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Round Numbers As Goals Evidence From Baseball, Sat Takers, And The Lab, Devin Pope, Uri Simonsohn 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Round Numbers As Goals Evidence From Baseball, Sat Takers, And The Lab, Devin Pope, Uri Simonsohn

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Where do people’s reference points come from? We conjectured that round numbers in performance scales act as reference points and that individuals exert effort to perform just above rather than just below such numbers. In Study 1, we found that professional baseball players modify their behavior as the season is about to end, seeking to finish with a batting average just above rather than below .300. In Study 2, we found that high school students are more likely to retake the SAT after obtaining a score just below rather than above a round number. In Study 3, we conducted ...


The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit For The Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview, Joseph W. Kable 2011 University of Pennsylvania

The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit For The Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview, Joseph W. Kable

Departmental Papers (Psychology)

This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework ...


Trauma Focused Treatment In Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities: A Group Treatment Approach, Kolina J. Delgado 2011 Wright State University

Trauma Focused Treatment In Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities: A Group Treatment Approach, Kolina J. Delgado

Psychology Student Publications

Intellectual Disability is a condition that affects one's ability to learn and function independently. The condition is characterized by subaverage intellectual functioning and significant impairments in adaptive functioning, with onset occurring prior to age 18. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IVTR) uses the term Mental Retardations to describe these individual differences in cognitive and adaptive abilities. However, the term Mental Retardation has received significant criticism in recent years, and the term Intellectual Disability (ID) is being used with greater acceptance. In keeping with this trend, the term Intellectual Disability will be used ...


The Role Of Epac Signaling In Memory Consolidation And Sleep Deprivation, Nan Ma 2011 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of Epac Signaling In Memory Consolidation And Sleep Deprivation, Nan Ma

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

It is well established that cAMP signaling within neurons plays a major role in the formation of long-term memories. cAMP has three targets, protein kinase A (PKA), hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels, and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). Studies have revealed that both PKA and HCN channels are important for long-term memory formation. However, little is known about the role of Epac in this process. Epac is a cAMP- dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G proteins including Rap1.The Epac2 isoform is highly expressed in the forebrain. This dissertation examines the role of Epac in memory ...


On The Universality Of Argumentative Reasoning, Hugo Mercier 2011 University of Pennsylvania

On The Universality Of Argumentative Reasoning, Hugo Mercier

Goldstone Research Unit

According to the argumentative theory of reasoning, humans have evolved reasoning abilities (usually known as ‘system 2’ or ‘analytic’ reasoning) for argumentative purposes. This implies that some reasoning skills should be universals. Such a claim seems to be at odd with findings from cross-cultural research. First, a wealth of research, following the work of Luria, has shown apparent difficulties for illiterate populations to solve simple but abstract syllogisms. It can be shown, however, that once they are willing to accept the pragmatics of the task, these participants can perform at or near ceiling. Second, historical, sociological and anthropological research has ...


Cultural Norms Shaping Research Group Interviews With Chinese American Immigrants, Christine ML Kwan, Kevin M. Chun, Catherine A. Chesla 2011 University of San Francisco

Cultural Norms Shaping Research Group Interviews With Chinese American Immigrants, Christine Ml Kwan, Kevin M. Chun, Catherine A. Chesla

Psychology

Practical knowledge on how to tailor research methods for Asian Americans is relatively scarce despite the rapid population growth of this ethnic group and the ongoing calls for greater cultural competence among researchers. Based on a 4-year qualitative study of family and cultural issues in diabetes management among Chinese American immigrants, this article presents data-based analyses of culturally nuanced group interview processes, and recommendations for conducting culturally appropriate group interviews. Group interview processes were prominently shaped by 4 cultural norms: sensitivity to social hierarchy, monitoring public display of strong emotions, face concerns, and emphasis on group harmony. Strategies for facilitating ...


Types Of Prayer And Depressive Symptoms Among Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role Of Rumination And Social Support, John E. Perez, Amy Rex Smith, Rebecca L. Norris, Katia M. Canenguez, Elizabeth F. Tracey, Susan B. DeCristofaro 2011 University of San Francisco

Types Of Prayer And Depressive Symptoms Among Cancer Patients: The Mediating Role Of Rumination And Social Support, John E. Perez, Amy Rex Smith, Rebecca L. Norris, Katia M. Canenguez, Elizabeth F. Tracey, Susan B. Decristofaro

Psychology

We examined the association between different types of prayer and depressive symptoms—with rumination and social support as potential mediators—in a sample of predominantly White, Christian, and female ambulatory cancer patients. In a cross-sectional design, 179 adult cancer outpatients completed measures of prayer, rumination, social support, depressive symptoms, and demographic variables. Type and stage of cancer were collected from electronic medical charts. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with adoration prayer (r = −.15), reception prayer (r = −.17), thanksgiving prayer (r = −.29), and prayer for the well-being of others (r = −.26). In the path analysis, rumination fully mediated the link between ...


Anti-Saccade Performance Predicts Executive Function And Brain Structure In Normal Elders, J. B. Mirsky, H. W. Heuer, A. Jafari, J. H. Kramer, A. K. Schenk, Indre Viskontas, B. L. Miller, A. L. Boxer 2011 University of San Francisco

Anti-Saccade Performance Predicts Executive Function And Brain Structure In Normal Elders, J. B. Mirsky, H. W. Heuer, A. Jafari, J. H. Kramer, A. K. Schenk, Indre Viskontas, B. L. Miller, A. L. Boxer

Psychology

Objective—To assess the neuropsychological and anatomical correlates of anti-saccade (AS) task performance in normal elders.

Background—The AS task correlates with neuropsychological measures of executive function and frontal lobe volume in neurological diseases, but has not been studied in a well-characterized normal elderly population. Because executive dysfunction can indicate an increased risk for cognitive decline in cognitively normal elders, we hypothesized that AS performance might be a sensitive test of age-related processes that impair cognition.

Method—The percentage of correct AS responses was evaluated in forty-eight normal elderly subjects and compared with neuropsychological test performance using linear regression analysis ...


Multimodal Cuing Of Autobiographical Memory In Semantic Dementia, D. L. Greenberg, J. M. Ogar, Indre Viskontas, M. L. Gorno Tempini, B. Miller, B. J. Knowlton 2011 University of San Francisco

Multimodal Cuing Of Autobiographical Memory In Semantic Dementia, D. L. Greenberg, J. M. Ogar, Indre Viskontas, M. L. Gorno Tempini, B. Miller, B. J. Knowlton

Psychology

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with semantic dementia (SD) have impaired autobiographical memory (AM), but the extent of the impairment has been controversial. According to one report (Westmacott, Leach, Freedman, & Moscovitch, 2001), patient performance was better when visual cues were used instead of verbal cues; however, the visual cues used in that study (family photographs) provided more retrieval support than do the word cues that are typically used in AM studies. In the present study, we sought to disentangle the effects of retrieval support and cue modality.

METHOD: We cued AMs of 5 patients with SD and 5 controls with words, simple pictures, and odors. Memories were elicited from childhood, early adulthood, and recent adulthood; they were scored ...


Don’T Be Such A Downer: Using Positive Psychology To Enhance The Value Of Negative Feedback, Allison L. O'Malley, Jane B. Gregory 2011 Butler University

Don’T Be Such A Downer: Using Positive Psychology To Enhance The Value Of Negative Feedback, Allison L. O'Malley, Jane B. Gregory

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Effective developmental feedback promotes a balanced and authentic view of employees' current state, thereby addressing strengths and weaknesses of employees. The authors address how organizations' increased emphasis on positivity can be reconciled with the delivery of negative feedback. Drawing on principles from positive psychology, the authors outline strategies managers can implement to increase the likelihood that negative feedback interventions will yield improved performance while promoting employee well-being.


Multi-Tasking = Epic Fail: Students Who Text Message During Class Show Impaired Comprehension Of Lecture Material, Amanda C. Gingerich 2011 Butler University

Multi-Tasking = Epic Fail: Students Who Text Message During Class Show Impaired Comprehension Of Lecture Material, Amanda C. Gingerich

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

For the unit on divided attention in my Cognitive Processes course, I created a demonstration in which half of the class is randomly assigned to text message each other while I lecture on time management strategies. The other half of the class does not text message during the lecture. Following the 10-minute lecture, all students complete a multiple-choice quiz. Results from 67 students over the past three semesters show that, in their proportion of answers correct, the Text condition performed statistically significantly worse on the quiz (M = .602, SD = .238) than did those in the No Text condition (M = .793 ...


Psychosocial Aspects Of Physical Activity And Fitness In Special-Population, Minority Middle School Children, Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate McCaughtry, Anne S. Murphy, Sara Flory, Kimberlydawn Wisdom 2011 Wayne State University

Psychosocial Aspects Of Physical Activity And Fitness In Special-Population, Minority Middle School Children, Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate Mccaughtry, Anne S. Murphy, Sara Flory, Kimberlydawn Wisdom

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Special-population research predicting physical activity (PA) and fitness with minority middle school children from at-risk environments is rare. Hence, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of important social cognitive and environment-based measures to predict PA and fitness with children with developmental delay, cognitive, and emotional impairments. Children (N = 89, ages 11-15) completed questionnaires assessing social cognitive and environment-based constructs, self report PA, and completed fitness testing. Correlational results supported some hypotheses. The descriptive and correlational results also indicated commonalities with similar research on non special-population minority middle school children from at-risk environments.


Approximate Vs. Monte Carlo Critical Values For The Winsorized T-Test, Michael Lance 2011 Wayne State University

Approximate Vs. Monte Carlo Critical Values For The Winsorized T-Test, Michael Lance

Wayne State University Dissertations

Historically, it has been accepted practice for critical values for the Winsorized t test for independent samples to be based on adjusted degrees of freedom depending on the number of total non-Winsorized (approximate) values. Recently, a new such table of Winsorized critical values has been developed via approximate randomization by Monte Carlo simulation.

Based on eight common data distributions estimated from Psychology and Education along with the normal and five Mathematical distributions, these two tables of values were compared with respect to robustness to types I and II errors through Monte Carlo simulations for one and 10% Winsorized values per ...


The Effects Of Meta-Communication Training On Therapeutic Process And Outcome At A University Counseling Center, Tamara Lynn Mckay 2011 Wayne State University

The Effects Of Meta-Communication Training On Therapeutic Process And Outcome At A University Counseling Center, Tamara Lynn Mckay

Wayne State University Dissertations

There is a considerable body of research related to both the therapeutic alliance and orienting clients to the psychotherapy process. This study is the first to examine the impact of a meta-communication orientation exercise regarding the therapeutic alliance on process variables and treatment outcomes. Participants (N=44) were randomly assigned to either a control or meta-communication condition where they engaged in an orientation exercise that combined elements of role induction and experiential pretraining regarding Bordin's (1979) model of the therapeutic alliance. Independent samples t-tests were used to determine if engaging in the orientation exercise would improve mood, ratings of ...


The Effects Of Participation In A Human Sexuality Workshop On The Attitudes Of Counselors In Training Toward Homosexuality, Lawrence Craig Perry 2011 Wayne State University

The Effects Of Participation In A Human Sexuality Workshop On The Attitudes Of Counselors In Training Toward Homosexuality, Lawrence Craig Perry

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an educational workshop on the implicit and explicit attitudes of graduate counseling students toward homosexuality. Counseling students' attitudes toward sexuality and homosexuality were measured before and after participating in an educational workshop on human sexuality. The setting for the study was a human sexuality workshop being taught within a counselor education graduate program. The weekend workshop was an elective class for graduate students who were enrolled at a large urban university. A total of 23 individuals volunteered to participate in the study.

The participants were asked to complete three ...


Individual Differences In Hemispheric Lateralization Of Language Processing, Sarah Ann Van Dyke 2011 Wayne State University

Individual Differences In Hemispheric Lateralization Of Language Processing, Sarah Ann Van Dyke

Wayne State University Dissertations

Conclusions in the literature regarding the relationship between a lateralized bias in the processing of information and individual differences (e.g., biological sex, gender identity, ability, personality) are inconsistent. We compared two different measures of laterality: dichotic listening and lateralized semantic priming and their relation to sex, verbal and visual-spatial ability, gender identity, and personality.

Eighty-nine adults (44 women, 45 men) were administered the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Bem Sex Role Inventory, and Big Five Inventory in addition to a dichotic listening task and a lateralized semantic priming task that compared ipsilateral and contralateral priming in order to determine ...


The Effect Of An Educational Intervention On The Level Of Codependency Among Graduate Counseling Students, Dianna Lynn Belyea 2011 Wayne State University

The Effect Of An Educational Intervention On The Level Of Codependency Among Graduate Counseling Students, Dianna Lynn Belyea

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of codependency and emotional intelligence before and after participating in an educational intervention for codependency at a workshop on substance abuse. The setting for the study was a substance abuse workshop that was an elective for graduate students who were enrolled in counseling programs at a large urban university. A total of 23 individuals volunteered to participate in the study. The levels of emotional intelligence were investigated to determine if the characteristics sometimes associated with codependency could be better explained by emotional intelligence (EI). The participants completed three surveys, The ...


Long-Term Psychological Outcomes And Awareness Of Deficit In Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury And Their Significant Others: The Role Of Physiological And Neuroendocrine Reactivity To Stress, Sarah J. Meachen 2011 Wayne State University

Long-Term Psychological Outcomes And Awareness Of Deficit In Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury And Their Significant Others: The Role Of Physiological And Neuroendocrine Reactivity To Stress, Sarah J. Meachen

Wayne State University Dissertations

This study investigated the relationships between physiological/neuroendocrine reactivity to stress and long-term psychological outcomes among persons with TBI and their significant others. In addition, this study examined the potential moderating role of patient AOD in characterizing these relationships. The findings indicate that physiological stress reactivity predicts poor psychosocial functioning in survivors of TBI and their significant others. Chronic stress (reflected in high baseline values) and stress reactivity were generally adversely associated with psychological distress and life satisfaction. Among significant others of TBI survivors, this pattern was also observed for sense of caregiving mastery and burden. However, there were also ...


Social Support And Health Outcomes In Adolescents Experiencing Homelessness And Poverty: A Test Of The Main Effect And Stress-Buffering Hypotheses, Danijela Zlatevski 2011 Wayne State University

Social Support And Health Outcomes In Adolescents Experiencing Homelessness And Poverty: A Test Of The Main Effect And Stress-Buffering Hypotheses, Danijela Zlatevski

Wayne State University Dissertations

The health benefit and stress-buffering effects of social support were examined. Homeless (N=250) and housed (N=148) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood, providing longitudinal data to help understand how these social constructs may change and influence health. The study was designed to test Cohen and Wills (1985) main effect and stress-buffering hypotheses. Current findings provide some support for the main effect hypothesis and some more limited support for the stress-buffering effect of perceived social support on mental health. Specifically, a main effect was found at baseline for network social support on number of substance ...


Inter/Intrapersonal Variables And Readiness For Change On Achieving Recovery, Deborah Conrad-Garrisi 2011 Wayne State University

Inter/Intrapersonal Variables And Readiness For Change On Achieving Recovery, Deborah Conrad-Garrisi

Wayne State University Dissertations

Individuals with serious mental illness experience numerous barriers that prevent achieving a meaningful life, as well as increase the risk of social isolation and ostracism. However, recovery from serious mental illness is an emerging reality for many who experience psychiatric illness. Psychiatric rehabilitation programs that promote recovery, community integration, and acceptance aim to combat the potentially detrimental consequences of mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine how inter/intrapersonal variables, such as sense of mattering, sense of community, and perceived stigma influence recovery from mental illness among consumers who participate in psychiatric rehabilitation programs, known as clubhouses ...


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