Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

40695 Full-Text Articles 44504 Authors 17033962 Downloads 336 Institutions

All Articles in Psychology

Faceted Search

40695 full-text articles. Page 1155 of 1253.

Quantitative Modeling Of The Neural Representation Of Objects: How Semantic Feature Norms Can Account For Fmri Activation, Kai-min Kevin Chang, Tom Mitchell, Marcel Adam Just 2010 Carnegie Mellon University

Quantitative Modeling Of The Neural Representation Of Objects: How Semantic Feature Norms Can Account For Fmri Activation, Kai-Min Kevin Chang, Tom Mitchell, Marcel Adam Just

Marcel Adam Just

No abstract provided.


Psychopathy And Culpability: How Responsible Is The Psychopath For Criminal Wrongdoing?, Reid G. Fontaine JD, PhD 2010 Florida State University College of Law

Psychopathy And Culpability: How Responsible Is The Psychopath For Criminal Wrongdoing?, Reid G. Fontaine Jd, Phd

Reid G. Fontaine

Recent research into the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of psychopathy has raised the question of whether, or to what degree, psychopaths should be considered morally and criminally responsible for their actions. In this article we review the current empirical literature on psychopathy, focusing particularly on deficits in moral reasoning, and consider several potential conclusions that could be drawn based on this evidence. Our analysis of the empirical evidence on psychopathy suggests that while psychopaths do not meet the criteria for full criminal responsibility, they nonetheless retain some criminal responsibility. We conclude, by introducing the notion of rights as correlative, that ...


Investigating The Link Between Social Goals And Learning Strategies, Ronnel B. King 2010 The University of Hong Kong

Investigating The Link Between Social Goals And Learning Strategies, Ronnel B. King

Ronnel B King

Research in cross-cultural psychology has indicated that people from different cultures are motivated by different types of goals. In collectivist cultures, the power of social goals may be especially salient. However, studies on student motivation usually focus only on two types of goals: mastery and performance goals, thus neglecting the potential role of social goals. The aim of the present study was to investigate how different types of social goals, i.e. social affiliation, social approval, social concern, and social status goals were related to learning strategies in a collectivist culture. 697 secondary students from Hong Kong answered the relevant ...


A Temporal Model Of Community Organizing And Direct Action, Brad Olson, Judah Viola, Suzette Fromm Reed 2010 National Louis University

A Temporal Model Of Community Organizing And Direct Action, Brad Olson, Judah Viola, Suzette Fromm Reed

Brad Olson, PhD

No abstract provided.


Measuring Athlete Imagery Ability: The Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming 2010 University of Birmingham

Measuring Athlete Imagery Ability: The Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire, Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

This research aimed to develop and provide initial validation of the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ). The SIAQ assesses athletes’ ease of imaging different types of imagery content. Following an extensive pilot study, 375 athletes completed a 20-item SIAQ in Study 1. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4-factor model assessing skill, strategy, goal, and affect imagery ability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) established this 4-factor structure in Study 2 (N = 363 athletes). In Study 3 (N = 438 athletes), additional items were added to create a fifth mastery imagery subscale that was confirmed through CFA. Study 4 (N = 220 athletes) compared the ...


Questions Of A Minority People In International Law, Bernard Sama Mr 2010 Auckland University

Questions Of A Minority People In International Law, Bernard Sama Mr

Bernard Sama

The month July of 2011 marked the birth of another nation in the World. The distressful journey of a minority people under the watchful eyes of the international community finally paid off with a new nation called the South Sudan . As I watched the South Sudanese celebrate independence on 9 July 2011, I was filled with joy as though they have finally landed. On a promising note, I read the UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon saying “[t]ogether, we welcome the Republic of South Sudan to the community of nations. Together, we affirm our commitment to helping it meet its ...


Individual Differences In The Neural Basis Of Causal Inferencing, Chantel S. Prat, Robert A. Mason, Marcel Adam Just 2010 Carnegie Mellon University

Individual Differences In The Neural Basis Of Causal Inferencing, Chantel S. Prat, Robert A. Mason, Marcel Adam Just

Marcel Adam Just

No abstract provided.


Cross-Cultural Validity Of The Inventory Of School Motivation (Ism) In Chinese And Filipino Samples, Ronnel B. King, Ganotice A. Fraide Jr., David A. Watkins 2010 The University of Hong Kong

Cross-Cultural Validity Of The Inventory Of School Motivation (Ism) In Chinese And Filipino Samples, Ronnel B. King, Ganotice A. Fraide Jr., David A. Watkins

Ronnel B King

Students’ achievement goals in school have received increasing research attention because they have been shown to be important in predicting important outcomes. As such, there has been a growing interest in measuring and comparing them across different cultural groups. However, these comparisons cannot be made until validity evidence has been attained to support the use of an instrument in the new cultural setting. In this study, we investigated the cross-cultural applicability of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM, McInerney, Roche, McInerney, & Marsh, 1997) in the Hong Kong Chinese and Philippine contexts using both within-network and between-network approaches to construct validation ...


Sparkle Of Existential Time As A Sanctuary In Marital Counselling, Siti Aishah Hassan Ph.D. 2010 Universiti Putra Malaysia

Sparkle Of Existential Time As A Sanctuary In Marital Counselling, Siti Aishah Hassan Ph.D.

Siti Aishah Hassan Ph.D.

Nowadays, Existential thought is considered to be a practical approach among psychologists and counsellors . Nevertheless, what seems to be ignored is paying thoughtful attention to all dimensions of Existential thought which is an essential matter among counsellors and psychologists. Moreover, some issues in Existential thought such as time are disregarded among marital counsellors as well as individual counsellors. The goal of this article is to allocate exhausting existential time to benefit marital counsellors. Findings show that existential time has full potential to be applied for marital counselling. Furthermore, review of the related literature demonstrates that there is not enough experimental ...


The Community Narration (Cn) Approach: Understanding A Group’S Identity And Cognitive Constructs Through Personal And Community Narratives, Brad Olson, Leonard Jason 2010 National Louis University

The Community Narration (Cn) Approach: Understanding A Group’S Identity And Cognitive Constructs Through Personal And Community Narratives, Brad Olson, Leonard Jason

Brad Olson, PhD

No abstract provided.


Early Access And Help Seeking: Practice Implications And New Initiatives., Coralie J. Wilson 2010 University of Wollongong

Early Access And Help Seeking: Practice Implications And New Initiatives., Coralie J. Wilson

Coralie J Wilson

Seeking appropriate help for early signs and symptoms of psychological distress can reduce the long-term impact of many mental disorders. This article describes practice implications and new initiatives for promoting early access and help-seeking among young people. Relevant help-seeking research is reviewed, and prominent help-seeking barriers are discussed. Prominent barriers for young people include: incomplete mental health and emotional literacy, beliefs about having little need for help versus having a need for autonomy, and the process of help-negation for different symptoms of psychological distress. To improve early access to appropriate help and mental health services, barriers that can be reduced ...


Commonality Of Neural Representations Of Words And Pictures, Svetlana V. Shinkareva, Vincente L. Malave, Robert A. Mason, Tom M. Mitchell, Marcel Adam Just 2010 University of South Carolina - Columbia

Commonality Of Neural Representations Of Words And Pictures, Svetlana V. Shinkareva, Vincente L. Malave, Robert A. Mason, Tom M. Mitchell, Marcel Adam Just

Marcel Adam Just

No abstract provided.


Contextual Primes, Trust And Negotiators’ Reactions To A Crisis, Daniel Druckman, Mara Olekalns 2010 George Mason University

Contextual Primes, Trust And Negotiators’ Reactions To A Crisis, Daniel Druckman, Mara Olekalns

Mara Olekalns

Using a simulated bilateral negotiation over several security issues, we test the relationship between crises and turning points in negotiation. We explore how variations in the negotiation context influence negotiators’ reactions to an identical event – a crisis – during the negotiation. Negotiators were primed to focus on one of three features of the negotiating context (transaction costs, mutual dependence, shared identity) which we hypothesized would influence crisis-turning point relationship. In their roles as national representatives, negotiators in each condition were presented with a crisis and asked to decide whether to reach an immediate agreement, continue negotiating, or re-frame the issues. The ...


The Neural Basis Of Deictic Shifting In Linguistic Perspective-Taking In High-Functioning Autism, Akiko Mizuno, Yanni Liu, Diane L. Williams, Timothy A. Keller, Nancy J. Minshew, Marcel Adam Just 2010 Carnegie Mellon University

The Neural Basis Of Deictic Shifting In Linguistic Perspective-Taking In High-Functioning Autism, Akiko Mizuno, Yanni Liu, Diane L. Williams, Timothy A. Keller, Nancy J. Minshew, Marcel Adam Just

Marcel Adam Just

No abstract provided.


Decisional Strategy Determines Whether Frame Influences Treatment Preferences For Medical Decisions, Erin L. Woodhead, E. B. Lynch, B. A. Edelstein 2010 San Jose State University

Decisional Strategy Determines Whether Frame Influences Treatment Preferences For Medical Decisions, Erin L. Woodhead, E. B. Lynch, B. A. Edelstein

Erin L. Woodhead

Decision makers are influenced by the frame of information such that preferences vary depending on whether survival or mortality data are presented. Research is inconsistent as to whether and how age impacts framing effects. This paper presents two studies that used qualitative analyses of think-aloud protocols to understand how the type of information used in the decision making process varies by frame and age. In Study 1, 40 older adults, age 65 to 89, and 40 younger adults, age 18 to 24, responded to a hypothetical lung cancer scenario in a within-subject design. Participants received both a survival and mortality ...


Optimization As An Analysis Tool For Human Complex Decision Making, Sebastian Sager, Carola M. Barth, Holger Diedam, Michael Engelhart, Joachim Funke 2010 University of Heidelberg, Germany

Optimization As An Analysis Tool For Human Complex Decision Making, Sebastian Sager, Carola M. Barth, Holger Diedam, Michael Engelhart, Joachim Funke

Joachim Funke

We present a problem class of mixed-integer nonlinear programs (MINLPs) with nonconvex continuous relaxations which stem from economic test scenarios that are used in the analysis of human complex problem solving. In a round-based scenario participants hold an executive function. A posteriori a performance indicator is calculated and correlated to personal measures such as intelligence, working memory, or emotion regulation. Altogether, we investigate 2088 optimization problems that differ in size and initial conditions, based on real-world experimental data from 12 rounds of 174 participants. The goals are twofold. First, from the optimal solutions we gain additional insight into a complex ...


Rat Pup Social Motivation: A Critical Component Of Early Psychological Development, Howard C. Cromwell 2010 Bowling Green State University

Rat Pup Social Motivation: A Critical Component Of Early Psychological Development, Howard C. Cromwell

Howard Casey Cromwell

Examining the role of the offspring in early social dynamics is especially difficult. Human developmental psychology has found infant behavior to be a vital part of the early environmental setting. In the rodent model, the different ways that a rodent neonate or pup can influence social dynamics are not well known. Typically, litters of neonates or pups offer complex social interactions dominated by behavior seemingly initiated and maintained by the primary caregiver (e.g., the dam). Despite this strong role for the caregiver, the young most likely influence the litter dynamics in many powerful ways including communication signals, discrimination abilities ...


Cognitive Deficits And Symbolic Play In Preschoolers With Autism, Grace Yan Lam, Susanna Siu-sze Yeung 2010 The Hong Kong Institute of Education

Cognitive Deficits And Symbolic Play In Preschoolers With Autism, Grace Yan Lam, Susanna Siu-Sze Yeung

Susanna Siu-sze Yeung

This study investigated symbolic play in 12 children with autism and 12 children with typical development and compared theories that consider either theory of mind, executive function or central coherence to be causally involved in the development of symbolic play in autism. Children with autism demonstrated significantly less symbolic play than their typically developing peers and had significant deficits in theory of mind and central coherence measures but not executive function measures. A tentative conclusion is that symbolic play deficits in autism are more associated with theory of mind and weak central coherence.


Ethnic Differences In Food Sources Of Vitamin D In Adolescent American Girls: The National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute Growth And Health Study, R H. Striegel, L V. Van Horn, R Bausermann, S Affenito, D Thompson, D Franko, A Albertson 2010 Wesleyan University

Ethnic Differences In Food Sources Of Vitamin D In Adolescent American Girls: The National Heart, Lung, And Blood Institute Growth And Health Study, R H. Striegel, L V. Van Horn, R Bausermann, S Affenito, D Thompson, D Franko, A Albertson

Ruth Striegel Weissman

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) was a 10-year longitudinal study of the development of obesity and CVD risk factors (including dietary, psychosocial, environmental and others) in 2,379 African-American and white females who were 9 or 10 years old at study entry. Current studies have documented a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among healthy children, adolescents and young adults in the United States, especially among low-income, black and Hispanic children (defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of ≤ 20 ng/mL). Although the main source of vitamin D is direct exposure of the ...


Competitiveness Is Not That Bad. . .At Least In The East: Testing The Hierarchical Model Of Achievement Motivation In The Asian Setting, Ronnel B. King, Dennis M. McInerney, David A. Watkins 2010 The University of Hong Kong

Competitiveness Is Not That Bad. . .At Least In The East: Testing The Hierarchical Model Of Achievement Motivation In The Asian Setting, Ronnel B. King, Dennis M. Mcinerney, David A. Watkins

Ronnel B King

Competitiveness has usually been viewed as a negative trait as it leads to suboptimal outcomes. However, research in cross-cultural psychology has indicated that competitiveness may hold different meanings for people from individualist and collectivist cultures. The current study investigates the effects of competitiveness on different educational outcomes in the collectivistic Chinese cultural context. Utilizing the hierarchical model of achievement motivation, this study aims to examine the relationships among individual differences (trait mastery and trait competitiveness), achievement goals (mastery and performance goals), and learning strategies (deep and surface learning strategies). Six hundred ninety-seven secondary school students from Hong Kong answered questionnaires ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress