played a large part in the history of colonial America, with the American plantation being the epicenter for all that was to be produced. While the two have never been completely tied together, capitalism and modern day slavery have been linked with one another. Some analysis sees slavery as a remote form of capitalism, a substitute, to an antiquated form of labor in the modern world.

Slave plantations adopted a new concentration in size and management, referred to by W.E. DuBois as a change "from a family institution to an industrial ...


Who Posts Selfies And Why?: Personality, Attachment Style, And Mentalization As Predictors Of Selfie Posting On Social Media, Nancy Adler 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Who Posts Selfies And Why?: Personality, Attachment Style, And Mentalization As Predictors Of Selfie Posting On Social Media, Nancy Adler

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study examines the phenomenon of selfie posting on social media and its relationship to narcissism, the Dark Triad, impulsivity, attachment style, rejection sensitivity, and reflective functioning. The sample was made up of 499 participants who completed an online survey consisting of personality measures and open- and closed-ended questions about selfie posting behavior. Data were analyzed using a negative binomial regression model.

Results: The study found that individuals with high levels of the Dark Triad trait of psychopathy post more selfies on social media than do individuals with low levels of the trait. The Dark Triad trait of narcissism was ...


Flight Instructor Professionalism, Kenneth P. Byrnes Ph.D. 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach

Flight Instructor Professionalism, Kenneth P. Byrnes Ph.D.

National Training Aircraft Symposium (NTAS)

The inherent risk associated with aviation demands a high level of professionalism among aviation employees to ensure safety. Professionalism consists of factors such as technical competence, personal competence, neatness and attractiveness of dress, and personal conduct. Many of these factors are able to be taught, measured, or judged. However, conduct is an intangible quality that is not easily taught or quantified. As such, the professional behavior of aviation personnel is difficult for the FAA to mandate and regulate. An individual’s conduct is a learned behavior that originates through culture, role models, and experience. In aviation, conduct is instilled during ...


Crying And Attachment Style: The Role Of Romantic Relationships, Katherine L. Fiori, Jessica Buthmann, Christy A. Denckla 2017 Adelphi University

Crying And Attachment Style: The Role Of Romantic Relationships, Katherine L. Fiori, Jessica Buthmann, Christy A. Denckla

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Crying is an attachment behavior that functions to elicit support from others (Nelson, 1998); the context in which the crying occurs is important in understanding whether it is adaptive or maladaptive (Hendriks & Vingerhoets, 2006). However, very little research has examined whether and how attachment style is associated with adult crying, and if this association might vary by an individual’s relationship status. Using a sample of 305 first-year college students and a series of hierarchical regressions, we examined the moderating effect of relationship status on the associations between attachment style (measured using the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Scale; Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000) and crying frequency and tendency. We found that attachment anxiety was positively associated with both crying frequency and tendency, whereas attachment avoidance was negatively associated with crying tendency. However, we found moderation effects only in the case of attachment avoidance; specifically, we found that attachment avoidance was associated with a lower frequency of crying and tendency to cry only for those individuals involved in romantic relationships. Attachment anxiety, on the other hand, was associated with greater crying frequency and tendency regardless of relationship status. These results demonstrate not only that crying may act as an attachment behavior, but also that the activation or deactivation of this ...


Ask The Pendulum: Personality Predictors Of Ideomotor Performance, Jay A. Olson, Ewalina Jeyanesan, Amir Raz 2017 McGill University

Ask The Pendulum: Personality Predictors Of Ideomotor Performance, Jay A. Olson, Ewalina Jeyanesan, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

For centuries, people have asked questions to hand-held pendulums and interpreted their movements as responses from the divine. These movements occur due to the ideomotor effect, wherein priming or thinking of a motion causes muscle movements that end up swinging the pendulum. By associating particular swinging movements with “yes” and “no” responses, we investigated whether pendulums can aid decision-making and which personality traits correlate with this performance. Participants (N=80) completed a visual detection task in which they searched for a target letter among rapidly presented characters. In the verbal condition, participants stated whether they saw the target in each ...


The Transformative Power Of Deliberate Creativity: Reflections Of A Priest Creativity Practitioner, FELIX-KINGSLEY NNAMDI OBIALO 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

The Transformative Power Of Deliberate Creativity: Reflections Of A Priest Creativity Practitioner, Felix-Kingsley Nnamdi Obialo

Creative Studies Graduate Student Master's Projects

The idea of creativity continues to gain global currency as the tool for growth and development, especially in our contemporary world. There is an emerging universal paradigm shift that promotes creativity as something that could be structured and deliberate as against the erstwhile belief that it is restricted and by chance. Nevertheless, some individuals, groups, and climes are yet to fully embrace creativity in all its ramifications. Creativity practice is one of the means to foster and sustain creativity in persons and groups. Consequently, nurturing creativity continues to impact people and contexts. Through four case studies, this project presents a ...


Spiritual Transcendence As A Sixth Personality Factor In Russia : Cross-Cultural Generalizability And Influence On Psychosocial Outcomes., Ksenia Kopeikin 2017 University of Louisville

Spiritual Transcendence As A Sixth Personality Factor In Russia : Cross-Cultural Generalizability And Influence On Psychosocial Outcomes., Ksenia Kopeikin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous research has suggested that Spiritual Transcendence (ST), which is the ability to stand outside one’s own immediate experience, to see unity in nature and to feel connection with the rest of humanity and the spirits, is a universal human experience. Research also suggests that ST may form a sixth personality factor, operating in a manner similar to, but separately from the Big Five personality traits. That is, ST may be a source of intrinsic motivation and influence human behavior and psychosocial outcomes similar to the Big Five. Previous research has established the incremental validity of ST over and ...


Career Matters: Leveraging Positive Psychology To Guide Us To Good And Right Work, Kerry Sanderson 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Career Matters: Leveraging Positive Psychology To Guide Us To Good And Right Work, Kerry Sanderson

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In order to live well, we should love what we do and feel that what we do is important. Some of us struggle with the difficulty of finding our way onto the right life path, while others navigate with energy and enthusiasm to fulfilling, successful lives. What is it that makes the difference? I believe that the principles of positive psychology can be applied to the career navigation process to elevate and enhance our capacity to find good and right work. In this paper, I will look through a positive psychology lens at career development theory and propose a series ...


Thriving Cities: How To Define, Apply, And Measure Well-Being At Scale, Jaclyn Gaffaney 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Thriving Cities: How To Define, Apply, And Measure Well-Being At Scale, Jaclyn Gaffaney

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

What is a thriving city? Is it even possible to raise the well-being of an entire city, and why bother? Recent advancements in positive psychology have made it possible to define, measure, and increase well-being on a much larger scale. This provides an unprecedented opportunity for cities to explore well-being. In order to increase the well-being of the city – cities will need to think carefully about what that means, why it is important, and how they will do it. This capstone posits that cities can define what well-being means for themselves inclusive of: the target (the city, individuals, or other ...


More Than The Sum Of Its Parts: A Transformative Theory Of Biculturalism, Alexandria L. West, Rui Zhang, Maya Yampolsky, Joni Y. Sasaki 2017 Dickinson College

More Than The Sum Of Its Parts: A Transformative Theory Of Biculturalism, Alexandria L. West, Rui Zhang, Maya Yampolsky, Joni Y. Sasaki

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

With the rise of globalization, culture mixing increasingly occurs not only between groups and individuals belonging to different cultures but also within individuals. Biculturals, or people who are part of two cultures, are a growing population that has been studied in recent years; yet, there is still much to learn about exactly how their unique experiences of negotiating their cultures affect the way they think and behave. Past research has at times relied on models of biculturalism that conceptualize biculturals’ characteristics and experiences as simply the sum of their cultures’ influences. Yet, the way biculturals negotiate their cultures may result ...


Validation Of The Young Adult Relational Aggression Scale, Caitlin M. Clark 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Validation Of The Young Adult Relational Aggression Scale, Caitlin M. Clark

Dissertations

Relational aggression has been associated with a host of negative correlates in previous studies of children, adolescents, and emerging adults. Further research is necessary for the purposes of identifying prevention and intervention strategies; however, research on relational aggression among emerging adults has been complicated by the lack of available psychometrically sound measures, particularly those that capture the proactive and reactive functions of relational aggression. The present study extended previous efforts to develop a new self-report measure of relational aggression for emerging adults called the Young Adult Relational Aggression Scale (YARAS). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed using a sample ...


Mixture Modelling Of The Hexaco Personality Inventory, Carolina Patryluk 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Mixture Modelling Of The Hexaco Personality Inventory, Carolina Patryluk

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mixture models are used for identifying profiles or combinations of profiles and dimensions that explain observed variables. Given that these techniques can be misapplied (Lubke & Miller, 2014), much research is needed to understand their properties when applied to various data sets. The current study tests and compares the fit of mixture models to factor analytic models of personality trait facets based on the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (Ashton & Lee, 2009a). This study also examines the relative amounts of variance in the facet variables that can be explained by underlying dimensions, latent profiles, and other sources. Ashton and Lee (2009b) concluded from ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress