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No, I’M Really, Really Bad At Math: Competition For Self-Verification, Alexandra E. Wesnousky 2010 Colby College

No, I’M Really, Really Bad At Math: Competition For Self-Verification, Alexandra E. Wesnousky

Honors Theses

In their theory of self-verification, Swann and Read’s (1981) postulate that people like feedback that is consistent with their self-concept. Researchers have yet to examine what happens when two individuals are both seeking feedback from each other to verify their self-concept on the same domain. When individuals are competing against someone to verify a similarly held self-concept, they should try to seek more polarized feedback, especially when the domain is highly important. In two experiments, participants expected to receive computer feedback on their responses to identity-related questions, either based on their own responses or on how they compared to ...


Risk Factors For Poor Attendance In A Family-Based Pediatric Obesity Intervention Program For Young Children, Natalie A. Williams, Mace Coday, Grant Somes, Frances A. Tylavsky, Phyllis A. Richey, Marion Hare 2010 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Risk Factors For Poor Attendance In A Family-Based Pediatric Obesity Intervention Program For Young Children, Natalie A. Williams, Mace Coday, Grant Somes, Frances A. Tylavsky, Phyllis A. Richey, Marion Hare

Faculty Publications, Department of Child, Youth, and Family Studies

Objective—This study examined the role of demographic characteristics, psychological factors, and family functioning on attendance in a randomized controlled trial of a family-based pediatric obesity program.

Method—Participants included 155 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years (M age = 5.77, 57.4% female, 73.6% African-American, M BMI = 25.5) and their primary caregivers who were randomized to the treatment group. Three groups of participants were created based on their patterns of attendance during the program: 1) noncompleters, 2) partial completers, and 3) completers.

Results—Results indicated no differences among the attendance groups in child gender ...


An Experimental Study Of The Impact Of Psychological Capital On Performance, Engagement, And The Contagion Effect, Timothy Daniel Hodges 2010 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Experimental Study Of The Impact Of Psychological Capital On Performance, Engagement, And The Contagion Effect, Timothy Daniel Hodges

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research from the College of Business

Psychological Capital, or PsyCap, is a core construct consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience. Previous research has consistently linked PsyCap to workplace outcomes including employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Further research has explored the ways in which PsyCap can be developed through relatively brief workplace interventions. The present study focuses on PsyCap development and the relationship to employee engagement and performance. In an experimental design with random assignment of subjects to control group (n = 52 managers and 152 associates) and treatment group (n = 58 managers and 239 employees), a field sample of managers in ...


A Preliminary Study: Body Dysmorphic Disorder In Division I Women’S Collegiate Soccer Players, Tammy D. Jones 2010 University of Nebraska at Lincoln

A Preliminary Study: Body Dysmorphic Disorder In Division I Women’S Collegiate Soccer Players, Tammy D. Jones

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

The prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) among collegiate athletes has not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder found in Division I women’s soccer players. The researcher hypothesized that there would be some symptoms found within the participants of sport and that there was a need to research this area further.

The study consisted of four participants who participated in semi-structured interviews. The subjects were asked a series of questions from the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD-YBOCS) to determine if they ...


The Nature And Significance Of Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

The Nature And Significance Of Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

An understanding of group counseling requires an understanding of groups themselves, their basic nature and processes. Given that human beings are a social species and spend their lives in groups rather than alone, an individual-level analysis of adjustment, well-being, and treatment, with its focus on internal, psychological processes, should be supplemented by a group-level analysis. The defining features of a group are relationships linking a substantial number of members, boundaries, interdependence, structure, cohesion, and entitativity (perceived groupness): and groups with more of these features are more Influential than other forms of association, such as social networks. The chapter reviews a ...


Group Processes And Group Psychotherapy: Social Psychological Foundations Of Change In Therapeutic Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth 2010 University of Richmond

Group Processes And Group Psychotherapy: Social Psychological Foundations Of Change In Therapeutic Groups, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Social psychology and clinical psychology share an interest in change. Rather than assuming that people are static and that psychological systems are immutable, social psychologists track the shifts in social attitudes, actions, values, and beliefs that result from individuals' everyday interactions in their social worlds. Similarly, clinical psychologists examine changes in adjustment, well-being, and dysfunction that are evidenced as people develop psychologically and physically, confront new life circumstances, or react effectively or less adaptively to daily life events.


Not Just How One Feels, But What One Images? The Effects Of Imagery Use On Affective Responses To Moderate Exercise, Damian Stanley, Jennifer Cumming 2009 University of Wolverhampton

Not Just How One Feels, But What One Images? The Effects Of Imagery Use On Affective Responses To Moderate Exercise, Damian Stanley, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

Previous research has highlighted a need for identifying the psychological strategies which best maximize the affective responses to exercise (e.g., Blanchard, Rodgers, & Gauvin, 2004). The present study compared the effects on affective responses of using different imagery types while exercising. Participants (N = 75, mean age = 20.2 years, SD = 1.33) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 imagery conditions (i.e., enjoyment imagery, energy imagery, or technique imagery). Affect was recorded before and after 20 min of moderate intensity cycle ergometry (50% Heart Rate Reserve) using the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI; Gauvin & Rejeski, 1993) and the Feeling Scale (Hardy & Rejeski, 1989). Controlling for affect reported before the exercise bout, the enjoyment imagery group reported significantly higher levels of postexercise valence than the energy and technique imagery groups and higher revitalization than the technique imagery group. These findings indicate that enjoyment imagery could be used to further improve the affective benefits associated with exercise.


Are We Having Fun Yet? Testing The Effects Of Imagery Use On The Affective And Enjoyment Responses To Acute Moderate Exercise, Damian Stanley, Jennifer Cumming 2009 University of Birmingham

Are We Having Fun Yet? Testing The Effects Of Imagery Use On The Affective And Enjoyment Responses To Acute Moderate Exercise, Damian Stanley, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

Objectives The present study investigated whether using imagery during acute moderate exercise evokes more positive affective and enjoyment responses than exercising without an assigned strategy.

Design Laboratory experiment.

Methods Participants (N = 88, mean age = 19.81 years) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 conditions (enjoyment imagery, energy imagery, technique imagery, or exercise alone). Affect was measured before, during, and after 20 min of moderate intensity (50% of Heart Rate Reserve) cycle ergometry. A single-item measure of enjoyment was developed for use during exercise.

Results Enjoyment and energy imagery brought about significant increases in valence from pre- to postexercise, and ...


The Susceptibility Of Juveniles To False Confessions And False Guilty Pleas, Allison Redlich 2009 University at Albany, SUNY

The Susceptibility Of Juveniles To False Confessions And False Guilty Pleas, Allison Redlich

Allison D Redlich

No abstract provided.


The Nature Of Motivation: A Question Of ‘Why?’, Eleanor Quested, Jennifer Cumming, Joan Duda 2009 University of Birmingham

The Nature Of Motivation: A Question Of ‘Why?’, Eleanor Quested, Jennifer Cumming, Joan Duda

Jennifer Cumming

No abstract provided.


Mental Qualities And Employed Mental Techniques Of Young Elite Team Sport Athletes, Mark Holland, Charlotte Woodcock, Jennifer Cumming, Joan Duda 2009 University of Birmingham

Mental Qualities And Employed Mental Techniques Of Young Elite Team Sport Athletes, Mark Holland, Charlotte Woodcock, Jennifer Cumming, Joan Duda

Jennifer Cumming

Research on the psychological characteristics of elite performers has primarily focused on Olympic and World champions; however, the mental attributes of young developing and talented athletes have received less attention. Addressing this, the current study had two aims: (a) to examine the perceptions held by youth athletes regarding the mental qualities they need to facilitate their development and (b) to investigate the mental techniques used by these athletes. Forty-three male youth rugby players participated in a series of focus groups. Inductive content analysis revealed 11 categories of psychological qualities, including enjoyment, responsibility, adaptability, squad spirit, self-aware learner, determination, confidence, optimal ...


Incongruent Imagery Interferes With Action Initiation, Richard Ramsey, Jennifer Cumming, Daniel Eastough, Martin Edwards 2009 University of Nottingham

Incongruent Imagery Interferes With Action Initiation, Richard Ramsey, Jennifer Cumming, Daniel Eastough, Martin Edwards

Jennifer Cumming

It has been suggested that representing an action through observation and imagery share neural processes with action execution. In support of this view, motor-priming research has shown that observing an action can influence action initiation. However, there is little motor-priming research showing that imagining an action can modulate action initiation. The current study examined whether action imagery could prime subsequent execution of a reach and grasp action. Across two motion analysis tracking experiments, 40 participants grasped an object following congruent or incongruent action imagery. In Experiment 1, movement initiation was faster following congruent compared to incongruent imagery, demonstrating that imagery ...


The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George Balanos 2009 University of Birmingham

The Use Of Imagery To Manipulate Challenge And Threat Appraisal States In Athletes, Sarah Williams, Jennifer Cumming, George Balanos

Jennifer Cumming

The present study investigated whether imagery could manipulate athletes’ appraisal of stress-evoking situations (i.e., challenge or threat) and whether psychological and cardiovascular responses and interpretations varied according to cognitive appraisal of three imagery scripts: challenge, neutral, and threat. Twenty athletes (Mage = 20.85; SD = 1.76; 10 female, 10 male) imaged each script while heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained using Doppler echocardiography. State anxiety and self-confidence were assessed following each script using the Immediate Anxiety Measures Scale. During the imagery, a significant increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output occurred for the challenge ...


Enrollment In Mental Health Courts: Voluntariness, Knowingness, And Adjudicative Competence, Allison Redlich, Steven Hoover, Alicia Summers, Henry Steadman 2009 University at Albany, SUNY

Enrollment In Mental Health Courts: Voluntariness, Knowingness, And Adjudicative Competence, Allison Redlich, Steven Hoover, Alicia Summers, Henry Steadman

Allison D Redlich

No abstract provided.


Factors Of Successful Marriage: Accounts From Self Described Happy Couples, mohammad Asoodeh 2009 Teachers College

Factors Of Successful Marriage: Accounts From Self Described Happy Couples, Mohammad Asoodeh

mohammad Hosein Asoodeh

The purpose of this study is to identify the factors of successful marriage that accounts from self-described happy couples. For this purpose 300 couples were selected from among the staff of the several companies, and the parents of students. The procedure undertaken is cluster sampling. So far three couples who got a high score from ECS (1989) and described themselves as happy couples underwent an in-depth, semi-structured interview. The results show that successful couples trust and consult each other, are honest, believe in God, make decisions together, are commitment to each other, and have friendly relationship. Traditional couples and non-traditional ...


False Confessions, False Guilty Pleas: Similiarities And Differences, Allison Redlich 2009 University at Albany, SUNY

False Confessions, False Guilty Pleas: Similiarities And Differences, Allison Redlich

Allison D Redlich

No abstract provided.


Student-Initiated Group Management Strategies For More Effective And Enjoyable Group Work Experiences, Jennifer Cumming 2009 University of Birmingham

Student-Initiated Group Management Strategies For More Effective And Enjoyable Group Work Experiences, Jennifer Cumming

Jennifer Cumming

This study examined whether group processes and task cohesion mediated the relationship between student-initiated group management strategies and three specific outcomes of working in groups. Undergraduate students completed a multi-section questionnaire to measure group management strategies, perceptions about group processes, task cohesion, group effectiveness, enjoyment, and learning benefits. Use of group management strategies was positively related to all three outcomes. Further, group process and task cohesion mediated this relationship when the outcomes were effectiveness and enjoyment, but not learning benefits. These results indicate the importance of group management strategies for developing positive group working experiences in higher education.


Self-Reported False Confessions And False Guilty Pleas Among Offenders With Mental Illness, Allison Redlich, Alicia Summers, Steven Hoover 2009 University at Albany, SUNY

Self-Reported False Confessions And False Guilty Pleas Among Offenders With Mental Illness, Allison Redlich, Alicia Summers, Steven Hoover

Allison D Redlich

No abstract provided.


Prevalence Of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Ad/Hd) In Primary School Children In Tehran, Ali shaker 2009 university of science & culture

Prevalence Of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Ad/Hd) In Primary School Children In Tehran, Ali Shaker

university of science & culture

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AD/HD in Primary School Children in Tehran. For this reason, we have selected 2615 children (girls and boys) as sample with multi-stage cluster sampling. SWAN Questionnaire was used for collecting of data. Result showed that the prevalence of predominantly inattentive subtype, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtype and combined subtype of ADHD are between ./.6 to ./.9/1. As well, the findings showed that prevalence of predominantly inattentive subtype and predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtype at age 9 increased and then decreased after age 9. In boys, prevalence of predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtype and ...


Gay And Lesbian Elders: History, Law, And Identity Politics In The United States, Nancy J. Knauer 2009 Temple University School of Law

Gay And Lesbian Elders: History, Law, And Identity Politics In The United States, Nancy J. Knauer

Nancy J. Knauer

The approximately two million gay and lesbian elders in the United States are an underserved and understudied population. At a time when gay men and lesbians enjoy an unprecedented degree of social acceptance and legal protection, many elders face the daily challenges of aging isolated from family, detached from the larger gay and lesbian community, and ignored by mainstream aging initiatives. Drawing on materials from law, history, and social theory, this book integrates practical proposals for reform with larger issues of sexuality and identity. Beginning with a summary of existing demographic data and offering a historical overview of pre-Stonewall views ...


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